‘Life Threatening’ Cold Snap Could Break Records Across Midwest
The upper midwest is bracing for some dangerously cold weather this week. Wind chills are expected to reach levels not seen since the 1990s in parts of Illinois, Minnesota, Iowa, Wisconsin and the Dakotas, the National Weather Service predicted.
Temperatures will dip 20 to 40 degrees below average Tuesday through Thursday, and wind chill temperatures could hit -60 degrees in the upper Midwest and -55 in the upper Mississippi Valley, U.S. News and World Report reported.
"You're talking about frostbite and hypothermia issues very quickly, like in a matter of minutes, maybe seconds," NWS Weather Prediction Center meteorologist Brian Hurley told The Associated Press.
Wind chills will fall to dangerous levels in the Upper Midwest this week, and should be the coldest since the mid-1… https://t.co/d5mY5uRpMv— NWS WPC (@NWS WPC)1548602393.0
The Chicago NWS said the forecast was for "life-threatening extreme cold," The Washington Post's Capital Weather Gang reported. The dangerous cold snap could potentially break records, with forecasts for Chicago, Des Moines, Cleveland, Detroit and Minneapolis putting temperatures within one degree of the coldest ever recorded. In Chicago, some forecasts on Monday put temperatures at -29 degrees, two degrees below the lowest on the books.
Minneapolis Public Schools are closing through Wednesday to protect students, as are some schools in eastern Iowa, and the Chicago Public School system is keeping an eye on the thermometer, The Associated Press reported. Homeless shelters are also gearing up for the onslaught. Organizations in Minneapolis are working to increase hours and beds.
"The charitable organizations responsible for operating shelters are adding emergency capacity as they do whenever dangerous extreme temperature events occur," Hennepin County emergency management director Eric Waage told The Associated Press.
The Washington Post's Capital Weather Gang explained why cold weather is so dangerous:
"A recent report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention found that cold weather is responsible for the majority of weather-related fatalities. The wind chill temperature is more than a catchy forecast term. The wind blows away the insulating layer of warm air around us generated naturally by our bodies. Wind chill attempts to quantify the effect in terms of how it feels on our skin, which is why you'll sometimes hear it called the "feels like" temperature. A wind chill of minus-20 degrees can cause frostbite in as little as 30 minutes."
The freezing temperatures are caused by something called a polar vortex, an area of low pressure and cold air that circulates around the poles. As warm air from Morocco entered the Arctic last month and caused it to warm about 125 degrees, this influx of warm air divided the polar vortex, sending one of its pieces down to freeze the Midwest, atmospheric environmental research expert Judah Cohen told The Associated Press.
Here it comes! Thanks to 🛰 #GOESEast and #GOES17, we can visually see the #polar air set to bring potentially histo… https://t.co/VZJwnbFrFg— NWS Grand Forks (@NWS Grand Forks)1548694040.0
Some scientists also think that climate change is making the polar vortex increasingly unstable, as warmer temperatures in the Arctic cause the jet stream to push more cold air further south, National Geographic explained.
Earth is anomalously warm today, but North America is cold. A huge blob of icy Arctic air, usually corralled up no… https://t.co/ErPbwpQKnb— Stefan Rahmstorf (@Stefan Rahmstorf)1548103376.0
"In the beautiful Midwest, windchill temperatures are reaching minus 60 degrees, the coldest ever recorded. In coming days, expected to get even colder. People can't last outside even for minutes. What the hell is going on with Global Waming? Please come back fast, we need you!" he tweeted.
In the beautiful Midwest, windchill temperatures are reaching minus 60 degrees, the coldest ever recorded. In comin… https://t.co/FnaCaBA5Nz— Donald J. Trump (@Donald J. Trump)1548728929.0
This prompted journalists to repeat the truth that climate and weather are not the same thing.
"The globe as a whole is still much warmer than normal, and scientists say the cold snap in parts of the U.S. in no way invalidates the overwhelming scientific evidence showing global average temperatures are increasing due to the burning of fossil fuels for energy," Axios' Andrew Freedman wrote.
Remember, if you're cold, they're cold. Some furry friends of the NWS are here to remind you that unless your pets… https://t.co/R48XCEWy9H— National Weather Service (@National Weather Service)1548696686.0
Correction: An earlier version of this story said that temperatures could hit -60 degrees in the upper Midwest and -55 in the upper Mississippi Valley. The story has been updated to specify that those are wind chill temperatures.
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An All-Rounder<p>Vitamin D levels in the body rise and fall according to sun exposure. If sufficient UV rays reach the skin, the body is able to produce the vitamin itself. However, the human body only derives an estimated 10 to 20 percent of its daily requirement from food.</p><p>The vitamin D that we synthesize from sunlight or food is not biologically active at first. Before the kidneys can produce the biologically active form of the vitamin, known as calcitriol, and release it into the blood, some metabolic processes must take place beforehand.</p><p>In addition, many organs have receptors to which the precursor of calcitriol binds. Further, this substance is also present in blood.</p><p>From this precursor, the organs then produce calcitriol themselves, which the body then uses for countless other processes in the body. This form of vitamin D thus regulates insulin secretion, inhibits tumor growth, and promotes the formation of red blood cells as well as the survival and activity of macrophages, which are important for the <a href="https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/5/7/2502/htm" target="_blank">immune system.</a></p>
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Association Versus Intervention Studies<p>Many studies on the vitamin are association or observational studies. "By definition, these studies cannot prove the causal relationship, but only point to mere correlations," said Fassnacht. The physician tries to illustrate this with an example:</p><p>"Imagine two groups of 80-year-olds. One group is spry, active and does sports. If you compare them with another group living in nursing homes, the difference in vitamin D levels will be dramatic. Life expectancy would also be extremely different."</p><p>But to try to explain the difference in fitness by vitamin D status alone is far too simplistic. "Vitamin D levels are a good measure of how sick someone is. But not more," says Fassnacht. </p><p>According to Fassnacht, none of the intervention studies carried out to date -- that specifically examined the effect of vitamin D on various diseases -- has been able to confirm the previous association and laboratory studies or the presumed positive effect of vitamin D.</p>
Further Research Is Needed<p>"If a coronavirus infection is suspected, it is therefore absolutely necessary to check the vitamin D status and quickly correct any possible deficit," said the recommendation of the paper published by the University of Hohenheim.</p><p>"Studies are underway to see whether vitamin D helps in COVID-19 infection, but I personally do not believe that this is really the case," says endocrinologist Fassnacht. Nevertheless, he says it is of course useful to carry out these studies.<br></p><p>"I don't want to rule out that there are actually subgroups of people who benefit from an additional vitamin D dose," he says. After all, this has been proven to be the case with a severe deficit.</p><p>In view of the study situation, Fassnacht does not think much of preventive, nationwide vitamin D substitutes. "My belief that the vitamin helps somewhere is very low. But, of course, I can be wrong."</p>
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