By Dr. Mary Jane Brown
Nuts are extremely healthy, as they're packed full of nutrients and antioxidants (1).
However, they're also high in fat and calories, causing many people to avoid nuts out of fear that they are fattening.
This article looks at the evidence to determine whether nuts are weight loss friendly or fattening.
Nuts Are High in Fat And Calories
Nuts are high in calories.
This is because a large part of them is fat, which is a concentrated source of energy. One gram of fat contains 9 calories, while one gram of carbs or protein contains just 4 calories.
Nuts contain mostly unsaturated fat. This type of fat is associated with protection against many different diseases, such as heart disease (3).
The calorie and fat contents per one-ounce (28-gram) serving of some commonly eaten nuts are shown below:
• Walnuts: 183 calories and 18 grams of fat (4)
• Brazil nuts: 184 calories and 19 grams of fat (5)
• Almonds: 161 calories and 14 grams of fat (6)
• Pistachios: 156 calories and 12 grams of fat (7)
• Cashews: 155 calories and 12 grams fat (8)
Because they are high in fat and calories, many people assume that adding nuts to their diet will lead to weight gain.
However, as discussed below, scientific studies do not support this.
Summary: Nuts are high in calories since they are high in fat, a concentrated source of energy. Even small portions are high in fat and calories.
Regularly Eating Nuts Is Not Linked to Weight Gain
For example, one study looked at the diets of 8,865 men and women over 28 months.
It found that those who ate two or more portions of nuts a week had a 31 percent lower risk of weight gain, compared to those who never or rarely ate them (10).
Also, a review of 36 studies found that regularly consuming nuts was not linked to an increase in weight, body mass index (BMI) or waist size (14).
However, any increase in weight was very small, much lower than expected and tended to be insignificant in the long term.
Summary: Studies have found that eating nuts regularly does not promote weight gain, regardless of whether people follow a strict diet or eat as they please. In some cases, they protect against weight gain.
Eating Nuts May Even Boost Weight Loss
It's not clear why this is, but it may be partly due to the healthier lifestyle choices of those who eat nuts.
For example, one study of 65 overweight or obese individuals compared a low-calorie diet supplemented with almonds to a low-calorie diet supplemented with complex carbs.
They consumed equal amounts of calories, protein, cholesterol and saturated fat.
At the end of the 24-week period, those on the almond diet had a 62 percent greater reduction in weight and BMI, 50 percent greater reduction in waist circumference and 56 percent greater reduction in fat mass (23).
In other studies, calorie-controlled diets containing nuts resulted in a similar amount of weight loss as a calorie-controlled, nut-free diet.
However, the group consuming nuts experienced improvements in cholesterol, including a reduction in "bad" LDL cholesterol and triglycerides. This benefit was not experienced by those consuming the nut-free diets (26, 27).
Summary: Regularly eating nuts as part of a weight loss diet can boost weight loss and improve cholesterol.
Nuts Can Help Reduce Your Appetite and Increase Feelings of Fullness
In one study, more than 200 people were told to eat a portion of peanuts as a snack.
The result was that they naturally ate fewer calories later in the day. This effect was greater when peanuts were eaten as a snack, rather than at a main meal (30).
In other words, eating nuts as a snack increases feelings of fullness, which results in eating less of other foods (33).
Summary: Nut consumption is associated with reduced appetite and increased feelings of fullness. This means that people eating them may naturally eat less throughout the day.
Only Some of The Fat Is Absorbed During Digestion
The structure and high fiber content of nuts mean that unless they are ground up or chewed completely, a good proportion will pass through the gut undigested.
Instead, it's emptied into the bowels. As a result, some of the nutrients, such as fat, won't be absorbed and are instead lost in feces.
This is another reason why nuts seem to be weight loss friendly.
This suggests that a good portion of the fat in nuts is not even be absorbed by your body.
Interestingly, how nuts are processed may have a large effect on how well nutrients like fat are absorbed.
For example, one study found that the amount of fat excreted in the feces was greater for whole peanuts (17.8 percent) than peanut butter (7 percent) or peanut oil (4.5 percent) (35).
Roasting nuts may also increase the absorption of their nutrients (37).
Therefore, the absorption of fat and calories from nuts is likely to be the least when you eat them whole.
Summary: Some of the fat in nuts is not well absorbed and instead removed in the feces. Fat loss is likely greater after consuming whole nuts.
Nuts May Boost Fat and Calorie Burning
One study found that participants burned 28 percent more calories after a meal containing walnuts than a meal containing fat from dairy sources (38).
Another study found supplementing with peanut oil for eight weeks resulted in a 5 percent increase in calorie burning. However, this was only seen in overweight people (39).
In addition, some studies show that among overweight and obese people, eating nuts can increase fat burning (40).
However, results are mixed, and better-quality studies are needed to confirm the link between nuts and increased calorie burning.
Summary: Several studies suggest that eating nuts can boost fat and calorie burning in people who are overweight or obese.
The Bottom Line
Despite being high in fat and calories, nuts are incredibly healthy.
Regularly eating nuts as part of a healthy diet is not associated with weight gain, and may even help you lose weight.
However, it's important to exercise portion control. Public health guidelines recommend eating a one-ounce (28-gram) portion of nuts on most days of the week.
For the healthiest option, choose plain, unsalted varieties.
Reposted with permission from our media associate Authority Nutrition.
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Natural gas is a versatile fossil fuel that accounts for about a third of U.S. energy use. Although it produces fewer greenhouse gas emissions and other pollutants than coal or oil, natural gas is a major contributor to climate change, an urgent global problem. Reducing emissions from the natural gas system is especially challenging because natural gas is used roughly equally for electricity, heating, and industrial applications.
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What RNG Is and Why it Matters<p>Most equipment that uses energy can only use a single kind of fuel, but the fuel might come from different resources. For example, you can't charge your computer with gasoline, but it can run on electricity generated from coal, natural gas or solar power.</p><p>Natural gas is almost pure methane, <a href="https://www.eia.gov/energyexplained/natural-gas/" target="_blank">currently sourced</a> from raw, fossil natural gas produced from <a href="https://www.eia.gov/energyexplained/natural-gas/where-our-natural-gas-comes-from.php" target="_blank">deposits deep underground</a>. But methane could come from renewable resources, too.</p><p><span></span>Two main methane sources could be used to make RNG. First is <a href="https://www.epa.gov/ghgemissions/inventory-us-greenhouse-gas-emissions-and-sinks" target="_blank">biogenic methane</a>, produced by bacteria that digest organic materials in manure, landfills and wastewater. Wastewater treatment plants, landfills and dairy farms have captured and used biogenic methane as an energy resource for <a href="http://emilygrubert.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/eia_860_2017_map.html" target="_blank">decades</a>, in a form usually called <a href="https://www.eia.gov/energyexplained/biomass/landfill-gas-and-biogas.php" target="_blank">biogas</a>.</p><p>Some biogenic methane is generated naturally when organic materials break down without oxygen. Burning it for energy can be beneficial for the climate if doing so prevents methane from escaping to the atmosphere.</p>
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Scant Climate Benefits<p><a href="https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-9326/ab9335/meta" target="_blank">My recent research</a> suggests that for a system large enough to displace a lot of fossil natural gas, RNG is probably not as good for the climate as <a href="https://investor.southerncompany.com/information-for-investors/latest-news/latest-news-releases/press-release-details/2020/Southern-Company-Gas-grows-leadership-team-to-focus-on-climate-action-innovation-and-renewable-natural-gas-strategy/default.aspx" target="_blank">is publicly claimed</a>. Although RNG has lower climate impact than its fossil counterpart, likely high demand and methane leakage mean that it probably will contribute to climate change. In contrast, renewable sources such as wind and solar energy do not <a href="https://www.eia.gov/environment/emissions/carbon/" target="_blank">emit climate pollution directly</a>.</p><p>What's more, creating a large RNG system would require building mostly new production infrastructure, since RNG comes from different sources than fossil natural gas. Such investments are both long-term commitments and opportunity costs. They would devote money, political will and infrastructure investments to RNG instead of alternatives that could achieve a zero greenhouse gas emission goal.</p><p>When climate change first <a href="https://www.nytimes.com/1988/06/24/us/global-warming-has-begun-expert-tells-senate.html" target="_blank">broke into the political conversation</a> in the late 1980s, investing in long-lived systems with low but non-zero greenhouse gas emissions was still compatible with aggressive climate goals. Now, zero greenhouse gas emissions is the target, and my research suggests that large deployments of RNG likely won't meet that goal.</p>
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By Charli Shield
When an elephant dies in the wild, it's not uncommon to later find its bones scattered throughout the surrounding landscape.
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