By Dr. Mary Jane Brown
Nuts are extremely healthy, as they're packed full of nutrients and antioxidants (1).
However, they're also high in fat and calories, causing many people to avoid nuts out of fear that they are fattening.
This article looks at the evidence to determine whether nuts are weight loss friendly or fattening.
Nuts Are High in Fat And Calories
Nuts are high in calories.
This is because a large part of them is fat, which is a concentrated source of energy. One gram of fat contains 9 calories, while one gram of carbs or protein contains just 4 calories.
Nuts contain mostly unsaturated fat. This type of fat is associated with protection against many different diseases, such as heart disease (3).
The calorie and fat contents per one-ounce (28-gram) serving of some commonly eaten nuts are shown below:
• Walnuts: 183 calories and 18 grams of fat (4)
• Brazil nuts: 184 calories and 19 grams of fat (5)
• Almonds: 161 calories and 14 grams of fat (6)
• Pistachios: 156 calories and 12 grams of fat (7)
• Cashews: 155 calories and 12 grams fat (8)
Because they are high in fat and calories, many people assume that adding nuts to their diet will lead to weight gain.
However, as discussed below, scientific studies do not support this.
Summary: Nuts are high in calories since they are high in fat, a concentrated source of energy. Even small portions are high in fat and calories.
Regularly Eating Nuts Is Not Linked to Weight Gain
For example, one study looked at the diets of 8,865 men and women over 28 months.
It found that those who ate two or more portions of nuts a week had a 31 percent lower risk of weight gain, compared to those who never or rarely ate them (10).
Also, a review of 36 studies found that regularly consuming nuts was not linked to an increase in weight, body mass index (BMI) or waist size (14).
However, any increase in weight was very small, much lower than expected and tended to be insignificant in the long term.
Summary: Studies have found that eating nuts regularly does not promote weight gain, regardless of whether people follow a strict diet or eat as they please. In some cases, they protect against weight gain.
Eating Nuts May Even Boost Weight Loss
It's not clear why this is, but it may be partly due to the healthier lifestyle choices of those who eat nuts.
For example, one study of 65 overweight or obese individuals compared a low-calorie diet supplemented with almonds to a low-calorie diet supplemented with complex carbs.
They consumed equal amounts of calories, protein, cholesterol and saturated fat.
At the end of the 24-week period, those on the almond diet had a 62 percent greater reduction in weight and BMI, 50 percent greater reduction in waist circumference and 56 percent greater reduction in fat mass (23).
In other studies, calorie-controlled diets containing nuts resulted in a similar amount of weight loss as a calorie-controlled, nut-free diet.
However, the group consuming nuts experienced improvements in cholesterol, including a reduction in "bad" LDL cholesterol and triglycerides. This benefit was not experienced by those consuming the nut-free diets (26, 27).
Summary: Regularly eating nuts as part of a weight loss diet can boost weight loss and improve cholesterol.
Nuts Can Help Reduce Your Appetite and Increase Feelings of Fullness
In one study, more than 200 people were told to eat a portion of peanuts as a snack.
The result was that they naturally ate fewer calories later in the day. This effect was greater when peanuts were eaten as a snack, rather than at a main meal (30).
In other words, eating nuts as a snack increases feelings of fullness, which results in eating less of other foods (33).
Summary: Nut consumption is associated with reduced appetite and increased feelings of fullness. This means that people eating them may naturally eat less throughout the day.
Only Some of The Fat Is Absorbed During Digestion
The structure and high fiber content of nuts mean that unless they are ground up or chewed completely, a good proportion will pass through the gut undigested.
Instead, it's emptied into the bowels. As a result, some of the nutrients, such as fat, won't be absorbed and are instead lost in feces.
This is another reason why nuts seem to be weight loss friendly.
This suggests that a good portion of the fat in nuts is not even be absorbed by your body.
Interestingly, how nuts are processed may have a large effect on how well nutrients like fat are absorbed.
For example, one study found that the amount of fat excreted in the feces was greater for whole peanuts (17.8 percent) than peanut butter (7 percent) or peanut oil (4.5 percent) (35).
Roasting nuts may also increase the absorption of their nutrients (37).
Therefore, the absorption of fat and calories from nuts is likely to be the least when you eat them whole.
Summary: Some of the fat in nuts is not well absorbed and instead removed in the feces. Fat loss is likely greater after consuming whole nuts.
Nuts May Boost Fat and Calorie Burning
One study found that participants burned 28 percent more calories after a meal containing walnuts than a meal containing fat from dairy sources (38).
Another study found supplementing with peanut oil for eight weeks resulted in a 5 percent increase in calorie burning. However, this was only seen in overweight people (39).
In addition, some studies show that among overweight and obese people, eating nuts can increase fat burning (40).
However, results are mixed, and better-quality studies are needed to confirm the link between nuts and increased calorie burning.
Summary: Several studies suggest that eating nuts can boost fat and calorie burning in people who are overweight or obese.
The Bottom Line
Despite being high in fat and calories, nuts are incredibly healthy.
Regularly eating nuts as part of a healthy diet is not associated with weight gain, and may even help you lose weight.
However, it's important to exercise portion control. Public health guidelines recommend eating a one-ounce (28-gram) portion of nuts on most days of the week.
For the healthiest option, choose plain, unsalted varieties.
Reposted with permission from our media associate Authority Nutrition.
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By Tony Carnie
South Africa is home to around 1,300 of the world's roughly 7,100 remaining cheetahs. It's also the only country in the world with significant cheetah population growth, thanks largely to a nongovernmental conservation project that depends on careful and intensive human management of small, fenced-in cheetah populations. Because most of the reserves are privately funded and properly fenced, the animals benefit from higher levels of security than in the increasingly thinly funded state reserves.
Vincent van der Merwe at a cheetah translocation. Endangered Wildlife Trust
Under Pressure<p>Cheetah populations elsewhere in Southern Africa have not prospered over the past 50 years. In Zimbabwe, cheetah numbers have crashed from 1,500 in 1975, to just 170 today. Botswana's cheetah population has held steady at around 1,500 over the same period, but illegal capture for captive breeding and conflicts with farmers and the growing human population are increasing. In Namibia, there were an estimated 3,000 cheetah in in 1975; roughly 1,400 remain today.</p><p>In contrast, South Africa's cheetah numbers have grown from about 500 in 1975 to nearly 1,300 today. Van der Merwe, who is also a Ph.D. student at the University of Cape Town's Institute for Communities and Wildlife in Africa (iCWild), says he's confident that South Africa will soon overtake Namibia and Botswana, largely because the majority of South African cheetahs are protected and managed behind fences, whereas most of the animals in the neighboring countries remain more vulnerable on mainly unfenced lands.</p><p>Wildlife researchers Florian Weise and colleagues have reported that private stock owners in Namibia still trap cheetahs mainly for translocation, but there are few public or private reserves large enough to contain them. Weise says that conservation efforts need to focus on improving tolerance toward cheetahs in commercial livestock and game farming areas to reduce indiscriminate trapping.</p><p>Van der Merwe says fences can be both a blessing and a curse. While these barriers prevent cheetahs and other wild animals from migrating naturally to breed and feed, they also protect cheetahs from the growing tide of threats from humanity and agriculture.</p><p>To simulate natural dispersion patterns that guard against inbreeding, the trust helps landowners swap their animals with other cheetah reserves elsewhere in the country. The South African metapopulation project has been so successful in boosting numbers that the trust is having to look beyond national boundaries to secure new translocation areas in Malawi, Zambia and Mozambique.</p><p>Cheetah translocations have been going on in South Africa since the mid-1960s, when the first unsuccessful attempts were made to move scores of these animals from Namibia. These relocations were mostly unsuccessful.</p>
Charli de Vos uses a VHF antenna to locate cheetahs in Phinda Game Reserve. Tony Carnie for Mongabay
Swinging for the Fences<p>But other wildlife conservation leaders have a different perspective on cheetah conservation strategy.</p><p>Gus Mills, a senior carnivore researcher retired in 2006 from SANParks, the agency that manages South Africa's national parks, after a career of more than 30 years in Kalahari and Kruger national parks. He says the focus should be on quality of living spaces rather than the quantity of cheetahs.</p><p>Mills, who was the founder of the Endangered Wildlife Trust's Carnivore Conservation Group in 1995, and who also spent six years after retirement studying cheetahs in the Kalahari, says it's more important to properly protect and, where possible, expand the size of existing protected areas.</p><p>He also advocates a triage approach to cheetah conservation, in which scarce funds and resources are focused on protecting cheetahs in formally protected areas, rather than diluting scarce resources in an attempt to try and save every single remaining cheetah population.</p><p>"People have an obsession with numbers. But I believe that it is more important to protect large landscape and habitats properly," Mills said.</p><p>He suggests that cheetahs enclosed within small reserves live in artificial conditions: "It's almost like glorified farming."</p><p>"In the long run we have to focus on consolidating formally protected areas," he added. "Africa's human population will double by 2050, so cheetah populations in unfenced areas will become unsustainable if they are eating people's livestock."</p>
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