7 Nutrient Deficiencies That Are Incredibly Common
Many nutrients are essential for good health.
While it's possible to get most of them from a balanced diet, the typical Western diet is low in several very important nutrients.
This article lists 7 nutrient deficiencies that are incredibly common.
1. Iron Deficiency
Iron is an essential mineral.
It's a large component of red blood cells, in which it binds with hemoglobin and transports oxygen to your cells.
The two types of dietary iron are:
- Heme iron. This type of iron is very well absorbed. It's only found in animal foods, with red meat containing particularly high amounts.
- Non-heme iron. This type, found in both animal and plant foods, is more common. It is not absorbed as easily as heme iron.
This number rises to 47% in preschool children. Unless they're given iron-rich or iron-fortified foods, they are very likely to lack iron.
Around 30% of menstruating women may be deficient as well due to monthly blood loss, and up to 42% of young, pregnant women may be deficient as well.
The most common consequence of iron deficiency is anemia, in which the number of your red blood cells and your blood's ability to carry oxygen drops.
The best dietary sources of heme iron include (7Trusted Source):
- Red meat. 3 ounces (85 grams) of ground beef provide almost 30% of the Daily Value (DV).
- Organ meat. One slice (81 grams) of liver gives more than 50% of the DV.
- Shellfish. Clams, mussels, and oysters are excellent sources of heme iron, with 3 ounces (85 grams) of cooked oysters packing roughly 50% of the DV.
- Canned sardines. One 3.75-ounce (106-gram) can offer 34% of the DV.
The best dietary sources of non-heme iron include:
- Beans. Half a cup (85 grams) of cooked kidney beans provides 33% of the DV.
- Seeds. Pumpkin, sesame, and squash seeds are good sources of non-heme iron. One ounce (28 grams) of roasted pumpkin or squash seeds contains 11% of the DV.
- Dark, leafy greens. Broccoli, kale, and spinach are rich in iron. One ounce (28 grams) of fresh kale provides 5.5% of the DV.
However, you should never supplement with iron unless you truly need it. Too much iron can be very harmful.
Notably, vitamin C can enhance the absorption of iron. Eating vitamin-C-rich foods like oranges, kale, and bell peppers alongside iron-rich foods can help maximize your iron absorption.
Iron deficiency is very common, especially among young women, children, and vegetarians. It may cause anemia, fatigue, a weakened immune system, and impaired brain function.
2. Iodine Deficiency
Iodine is an essential mineral for normal thyroid function and the production of thyroid hormones (8Trusted Source).
Thyroid hormones are involved in many bodily processes, such as growth, brain development, and bone maintenance. They also regulate your metabolic rate.
- Seaweed. Only 1 gram of kelp packs 460–1,000% of the DV.
- Fish. Three ounces (85 grams) of baked cod provide 66% of the DV.
- Dairy. One cup (245 grams) of plain yogurt offers about 50% of the DV.
- Eggs: One large egg contains 16% of the DV.
However, these amounts can vary greatly. As iodine is found mostly in soil and ocean water, iodine-poor soil will result in low-iodine food.
Some countries mandate the enrichment of table salt with iodine, which has successfully reduced the incidence of deficiencies (12Trusted Source).
Iodine is one of the most common nutrient deficiencies in the world. It may cause enlargement of the thyroid gland. Severe iodine deficiency can cause mental retardation and developmental abnormalities in children.
3. Vitamin D Deficiency
Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that functions like a steroid hormone in your body.
It travels through your bloodstream and into cells, telling them to turn genes on or off. Almost every cell in your body has a receptor for vitamin D.
Vitamin D is produced from cholesterol in your skin upon exposure to sunlight. Thus, people who live far from the equator are likely to be deficient unless their dietary intake is adequate or they supplement with vitamin D (13Trusted Source, 14Trusted Source).
In the United States, about 42% of people may be deficient in this vitamin. This number rises to 74% in older adults and 82% in people with dark skin since their skin produces less vitamin D in response to sunlight (15Trusted Source, 16Trusted Source).
Adults who are deficient in vitamin D may experience muscle weakness, bone loss, and an increased risk of fractures. In children, it may cause growth delays and soft bones (rickets) (17Trusted Source, 20Trusted Source, 21Trusted Source).
Also, vitamin D deficiency may play a role in reduced immune function and an increased risk of cancer (22).
While very few foods contain significant amounts of this vitamin, the best dietary sources are (23):
- Cod liver oil. A single tablespoon (15 ml) packs 227% of the DV.
- Fatty fish. Salmon, mackerel, sardines, and trout are rich in vitamin D. A small, 3-ounce (85-gram) serving of cooked salmon provides 75% of the DV.
- Egg yolks. One large egg yolk contains 7% of the DV.
People who are deficient may want to take a supplement or increase their sun exposure. It is hard to get sufficient amounts through diet alone.
Vitamin D deficiency is very common. Symptoms include muscle weakness, bone loss, an increased risk of fractures, and — in children — soft bones. It is very difficult to get sufficient amounts from your diet alone.
4. Vitamin B12 Deficiency
Vitamin B12, also known as cobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin.
It is essential for blood formation, as well as brain and nerve function.
Every cell in your body needs B12 to function normally, but your body is unable to produce it. Therefore, you must get it from food or supplements.
B12 is only found in sufficient amounts in animal foods, although certain types of seaweed may provide small quantities. Therefore, people who do not eat animal products are at an increased risk of deficiency.
B12 absorption is more complex than that of other vitamins because it's aided by a protein known as intrinsic factor. Some people are lacking in this protein and may thus need B12 injections or higher doses of supplements.
One common symptom of vitamin B12 deficiency is megaloblastic anemia, which is a blood disorder that enlarges your red blood cells.
Dietary sources of vitamin B12 include (7Trusted Source):
- Shellfish. Clams and oysters are rich in vitamin B12. A 3-ounce (85-gram) portion of cooked clams provides 1,400% of the DV.
- Organ meat. One 2-ounce (60-gram) slice of liver packs more than 1,000% of the DV.
- Meat. A small, 6-ounce (170-gram) beef steak offers 150% the DV.
- Eggs. One whole egg provides about 6% of the DV.
- Milk products. One cup (240 ml) of whole milk contains about 18% of the DV.
Vitamin B12 isn't considered harmful in large amounts because it's often poorly absorbed and easily excreted.
Vitamin B12 deficiency is very common, especially in vegetarians, vegans, and older adults. The most common symptoms include blood disorders, impaired brain function, and elevated homocysteine levels.
5. Calcium Deficiency
Calcium is essential for every cell in your body. It mineralizes bones and teeth, especially during times of rapid growth. It is also very important for bone maintenance.
Additionally, calcium serves as a signaling molecule. Without it, your heart, muscles, and nerves would not be able to function.
The calcium concentration in your blood is tightly regulated, and any excess is stored in bones. If your intake is lacking, your bones will release calcium.
That is why the most common symptom of calcium deficiency is osteoporosis, characterized by softer and more fragile bones.
One survey in the United States found that fewer than 15% of teenage girls, fewer than 10% of women over 50, and fewer than 22% of teenage boys and men over 50 met the recommended calcium intake (31Trusted Source).
Although supplementing increased these numbers slightly, most people were still not getting enough calcium.
- Boned fish. One can (92 grams) of sardines contains 44% of the DV.
- Dairy products. One cup (240 ml) of milk provides 35% of the DV.
- Dark green vegetables. Kale, spinach, bok choy, and broccoli are rich in calcium. Just 1 ounce (28 grams) of fresh kale offers 5.6% of the DV.
The effectiveness and safety of calcium supplements have been somewhat debated in the last few years.
While it's best to get calcium from food rather than supplements, these supplements seem to benefit people who are not getting enough in their diet (37Trusted Source).
Low calcium intake is very common, especially in women of all ages and older adults. The main symptom of calcium deficiency is an increased risk of osteoporosis later in life.
6. Vitamin A Deficiency
Vitamin A is an essential fat-soluble vitamin. It helps form and maintain healthy skin, teeth, bones, and cell membranes. Furthermore, it produces eye pigments, which are necessary for vision (38).
- Preformed vitamin A. This type of vitamin A is found in animal products like meat, fish, poultry, and dairy.
- Pro-vitamin A. This type is found in plant-based foods like fruits and vegetables. Beta carotene, which your body turns into vitamin A, is the most common form.
More than 75% of people who eat a Western diet get more than enough vitamin A and do not need to worry about deficiency (39Trusted Source).
However, vitamin A deficiency is very common in many developing countries. About 44–50% of preschool-aged children in certain regions have vitamin A deficiency. This number is around 30% in Indian women (40Trusted Source, 41Trusted Source).
Vitamin A deficiency can cause both temporary and permanent eye damage and may even lead to blindness. In fact, this deficiency is the world's leading cause of blindness.
Vitamin A deficiency can also suppress immune function and increase mortality, especially among children and pregnant or breastfeeding women (40Trusted Source).
- Organ meat. One 2-ounce (60-gram) slice of beef liver provides more than 800% of the DV.
- Fish liver oil. One tablespoon (15 ml) packs roughly 500% of the DV.
Dietary sources of beta carotene (pro-vitamin A) include:
- Sweet potatoes. One medium, 6-ounce (170-gram) boiled sweet potato contains 150% of the DV.
- Carrots. One large carrot provides 75% of the DV.
- Dark green, leafy vegetables. One ounce (28 grams) of fresh spinach provides 18% of the DV.
While it is very important to consume enough of this vitamin, too much preformed vitamin A may cause toxicity.
This does not apply to pro-vitamin A, such as beta carotene. High intake may cause your skin to turn slightly orange, but this effect isn't dangerous.
Vitamin A deficiency is very common in many developing countries. It may cause eye damage and blindness, as well as suppress immune function and increase mortality among women and children.
7. Magnesium Deficiency
Magnesium is a key mineral in your body.
Essential for bone and teeth structure, it's also involved in more than 300 enzyme reactions (42Trusted Source).
Almost half of the U.S. population consumes less than the required amount of magnesium (43Trusted Source).
Deficiency may be caused by disease, drug use, reduced digestive function, or inadequate magnesium intake (48Trusted Source).
More subtle, long-term symptoms that you may not notice include insulin resistance and high blood pressure.
- Whole grains. One cup (170 grams) of oats contains 74% of the DV.
- Nuts. Twenty almonds pack 17% of the DV.
- Dark chocolate. One ounce (30 grams) of dark chocolate offers 15% of the DV.
- Dark green, leafy vegetables. One ounce (30 grams) of raw spinach provides 6% of the DV.
Magnesium deficiency is common in Western countries, and low intake is associated with many health conditions and diseases.
The Bottom Line
It is possible to be deficient in almost every nutrient. That said, the deficiencies listed above are by far the most common.
Children, young women, older adults, vegetarians, and vegans seem to be at the highest risk of several deficiencies.
The best way to prevent deficiency is to eat a balanced diet that includes whole, nutrient-dense foods. However, supplements may be necessary for those who can't obtain enough from diet alone.
Reposted with permission from our media associate Healthline.
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By Matthew J. Landry and Heather Eicher-Miller
When university presidents were surveyed in spring of 2020 about what they felt were the most pressing concerns of COVID-19, college students going hungry didn't rank very high.
Why It Matters<p>This is not just a matter of growling stomachs. This is a straight-up education and health issue.</p><p>When students don't really know if they'll be able to get enough to eat, it can lead to a series of problems that make it harder to stay in school. For instance, it can affect <a href="https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1359105318783028" target="_blank">academic performance</a> and <a href="https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-6943-6" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">sleep quality</a>. It can also lead to <a href="https://doi.org/10.1177/1359105318783028" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">poor mental and physical health</a> outcomes for college students.</p><p>Food insecurity can also result in disrupted eating patterns if there is <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6627945/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">not enough food or the variety</a> or <a href="https://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12889-019-6943-6" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">quality of what someone eats</a> is low.</p>
Campus Food Pantries<p>Previous strategies by <a href="https://www.gao.gov/assets/700/696254.pdf" target="_blank">colleges and universities</a> to fight hunger in their student bodies have varied widely. They include campus food pantries, emergency cash assistance and nutrition education through noncredit classes or workshopse.</p><p>These strategies were put to the test during the spring 2020 semester, when nearly <a href="https://hope4college.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/Hopecenter_RealCollegeDuringthePandemic.pdf" target="_blank">three in five students</a> said they had trouble meeting their own basic needs during the pandemic.</p><p>College food pantries saw <a href="https://www.utrgv.edu/newsroom/2020/05/01-utrgv-student-food-pantry-seeing-recent-increase-in-demand-during-covid-19.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">big increases</a> in demand. Others said they <a href="https://www.theprospectordaily.com/2020/09/22/uteps-food-pantry-is-running-out-of-food/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">were getting less donated food</a>. This made it even harder to meet the rising food needs of students.</p><p>Campus food pantries largely rely on local or regional food banks, which have been dealing with <a href="https://www.indystar.com/story/news/local/2020/10/04/indiana-food-banks-call-more-food-stamps-meet-publics-need/3523683001/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">greater demand</a> than they are able to meet during the pandemic.</p><p>The many students who are attending college remotely will, of course, have less access to campus resources like food pantries.</p>
Federal Help<p>Other potential ways to get more food are government programs like the <a href="https://www.fns.usda.gov/snap/recipient/eligibility" target="_blank">Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program</a>, known as SNAP. Yet the majority of able-bodied students are not eligible. Long-standing restrictions, like the <a href="https://www.fns.usda.gov/snap/students" target="_blank">college SNAP rule</a>, prevent full-time students from receiving these benefits.</p><p>Such regulatory hurdles were created under the assumption that most students can rely on their parents to get enough to eat. However, college students have vastly different levels of financial support. Some students can rely on their parents for everything and others cannot rely on their parents for anything.</p><p>Decreased reliance on parental financial support is <a href="https://ir.library.louisville.edu/jsfa/vol47/iss3/5/" target="_blank">especially common</a> for first-generation students and students of color, who now make up <a href="https://1xfsu31b52d33idlp13twtos-wpengine.netdna-ssl.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/Race-and-Ethnicity-in-Higher-Education.pdf" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">45% of enrolled college students</a>.</p><p>Under normal circumstances, many college students might rely on part-time jobs to pay for their food.</p>
Short-Term Solutions<p>Universities and colleges can make it a priority to ensure students are aware of all available campus resources and services. They can also potentially help students apply for federal assistance benefits.</p><p>Campus food pantries are not a fully effective and efficacious solution for the scale of college food insecurity, but they can be a good interim solution to increase access to food for students.</p><p>Campuses without food pantries can start one, making use of resources the <a href="https://cufba.org/resources/" target="_blank">College and University Food Bank Alliance</a> provides. Schools with food pantries can try to get them to <a href="https://www.swipehunger.org/5campuspantry/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">reach more students</a>.</p><p>Universities and colleges can also lean on one another for support. The <a href="http://wp.auburn.edu/endchildhungeral/alabama-campus-coalition-for-basic-needs/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Alabama Campus Coalition for Basic Needs</a> is a great example of this. It brings together 10 universities across the state of Alabama collectively working to address student food insecurity.</p>
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