By Dan Nosowitz
From cranberry bogs in New England to citrus groves in California, soybeans in the plains states and cotton in Texas, few facts hold true about American agriculture across the board. A new study from Cornell University indicates that even climate change may not affect all regions equally.
The study was designed to learn about regional climate sensitivity—exactly how much and in what ways climate changes can impact distinct areas of the country—by examining climate data from 1960 until 2004. Climate change may not have been a hot topic in 1960, but climate changes were certainly happening.
To figure all this out, the researchers relied on total factor productivity or TFP, which is a fairly common economic indicator. In an agricultural context, TFP is a helpful macro indicator; it's basically a measure of output per input, and so tracking that number over time gives you a sense of technological growth. It's not a measure of something simple like, say, crop yield; it's more like a way to measure efficiency. That's useful in this context, because it ends up showing the overall health of an entire sector.
Anyway! What the researchers found is that increases in summer temperature, which have been increasingly common and are commonly associated with climate change, would significantly and negatively affect crops in the Midwest. The primary reason, according to the study, is the reliance of the Midwest on non-irrigated crops, especially cereals like corn and wheat. These are the dominant crops through throughout the central U.S., and without the extensive irrigation seen in, say, California, Midwestern farmers are much less able to cope with heat waves and droughts.
The study even questions the policy choices that led us to this point, specifically mentioning ethanol mandates and the way agribusiness encourages commodity crops. "Whether these policies played a decisive role in inducing the observed regional specialization that promoted that region's increased vulnerability to climatic extremes remains unknown but an intriguingly plausible hypothesis," wrote the study's authors.
Reposted with permission from our media associate Modern Farmer.
Britain's Prince William interviewed famed broadcaster David Attenborough on Tuesday at the World Economic Forum's annual meeting in Switzerland.
During the sit-down, the 92-year-old naturalist advised the world leaders and business elite gathered in Davos this week that we must respect and protect the natural world, adding that the future of its survival—as well as humanity's survival—is in our hands.
What's more, the accounting firm predicts that another 21 million electric cars will be on the road globally over the next decade due to growing market demand for clean transportation, government subsidies, as well as bans on fossil fuel cars.
By Matthew Savoca
Plastic pollution in the world's oceans has become a global environmental crisis. Many people have seen images that seem to capture it, such as beaches carpeted with plastic trash or a seahorse gripping a cotton swab with its tail.
Greenland is melting about four times faster than it was in 2003, a new study published Monday in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences found, a discovery with frightening implications for the pace and extent of future sea level rise.
"We're going to see faster and faster sea level rise for the foreseeable future," study lead author and Ohio State University geodynamics professor Dr. Michael Bevis said in a press release. "Once you hit that tipping point, the only question is: How severe does it get?"
Finally, some good news about the otherwise terrible partial government shutdown. A federal judge ruled that the Trump administration cannot issue permits to conduct seismic testing during the government impasse.
The Justice Department sought to delay—or stay—a motion filed by a range of coastal cities, businesses and conservation organizations that are suing the Trump administration over offshore oil drilling, Reuters reported. The department argued that it did not have the resources it needed to work on the case due to the shutdown.
Most people have heard of the Amazon, South America's famed rainforest and hub of biological diversity. Less well known, though no less critical, is the Pantanal, the world's largest tropical wetland.
Like the Amazon, the Pantanal is ecologically important and imperiled. Located primarily in Brazil, it also stretches into neighboring Bolivia and Paraguay. Covering an area larger than England at more than 70,000 square miles, the massive wetland provides irreplaceable ecosystem services that include the regulation of floodwaters, nutrient renewal, river flow for navigability, groundwater recharge and carbon sequestration. The wetland also supports the economies of the four South American states it covers.
By Andrea Germanos
Organizers said 35,000 people marched through the streets of the German capital on Saturday to say they're "fed up" with industrial agriculture and call for a transformation to a system that instead supports the welfare of the environment, animals and rural farmers.
By Patrick Rogers
If you have ever considered making the switch to an environmentally friendly electric vehicle, don't drag your feet. Though EV prices are falling, and states are unveiling more and more public charging stations and plug-in-ready parking spots, the federal government is doing everything it can to slam the brakes on our progress away from gas-burning internal combustion engines. President Trump, likely pressured by his allies in the fossil fuel industry, has threatened to end the federal tax credits that have already helped put hundreds of thousands of EVs on the road—a move bound to harm not only our environment but our economy, too. After all, the manufacturing and sale of EVs, hybrids, and plug-in hybrids supported 197,000 jobs in 2017, according to the most recent U.S. Energy and Employment Report.