Sen. Kirsten Gillibrand Announces $10 Trillion Plan to Flight Climate Crisis
Sen. Kirsten Gillibrand (D-N.Y.) is the latest 2020 Democratic primary contender to announce an ambitious plan to tackle the climate crisis.
Gillibrand's plan, published on Medium Thursday, would mobilize $10 trillion in private and public funds to pay for a Green New Deal to achieve 100 percent renewable energy within 10 years and net zero emissions across the economy by 2050.
"Climate action should be this generation's moonshot," Gillibrand wrote. "To save our planet, the energy, talents, and commitment of every American will be required, from our farmers and workers to our scientists and entrepreneurs. The next president has to be willing to take bold leaps to lead this effort and stand up to the climate change deniers, polluters, and oil and gas special interests. I will, because we can't afford not to."
Climate change is the most serious threat to humanity that exists today. We need to take immediate and bold action before it’s too late. Here's my plan to do it as president: https://t.co/XDE5Ys79Jx— Kirsten Gillibrand (@SenGillibrand) July 25, 2019
The plan has seven major components.
1. Achieve Net-Zero Carbon Emissions: In addition boosting renewable energy, Gillibrand's plan would focus on transportation, with a goal of net zero vehicle emissions by the end of the decade. She would also increase the number of electric vehicle charging stations and improve infrastructure for public transit, bicycles and pedestrians.
2. Hold Polluters Accountable: Gillibrand would create a Climate Change Mitigation Trust Fund, paid for with a tax on fossil fuel production, that would generate $100 billion a year for adaptations to sea level rise and extreme weather events. She would also put a starting price on carbon of $52 per metric ton. The carbon tax would generate an estimated $200 billion a year for renewable energy development.
3. Phase Out Fossil Fuels: Gillibrand would end oil and gas drilling and fracking both offshore and on public lands and strengthen regulation for extraction on private land. She would also work with Congress to end fossil fuel subsidies.
4. Build a Green Jobs Economy: Gillibrand's plan would create a "green jobs recovery fund" to help communities impacted by the loss of fossil fuel jobs to transition to clean energy jobs. She would also work to provide access to these new jobs to impoverished communities, depopulating rural areas and frontline communities.
5. Lead the World on Clean Energy: The plan also calls for the U.S. to challenge other countries to a clean energy "space race" in order to harness innovation towards global solutions to the climate crisis. She also said her administration would rejoin the Paris agreement and help countries that had done less to cause the climate crisis adapt to its consequences.
6. Protect Clean Air and Clean Water: Gillibrand also promised to strengthen the Clean Air and Clean Water Acts. As a senator, she passed legislation to address the contamination of drinking water near military bases with PFAS and she promised that, as president, she would work to end this contamination nationwide.
7. Center Frontline Communities: Gillibrand said she would work to address the concerns of communities of color and low-income communities that have been disproportionately impacted by climate change and pollution, funding the cleanup of ongoing contamination and seeking the input of impacted communities to craft just climate policy. She also said she would order government agencies not to approve any large projects on indigenous land without the informed consent of Tribal governments.
Gillibrand's plan was met with enthusiasm from environmental groups. Greenpeace raised her grade on its Climate 2020 scorecard to an A minus, putting her second only to Washington Gov. Jay Inslee, who is running on fighting climate change. She was originally in the No. 4 slot.
This morning, @SenGillibrand released an ambitious climate plan that would phase out fossil production, hold polluters accountable, and enact the #GreenNewDeal.— Greenpeace USA (@greenpeaceusa) July 25, 2019
Check out her updated score on our #Climate2020 scorecard! 👉 https://t.co/lDZyZMLUqAhttps://t.co/nd3Qy99nU9
Friends of the Earth also applauded the plan.
"By prioritizing frontline, rural and marginalized communities, opposing fracking and new fossil fuel leasing on public lands and waters and committing to end fossil fuel subsidies, Gillibrand has demonstrated her leadership on climate issues in 2020," the group's senior fossil fuels program manager Nicole Ghio said in a statement.
Politico said Gillibrand's plan shares elements with the promises of other Democratic primary candidates, including the 2050 carbon neutrality deadline and the pledge to end fossil fuel leasing on public lands.
One major area in which she differs is her proposed carbon tax. Only South Bend Indiana Mayor Pete Buttigieg and former Maryland Rep. John Delaney have officially come out in support of the policy, Politico said.
Vox's Umair Irfan wrote that Gillibrand might also be trying to set herself apart from the crowded primary field by directly attacking the fossil fuel industry and asking them to foot the bill for climate mitigation, though Inslee has also promised to charge carbon polluters for the harm they have done.
"So will calling out the climate change miscreants pay off for Gillibrand?" Irfan asked. "Right now, she barely registers in several polls. And while climate change is a top-tier issue for voters, it received scant attention in the last round of Democratic primary debates. So it's unlikely to give her much of a boost when she returns to the debate stage next week. However, climate change has implications that will ripple throughout the U.S. economy and around the world, so Gillibrand adding her voice to the conversation is a step toward giving the topic the attention it deserves."
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By Jacob L. Steenwyk and Antonis Rokas
From the mythical minotaur to the mule, creatures created from merging two or more distinct organisms – hybrids – have played defining roles in human history and culture. However, not all hybrids are as fantastic as the minotaur or as dependable as the mule; in fact, some of them cause human diseases.
When Looking Through a Microscope Isn’t Close Enough.<p>For the last few years, <a href="http://www.rokaslab.org/" target="_blank">our team at Vanderbilt University</a>, <a href="https://www.researchgate.net/lab/Gustavo-Goldman-Lab" target="_blank">Gustavo Goldman's team at São Paulo University in Brazil</a> and many other collaborators around the world have been collecting samples of fungi from patients infected with different species of <em>Aspergillus</em> molds. One of the species we are particularly interested in is <a href="https://doi.org/10.1006/rwgn.2001.0082" target="_blank"><em>Aspergillus nidulans</em>, a relatively common and generally harmless fungus</a>. Clinical laboratories typically identify the species of <em>Aspergillus</em> causing the infection by examining cultures of the fungi under the microscope. The problem with this approach is that very closely related species of <em>Aspergillus</em> tend to look very similar in their broad morphology or physical appearance when viewing them through a microscope.</p><p>Interested in examining the varying abilities of different <em>A. nidulans</em> strains to cause disease, we decided to analyze their total genetic content, or genomes. What we saw came as a total surprise. We had not collected <em>A. nidulans</em> but <em>Aspergillus latus</em>, a close relative of <em>A. nidulans</em> and, as we were to soon find out, <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2020.04.071" target="_blank">a hybrid species that evolved through the fusion of the genomes</a> of two other <em>Aspergillus</em> species: <em>Aspergillus spinulosporus</em> and an unknown close relative of <em>Aspergillus quadrilineatus</em>. Thus, we realized not only that these patients harbored infections from an entirely different species than we thought they were, but also that this species was the first ever <em>Aspergillus</em> hybrid known to cause human infections.</p>
Several Different Fungal Hybrids Cause Human Disease.<p>Hybrid fungi that can cause infections in humans are well known to occur in several different lineages of single-celled fungi known as yeasts. Notable examples include multiple different species of <a href="https://doi.org/10.1002/yea.3242" target="_blank">yeast hybrids</a> that cause the human diseases <a href="https://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/diseases/6218/cryptococcosis" target="_blank">cryptococcosis</a> and <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/fungal/diseases/candidiasis/index.html" target="_blank">candidiasis</a>. Although pathogenic yeast hybrids are well known, our discovery that the <em>A. latus</em> pathogen is a hybrid is a first for molds that cause disease in humans.</p>
(Left) Candida yeasts live on parts of the human body. Imbalance of microbes on the body can allow these yeasts, some of which are hybrids, to grow and cause infection. (Right) Cryptococcus yeasts, including ones that are hybrids, can cause life-threatening infections in primarily immunocompromised people. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention<p><a href="https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1008315" target="_blank">Why certain <em>Aspergillus</em> species are so deadly</a> while others are harmless remains unknown. This may in part be because <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fbr.2007.02.007" target="_blank">combinations of traits, rather than individual traits</a>, underlie organisms' ability to cause disease. So why then are hybrids frequently associated with human disease? Hybrids inherit genetic material from both parents, which may result in new combinations of traits. This may make them more similar to one parent in some of their characteristics, reflect both parents in others or may differ from both in the rest. It is precisely this mix and match of traits that hybrids have inherited from their parental species that <a href="https://www.nytimes.com/2010/09/14/science/14creatures.html" target="_blank">facilitates their evolutionary success</a>, including their ability to cause disease.</p>
The Evolutionary Origin of an Aspergillus Hybrid.<p>Multiple evolutionary paths can lead to the emergence of hybrids. One path is through mating, just as the horse and donkey mate to create a mule. Another path is through the merging or fusion of genetic material from cells of different species.</p><p>It is this second path that appears to have been taken by our fungus. <em>A. latus</em> appears to have two of almost everything compared to its parental species: twice the genome size, twice the total number of genes and so on. But unlike other hybrids, which are often sterile like the mule, we found that <em>A. latus</em> is capable of reproducing both asexually and sexually.</p><p>But how distinct were the parents of <em>A. latus</em>? By comparing the parts contributed by each parent in the <em>A. latus</em> genome, we estimate that its parents are approximately 93% genetically similar, which is about as related as we humans are with lemurs. In other words, <em>A. latus</em>, an agent of infectious disease, is the fungal equivalent of a human-lemur hybrid.</p>
How A. Latus Differs From its Parents.<p>Elucidating the identity of closely related fungal pathogens and how they differ from each other in infection-relevant characteristics is a key step toward reducing the burden of fungal disease. For example, we found that <em>A. latus</em> was three times more resistant than <em>A. nidulans</em>, the species it was originally identified as using microscopy-based methods, to one of the most common antifungal drugs, <a href="https://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB00520" target="_blank">caspofungin</a>. This result provides a clear example of the potential importance of accurate identification of the <em>Aspergillus</em> pathogen causing an infection.</p><p>We also examined how <em>A. latus</em> and <em>A. nidulans</em> interact with cells from our immune system. We found that immune cells were less efficient at combating <em>A. latus</em> compared to <em>A. nidulans</em>, suggesting the hybrid fungus may be trickier for our immune systems to identify and destroy.</p><p>In the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic, our quest to understand <em>Aspergillus</em> pathogens is becoming more urgent. Growing evidence suggests that <a href="https://doi.org/10.1111/myc.13096" target="_blank">a fraction of COVID-19 patients are also infected with <em>Aspergillus</em>.</a> More worrying is that these <a href="https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2607.201603" target="_blank">secondary <em>Aspergillus</em> infections</a> can worsen the clinical outcomes for those infected with the novel coronavirus. That being said, we stress that little is known about <em>Aspergillus</em> infections in COVID-19 patients due to a lack of systematic testing, and none of the infections identified so far appear to have been caused by hybrids.</p><p>So, when it comes to hybrids, some are fantastic (the minotaur), some are helpful (the mule) and some are dangerous (<em>Aspergillus latus</em>). Understanding more about the biology of <em>Aspergillus latus</em> may help in our understanding of how microbial pathogens arise and how to best prevent and combat their infections.</p>
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