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11 Surprising Benefits and Uses of Myrrh Oil
You may be familiar with myrrh from Biblical stories even if you're not sure what it is.
A steam distillation process is used to extract myrrh essential oil, which is amber to brown in color and has an earthy scent (3).
Myrrh has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine and Ayurvedic medicine. Scientists are now testing the oil's potential uses, including for pain, infections and skin sores (4).
Here are 11 science-based health benefits and uses of myrrh essential oil.
1. Kills Harmful Bacteria
Ancient Egyptians used myrrh and other essential oils to embalm mummies, as the oils not only provide a nice scent but also slow decay. Scientists now know this is because the oils kill bacteria and other microbes (5).
Additionally, in Biblical times, myrrh incense—often in combination with frankincense—was burned in places of worship to help purify the air and prevent the spread of contagious diseases, including those caused by bacteria.
One recent study found that burning myrrh and frankincense incense reduced airborne bacterial counts by 68% (6).
Preliminary animal research suggests that myrrh can directly kill bacteria, as well as stimulate the immune system to make more white blood cells, which also kill bacteria (7).
In one test-tube study, myrrh oil at a low dilution of 0.1% killed all dormant Lyme disease bacteria, which can persist in some people after antibiotic treatment and continue to cause illness (11).
Still, more studies are needed to determine whether myrrh oil can treat persistent Lyme infections.
Myrrh oil has been used to kill harmful bacteria long before scientists discovered that microbes cause contagious illnesses. It may have an impact on some drug-resistant and Lyme disease bacteria.
2. May Support Oral Health
What's more, when people with Behcet's disease—an inflammatory disorder—used a myrrh mouthwash to treat painful mouth sores four times daily for a week, 50% of them had complete pain relief and 19% had complete healing of their mouth sores (15).
Test-tube studies suggest that mouthwash containing myrrh oil may also help gingivitis, which is inflammation of the gums around your teeth due to a buildup of plaque (12).
Yet, more studies are needed to confirm these benefits.
Keep in mind that you should never swallow myrrh oral-care products, as high doses of myrrh can be toxic (15).
Additionally, if you have oral surgery, it may be best to avoid myrrh mouthwash during healing. A test-tube study found that stitches—especially silk ones—can degrade when exposed to myrrh, though they held up in the doses typically found in mouthwash (16).
Some natural mouthwashes and toothpastes contain myrrh oil, which may help relieve mouth sores and gum inflammation. Never swallow these products.
3. Supports Skin Health and May Help Heal Sores
Traditional uses of myrrh include treating skin wounds and infections. Today, scientists are testing these applications (17).
One test-tube study of human skin cells found that an essential oil blend containing myrrh helped heal wounds (18).
Another study noted that myrrh and other essential oils applied via baths helped mothers heal skin wounds from vaginal deliveries (19).
However, multiple oils were used simultaneously in these studies, so the individual effects of myrrh for wound healing are unclear.
Specific studies on myrrh oil are more telling.
A test-tube study on 247 different essential oil combinations found that myrrh oil mixed with sandalwood oil was especially effective at killing microbes that infect skin wounds (20).
Additionally, in one test-tube study, myrrh oil alone inhibited 43–61% of the growth of five fungi that cause skin conditions, including ringworm and athlete's foot (17).
Human research is needed to confirm these benefits. However, if you want to try myrrh for general skin health, many natural ointments and soaps contain it. You can also apply diluted myrrh oil directly on your skin.
Applying diluted myrrh oil on your skin may aid wound healing and fight microbes that can cause infections. The oil may also deter the growth of skin fungi, including ringworm and athlete's foot.
4. Combats Pain and Swelling
Pain—such as headaches, joint pain and back pain—is a common complaint.
Myrrh oil contains compounds that interact with opioid receptors and tell your brain you're not in pain. Myrrh also blocks the production of inflammatory chemicals that can lead to swelling and pain (1, 2, 21, 22).
When people prone to headaches took a multi-ingredient supplement containing myrrh's pain-relieving compounds, their headache pain was reduced by about two-thirds during the six-month study (23).
Further research is needed to confirm these benefits. The supplement tested isn't available in the US, and ingesting myrrh oil is not recommended.
You can buy myrrh-containing homeopathic rubbing oils and other essential oils meant to relieve pain when applied directly to sore body parts. However, these haven't been studied.
Myrrh oil contains plant compounds that may temporarily relieve pain by signaling your brain that you're not in pain. It may also block your body's production of inflammatory chemicals that lead to swelling and pain.
5. May Be a Powerful Antioxidant
Myrrh may be a powerful antioxidant, a compound that combats oxidative damage.
Oxidative damage from free radicals contributes to aging and some diseases.
Additionally, in an animal study, myrrh oil helped protect the liver against lead-induced oxidative damage in direct proportion to the amount of myrrh given prior to lead exposure (26).
It isn't known whether inhaling myrrh oil or applying it topically—which are two safe uses of myrrh oil for people—helps protect your body against oxidative damage.
Test-tube and animal studies show that myrrh oil is a powerful antioxidant and even more effective than vitamin E. However, human studies are needed.
6. Kills Some Parasites
You can become infected with parasites from many sources, including pets, sexual activity and contaminated food or water (27).
In a preliminary study, women who failed to respond to standard drug treatment for trichomoniasis were given an oral drug, Mirazid, made of myrrh sap and its essential oil. About 85% of them were cured of the infection (31).
Additionally, an animal study found that the same myrrh drug effectively treated giardiasis (32).
Some human research suggests that this myrrh drug also may be effective against the parasite Fasciola gigantica, which can cause liver and bile duct diseases. However, other studies failed to see a benefit (33, 34, 35, 36).
Mirazid is not widely prescribed at this time.
Though more research is needed, myrrh and its oil may prove helpful for treating parasites, especially in cases of drug resistance. Ingesting myrrh oil is not advised, and long-term safety must be assessed (37).
Preliminary studies suggest that a myrrh-containing medicine may help treat some common parasites, but more research on its effectiveness and safety is needed.
7–10. Other Potential Benefits
Scientists are testing other potential uses for myrrh oil and its beneficial compounds. The following applications are under study:
7. Sunscreen: One test-tube study found that SPF 15 sunscreen with added myrrh oil was significantly more effective at blocking ultraviolet rays than the sunscreen alone. By itself, myrrh oil wasn't as effective as the sunscreen (38).
8. Cancer: Test-tube studies suggest that myrrh oil may help kill or slow the growth of cancer cells from the liver, prostate, breast, and skin. However, this hasn't been tested in people (39, 40, 41).
8. Gut health: One animal study indicates that myrrh compounds may help treat intestinal spasms related to irritable bowel syndrome. Another animal study suggests that myrrh may help treat stomach ulcers (42, 43).
10. Mold: Test-tube studies note that myrrh oil may help kill mold, including Aspergillus niger, which commonly appears as mildew on damp walls, and A. flavus, which causes spoilage and mold contamination of food (3, 44).
Scientists are investigating other potential benefits of myrrh oil, including sunscreen effectiveness, cancer treatment, digestive health, and mold elimination.
11. Simple to Use
Myrrh oil can be inhaled, applied topically, or used for oral care. It should not be swallowed.
Here are some general guidelines:
Due to the risk of skin irritation, it's best to dilute myrrh oil in a carrier oil, such as jojoba, almond, grapeseed, or coconut oil. This also helps prevent the myrrh oil from evaporating too quickly (45).
In general, use 3–6 drops of essential oil per 1 teaspoon (5 ml) of carrier oil for adults. This is considered a 2–4% dilution. For children, use 1 drop of essential oil per 1 teaspoon (5 ml) of carrier oil, which is a 1% dilution.
You can also add a drop or two of myrrh oil to unscented lotion or moisturizer before you apply it to your skin. Some people add myrrh oil to products used for massage.
Avoid applying the oil to sensitive areas, including your eyes and inner ears. Wash your hands with soapy water after handling essential oils to avoid accidental exposure to delicate areas.
You can add 3–4 drops of myrrh oil to a diffuser to distribute the oil as a fine mist into the surrounding air.
If you don't have a diffuser, you can simply place a few drops of the oil on a tissue or cloth and inhale periodically or add a few drops to hot water and inhale the steam.
One simple trick is to apply a few drops of myrrh oil to the cardboard tube inside a roll of toilet paper. When someone uses it, a bit of the aroma will be released.
The earthy aroma of myrrh oil blends well with spicy, citrus, and floral essential oils, such as frankincense, lemon, and lavender, respectively.
The combination of myrrh and frankincense is especially popular — not only because of their complementary scents but also because of their synergy, or interaction that produces even greater benefits.
In test-tube studies, combined myrrh and frankincense oils improved their effectiveness against infectious bacteria and other microbes. About 11% of this improvement was due to synergistic interactions of the oils (46).
You can apply diluted myrrh oil to your skin, diffuse it, or use it orally. The oil can be used alone or in combination with complementary oils, such as frankincense and lemon.
Like other essential oils, myrrh oil is very concentrated, so you only need a few drops at a time. Avoid diffusing it close to babies and young children, as it's uncertain how much they'll inhale and how much is safe.
Additionally, no one should swallow myrrh oil, as it can be toxic (15).
- Pregnancy and breastfeeding: Avoid myrrh oil if you're pregnant, as it can cause uterine contractions and may trigger miscarriage. Also avoid myrrh oil if you're breastfeeding, as its safety to your baby isn't known.
- Blood-thinning drugs: Don't use myrrh if you're taking blood thinners, such as warfarin, as myrrh could decrease their effectiveness.
- Heart problems: Large amounts of myrrh may affect your heart rate, so use myrrh oil with caution if you have a heart condition.
- Diabetes: If you're taking diabetes medication, keep in mind that myrrh may lower blood sugar. Therefore, this combination could potentially result in blood sugar that's too low.
- Surgery: Myrrh may interfere with blood sugar control during and after surgery. Discontinue using myrrh products two weeks before surgery or as advised by your surgeon.
If you're pregnant, have heart problems, are planning surgery, or take blood thinners or diabetes medications, you may want to limit or avoid myrrh oil.
The Bottom Line
In addition to its pleasant, warm, and earthy scent, myrrh oil may also have several health benefits.
Studies suggest that it may help kill harmful bacteria, parasites, and other microbes. It may also support oral health, help heal skin sores, and ease pain and swelling.
However, the majority of these studies are in test tubes, animals, or small groups of people, so it's difficult to make any firm conclusions about its benefits.
If you want to try myrrh oil, dilute it in a carrier oil and apply it to your skin, or diffuse it to inhale the aroma. You can also buy products, such as mouthwash and ointments, that contain the oil.
Reposted with permission from our media associate Healthline.
EcoWatch Daily Newsletter
By Tom Duszynski
The coronavirus is certainly scary, but despite the constant reporting on total cases and a climbing death toll, the reality is that the vast majority of people who come down with COVID-19 survive it. Just as the number of cases grows, so does another number: those who have recovered.
In mid-March, the number of patients in the U.S. who had officially recovered from the virus was close to zero. That number is now in the tens of thousands and is climbing every day. But recovering from COVID-19 is more complicated than simply feeling better. Recovery involves biology, epidemiology and a little bit of bureaucracy too.
How does your body fight off COVID-19?<p>Once a person is exposed the coronavirus, the body starts producing <a href="https://www.mblintl.com/products/what-are-antibodies-mbli/" target="_blank">proteins called antibodies to fight the infection</a>. As these <a href="https://www.statnews.com/2020/03/27/serological-tests-reveal-immune-coronavirus/" target="_blank">antibodies start to successfully contain the virus</a> and keep it from replicating in the body, symptoms usually begin to lessen and you start to feel better. Eventually, if all goes well, your immune system will completely destroy all of the virus in your system. A person who was infected with and survived a virus with no long-term health effects or disabilities has "recovered."</p><p>On average, a person who is infected with SARS-CoV-2 will feel ill for about seven days from the onset of symptoms. Even after symptoms disappear, there still may be small amounts of the virus in a patient's system, and they should stay <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/if-you-are-sick/steps-when-sick.html" target="_blank">isolated for an additional three days</a> to ensure they have truly <a href="https://health.usnews.com/conditions/articles/coronavirus-recovery-what-to-know" target="_blank">recovered and are no longer infectious</a>.</p>
What about immunity?<p>In general, once you have recovered from a viral infection, your body will keep cells called lymphocytes in your system. These cells "remember" viruses they've previously seen and can react quickly to fight them off again. If you are exposed to a virus you have already had, your antibodies will likely stop the virus before it starts causing symptoms. <a href="https://dx.doi.org/10.5114%2Fceji.2018.77390" target="_blank">You become immune</a>. This is the <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK27158/" target="_blank">principle behind many vaccines</a>.</p><p>Unfortunately, immunity isn't perfect. For many viruses, like mumps, immunity can wane over time, leaving you <a href="https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/04/160421145747.htm" target="_blank">susceptible to the virus in the future</a>. This is why you need to get revaccinated – those "booster shots" – occasionally: to prompt your immune system to make more antibodies and memory cells.</p><p>Since this coronavirus is so new, scientists still don't know whether people who recover from COVID-19 are <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/faq.html" target="_blank">immune to future infections of the virus</a>. Doctors are finding antibodies in ill and recovered patients, and <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/clinical-guidance-management-patients.html" target="_blank">that indicates the development of immunity</a>. But the question remains how long that immunity will last. Other coronaviruses like <a href="https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25685" target="_blank">SARS and MERS produce an immune response</a> that will protect a person at least for a short time. I would suspect the same is true of SARS-CoV-2, but the research simply hasn't been done yet to say so definitively.</p>
Why have so few people officially recovered in the US?<p>This is a dangerous virus, so the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is being extremely careful when deciding what it means to recover from COVID-19. Both medical and testing criteria must be met before a person is <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/disposition-in-home-patients.html" target="_blank">officially declared recovered</a>.</p><p>Medically, a person must be fever-free without fever-reducing medications for three consecutive days. They must show an improvement in their other symptoms, including reduced coughing and shortness of breath. And it must be at least seven full days <a href="https://health.usnews.com/conditions/articles/coronavirus-recovery-what-to-know" target="_blank">since the symptoms began</a>.</p><p>In addition to those requirements, the CDC guidelines say that a person must test negative for the coronavirus twice, with the <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/if-you-are-sick/care-for-someone.html" target="_blank">tests taken at least 24 hours apart</a>.</p><p>Only then, if both the symptom and testing conditions are met, is a person officially considered recovered by the CDC.</p><p>This second testing requirement is likely why there were so few official recovered cases in the U.S. until late March. Initially, there was a <a href="https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/18/health/coronavirus-test-shortages-face-masks-swabs.html" target="_blank">massive shortage of testing in the U.S.</a> So while many people were certainly recovering over the last few weeks, this could not be officially confirmed. As the country enters the height of the pandemic in the coming weeks, focus is still on <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-nCoV/hcp/clinical-criteria.html" target="_blank">testing those who are infected</a>, not those who have likely recovered.</p><p>Many more people are being tested now that states and private companies have begun <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/cases-updates/testing-in-us.html" target="_blank">producing and distributing tests</a>. As <a href="https://www.dispatch.com/news/20200406/coronavirus-in-ohio-from-its-rocky-start-testing-for-covid-19-slowly-ramping-up" target="_blank">the number of available tests increases</a> and the pandemic eventually slows in the country, more testing will be available for those who have appeared to recover. As people who have already recovered are tested, the appearance of any new infections will help researchers learn <a href="https://www.statnews.com/2020/03/24/we-need-smart-coronavirus-testing-not-just-more-testing/" target="_blank">how long immunity can be expected to last</a>.</p>
Once a person has recovered, what can they do?<p>Knowing whether or not people are immune to COVID-19 after they recover is going to determine what individuals, communities and society at large can do going forward. If scientists can show that recovered patients are immune to the coronavirus, then a person who has recovered could in theory <a href="https://www.vox.com/2020/3/30/21186822/immunity-to-covid-19-test-coronavirus-rt-pcr-antibody" target="_blank">help support the health care system</a> by caring for those who are infected.</p><p>Once communities pass the peak of the epidemic, the number of new infections will decline, while the number of <a href="https://www.newsweek.com/china-says-passed-peak-coronavirus-epidemic-covid-19-1491863" target="_blank">recovered people will increase</a>. As these trends continue, the risk of transmission will fall. Once the risk of transmission has fallen enough, community-level isolation and social distancing orders will begin to relax and businesses will start to reopen. Based on what other countries have gone through, it will be <a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-020-00154-w" target="_blank">months until the risk of transmission is low</a> in the U.S.</p><p>But before any of this can happen, the U.S. and the world need to make it through the peak of this pandemic. Social distancing works to slow the spread of infectious diseases and <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/need-extra-precautions/what-you-can-do.html" target="_blank">is working for COVID-19</a>. Many people will <a href="https://www.yalemedicine.org/stories/2019-novel-coronavirus/" target="_blank">need medical help to recover</a>, and social distancing will slow this virus down and give people the best chance to do so.</p>
By Elizabeth Claire Alberts
The future for the world's oceans often looks grim. Fisheries are set to collapse by 2048, according to one study, and 8 million tons of plastic pollute the ocean every year, causing considerable damage to delicate marine ecosystems. Yet a new study in Nature offers an alternative, and more optimistic view on the ocean's future: it asserts that the entire marine environment could be substantially rebuilt by 2050, if humanity is able to step up to the challenge.
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By Zulfikar Abbany
Bread has been a source of basic nutrition for centuries, the holy trinity being wheat, maize and rice. It has also been the reason for a lot of innovation in science and technology, from millstones to microbiological investigations into a family of single-cell fungi called Saccharomyces.
Chemical leavening<p>If you like a little heft in your loaf, you will need a leavening agent.</p><p>For those short on time, you can use baking soda. That's a chemical compound of sodium bicarbonate mixed with potassium bitartrate, or cream of tartar.</p><p>Soda breads have their traditions in parts of eastern and central Europe, and in Ireland and Scotland, with Melrose loaves and "farls."</p><p>They can taste a bit bland, though, and are often considered only as an emergency solution on Sundays. No disrespect intended: They taste just fine fresh from the oven.</p><p>Whether it's chemical or more "natural," leavening relies largely on the production of carbon dioxide.</p><p>When you mix an acid, such as vinegar, buttermilk, yogurt or apple cider, with an alkaline compound like baking soda, you get CO2. That CO2 creates bubbles, which in turn capture steam in the oven and allow a bread to rise.</p><p><span></span>But it's better with yeast. Tastes better, too. It just takes more time. </p>
What is yeast?<p>There are yeasts all around us — on grains, in the air, in biofuels. It even lives inside us, but that's not always a good thing.</p><p><a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1090575/pdf/1471-2334-5-22.pdf" target="_blank">Candida yeast</a> can cause infections of the skin, feet, mouth, penis or vagina if it builds up too much in the body.</p><p>One of the most common yeasts, however, is <em>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</em>. That's <a href="https://www.dw.com/en/an-early-beer-archaeologists-tap-ground-at-worlds-oldest-brewery/a-45480731" target="_blank">"brewer's"</a> or "baker's" yeast.</p><p>You can get fresh baker's yeast, often in 42-gram (1.48-ounce) cubes, or as dried yeast (quick action or active, which requires rehydration) in a sachet of 7 grams.</p><p>There's little difference: One is compressed and the other is dehydrated and granulated. But they do the same thing, essentially. </p><p>Some commercial yeast producers add molasses and other nutrients. But natural yeast has plenty of useful nutrients in it anyway, including B group vitamins, so who knows whether it's good or necessary to add them. </p>
How does yeast work?<p>When you mix flour, yeast and water, you set off a veritable chain reaction. Enzymes in the wheat convert starch into sugar. And the yeast creates enzymes of its own to convert those sugars into a form it can absorb.</p><p>The yeast "feeds" on the sugars to create carbon dioxide and alcohol. The yeast burps and farts, releasing gases into the mix, and that creates bubbles to trap CO2. </p><p>It's a vital fermentation process that breaks down the gluten in the flour and helps make your bread more digestible.</p><p>The yeast cells split and reproduce, generating lactic and carbonic acid, raising the temperature and ultimately adding flavor to the mix.</p><p>The longer you leave the yeast to do its thing, the better for your bread. Time is more important than the amount of yeast. </p><p>In fact, that's an enduring question — how much yeast? I'll use 20 grams fresh yeast for 500 grams of flour. Others say that's enough yeast for 1 kilo. If you are converting a dry-yeast recipe to fresh yeast, some bakers advise tripling the weight. So, if a sachet of dried yeast is 7 grams, your fresh yeast is 21 grams.</p><p><span></span>But that also depends on the flours you are using, temperatures in the bowl and the room, and a host of other things. You'll just have to experiment and see. No number of books (and I've read a stack on bread) will help as much as trial and error.</p>
Wild yeast: Sourdough<p>So, good bread needs time. If you have a lot of time, why not move it up a notch and grow wild yeast — a sourdough starter — in your own home?</p><p>A sourdough starter is not to be mistaken (as it often is) for the leaven, or "mother," "sponge," or <em>levain</em>. That's more a second stage, a descendant of the starter. You take a scoop from your starter and add it to another flour and water mixture when you prepare the dough for a new loaf. </p><p>The sourdough process utilizes yeasts naturally present in flour and … yet more time. A longer fermentation process allows a richer lactic acid bacteria <em>lactobacilli</em> or LAB to evolve, and that can be healthy for your gut microbiome.</p><p>It's simple enough to start a sourdough starter. All you need is flour, warm water and time.</p><p>Some suggest equal measures of whole-grain flour and water at 28 degrees Celsius (82 degrees Fahrenheit), some say room temperature — just don't let the water exceed 40 C or the yeasts will die. Some suggest two parts flour to three parts water. But it's up to you whether you want a drier or wetter starter. You will know only through experimentation. </p><p>Some say you should filter tap water to remove chemicals like fluoride and avoid using water that's boiled and then cooled. Others say that really doesn't matter.</p><p>The main thing is, keep it clean and give it time. Days, weeks, months and years.</p>
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