Smartphone Radiation: iPhones Emitting Double Reported Levels
By Brian Krans
- Using accredited lab tests that mimic human tissue, reporters from The Chicago Tribune tested smartphone radiofrequency radiation emitted by 11 models of popular cell phones.
- They found most of the phones exceeded the legal limit set by the FCC of 1.6 watts per kilogram averaged over 1 gram of tissue.
- Radiofrequency radiation exposure from the iPhone 7 — one of the most popular smartphones ever sold — measured over the legal safety limit and more than double what Apple reported to federal regulators from its own testing.
- The FCC is currently investigating the reported findings.
A recent investigation has reignited debate over the safety of cell and smartphones. It's also spurred class-action lawsuits and has activists calling on federal regulators to reassess the limits of radiation allowed to seep out from radio-emitting mobile devices that are now a part of daily modern life.
The Chicago Tribune recently released findings of its own investigation into radiofrequency radiation emitted by popular smartphones, including several variations of the iPhone.
Overall, Tribune reporters, using accredited lab tests that mimic human tissue, tested 11 models from four companies: Apple, Samsung, Motorola, and BLU.
The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) — which regulates cell phones, among other things, in the U.S. — has set radiation standards for cell phones at 1.6 watts per kilogram averaged over 1 gram of tissue. Most of the phones the Tribune tested well exceeded that amount at 2 millimeters, or the distance your phone would be in your pocket.
"Radiofrequency radiation exposure from the iPhone 7 — one of the most popular smartphones ever sold — measured over the legal safety limit and more than double what Apple reported to federal regulators from its own testing," the Tribune reported.
Radiofrequency (RF) radiation is of a concern because, according to the FCC, "It has been known for many years that exposure to very high levels of RF radiation can be harmful due to the ability of RF energy to heat biological tissue rapidly."
Essentially, it operates the same way a microwave cooks food, and organs like the eyes and testes are particularly vulnerable because there's not enough blood flow to cool them down.
But there are larger concerns over how much radiation the U.S. federal government allows cell phones to emit, especially after the Tribune's reporting found they often were in excess of that.
The FCC's standards were set in 1996 and reflected the typical amount of use during that time and on a 200-pound man.
But phones back then were just that — phones.
Now with unlimited games, applications, and social media, the average time spent on smartphones is now 3 hours and 10 minutes per day. And that's from people of all ages, sizes and genders. Some of that use borders on addiction Trusted Source.
A Cause for Concern?
Ellie Marks, executive director of the nonprofit California Brain Tumor Association, is "not at all surprised by" the Tribune's findings and is happy to see class-action lawsuits being filed following its publication. She has testified before Congress on the issue, as her husband developed a brain tumor they believe was due to long-term cell phone use.
She's been arguing for the FCC and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to reassess their guidelines for radiation from cell phones, but FCC Chairman Ajit Pai recently announced they would be keeping the guidelines as they currently stand. This even as the country currently looks to expand its 5G coverage across the country, which would expose more people to even more radiofrequencies.
"This cannot be left to FCC or FDA to investigate," Marks told Healthline. "The collusion and corruption between the FDA, FCC and telecom is out of control."
Marks and other advocates who have wanted regulations changed argue the FCC is too beholden to private interests to address the issue.
"The industry, FDA and FCC keep repeating the mantra that there is no evidence of harm. That is a blatant lie, but they need to do this for liability reasons," Marks said. "There is extensive research proving cell phone radiation is causing DNA damage and cancer — not just brain, but salivary gland, thyroid, breast, damage to fetuses, damage to sperm, miscarriages, bone cancer and more."
Last November, Dr. Jeffrey Shuren, director of the FDA's Center for Devices and Radiological Health, released a statement Trusted Source saying "the current safety limits for cell phone radiofrequency energy exposure remain acceptable for protecting the public health."
Dr. Santosh Kesari, a neuro-oncologist and chair of the department of translational neuro-oncology and neurotherapeutics at the John Wayne Cancer Institute at Providence Saint John's Health Center in Santa Monica, California, said that statement was based on tests on rats, which is hard to extrapolate to humans.
"There have been many studies over the decades in animal models that show some effect on cancer incidence, however all the studies slightly differ, and again, the dose exposure is more than humans are exposed to, so the relevance to the human situation remains unclear," Kesari told Healthline.
What You Can Do to Reduce Exposure
To be safe, experts suggest the following practices to limit unnecessary exposure to radiation from mobile devices:
- Unplug from your usual device usage as much as possible.
- Don't keep your phone next to your body, such as in a pocket.
- Use speakerphone or a headset when making calls.
- Don't sleep next to your phone or other devices.
- Keep the phone on airplane mode when you're not using it.
There are some products aimed at reducing radiation, such as SafeSleeve device covers that claim to block over 99 percent of RF and 92 percent of extremely low frequency radiation.
The company was founded by Cary Subel and Alaey Kumar, who began studying electromagnetic radiation as engineering students at Cal Poly San Luis Obispo a decade ago.
"Just because you can't feel, see, smell, or hear it, does not mean that the emissions from your electronics are harmless," Subel said, who added there is "strong evidence" that the FCC's limits for RF exposure levels are far too high.
While activists wait for federal regulators to address allowed radiation from cell phones, Marks continues to work with cities and states across the United States that want to give consumers information about devices' safety at the point of sale, which is often followed with lawsuits from industry saying that violates their company's First Amendment rights.
Berkeley, California, passed an ordinance that took effect in 2016. It requirs retailers of cellular devices to carry a warning: "If you carry or use your phone in a pants or shirt pocket or tucked into a bra when the phone is ON and connected to a wireless network, you may exceed the federal guidelines for exposure to RF radiation."
CTIA, trade group of devices retailers, fought the ordinance all the way to the U.S. Supreme Court. The city eventually prevailed and the warnings remain at cell phone retailers.
"Yes, we need new safety guidelines and experts have suggested them to no avail," Marks said.
Reposted with permission from our media associate Healthline.
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Jean-Marc Neveu and Olivier Civil never expected to find themselves battling against disposable mask pollution.
When they founded their recycling start-up Plaxtil in 2017, it was textile waste they set their sights on. The project developed a process that turned fabrics into a new recyclable material they describe as "ecological plastic."
Mounting Piles of Waste<p>It is not only the streets of Chatellerault where pandemic pollution is piling-up, but also the world's beaches and oceans. Once there, they can take up to 450 years to degrade and disappear.</p><p>Esther Röling, co-organizer of the annual Adventure Clean Up Challenge held on Hong Kong Island, has seen this waste firsthand. In October the sports challenge pitted teams against one another in a competition to remove trash from 13 hard-to-reach coastal areas around the city.</p><p>They find tons of both disposable and reusable masks, said Röling. "You wonder how it ended up there. Was it just thrown on the ground? Or was it in a garbage bag that broke open?"</p><p>Almost 10,000 kilometers away in Antibes on the sunny French Riviera, it's a similar picture. For the past few months, divers and clean-up volunteers working with an ocean clean-up non-profit called Operation Mer Propre have been collecting an increasing number of masks found on land and in the sea.</p><p>"Since the beginning of the lockdown when we started to count, we've reached 800, 900, [and now in total] 1000 masks," said co-founder Joko Peltier. </p><p>According to <a href="https://unctad.org/news/growing-plastic-pollution-wake-covid-19-how-trade-policy-can-help" target="_blank">UN estimates</a>, up to 75% of all coronavirus-related plastic could end up as waste in oceans and landfills.</p>
The Limits of Recycling<p>Yet not all are convinced the recycling of this waste is possible on a global scale. </p><p>"What those citizen groups are doing is really beneficial but once they collect it, it should just go to a landfill or an incinerator. They shouldn't necessarily expect it to get recycled," said Jonathan Krones, an industrial ecologist and visiting assistant professor of environmental studies at Boston College.</p><p>That's because mask recycling programs like Plaxtil are few and far between and most don't have the benefit of a readily adaptable production process. </p><p>Even in countries with solid recycling infrastructure, he says, the system is designed to separate out specific types of waste like bottles or cardboard.</p><p>"I imagine that it would be technically feasible to develop a separation process to filter out masks, but there simply aren't enough of them to make that economical," he said.</p><p>Collection is a big hurdle, he adds. Since each mask only weighs a fraction of a gram and they're scattered on roads or mixed with other trash, it is difficult and costly. </p><p>"You need a lot of raw material of the right quality to make investing in the recycling technology and the recycling system worthwhile," he said.<span></span><br></p>
Hemp, Sugar Cane and Sustainable Alternatives<p>Some projects are instead addressing the material used to make masks.</p><p>French company Geochanvre have created a mask made primarily from hemp, while in Australia, researchers at the Queensland University of Technology are experimenting with a disposable product made from agricultural waste. </p><p>Biodegradable options are exciting alternatives to reduce the fossil fuels needed for the creation of plastic-based masks, said Krones, but they don't absolve the wearer from the responsibility of what happens afterwards. </p><p>Bio-based masks often need their own composing solutions, he explains, because in landfill they can produce high amounts of the greenhouse gas methane when anaerobic bacteria feeds on the organic material. Methane is known to be significantly more potent than carbon dioxide.</p><p>"I think as long as we have in our mind that we want to have disposability, we're going to have to wrestle with a variety of different sorts of environmental tradeoffs," he said, adding that reusable, fabric masks are the best option available to most people.</p><p>Precimask is developing a clear face covering with an optional visor made from hard plastic, designed to be long-lasting.<br></p><p>Air enters either side of the cheeks through a technology normally found in pool filters and car exhaust systems, said company spokeswoman Juliette Chambet.</p><p>"We wanted to make ceramic-based filters that would be washable and cleanable, which would allow them to be reused as many times as desired without having to buy a new consumable or produce waste," she said. </p><p>Ultimately, encouraging mask wearers to think about the entire lifecycle of a mask is key, explains Neveu. </p><p>"We want people who put on the masks to realize that they are also responsible for the waste, he said. "It's not inevitable that this [pandemic] will become an environmental catastrophe.</p><p><em>Reposted with permission from </em><em><a href="https://www.dw.com/en/covid-19-recycling-pollution-trash-pandemic/a-55707817" target="_blank">Deutsche Welle</a>.</em><a href="https://www.ecowatch.com/r/entryeditor/2649032193#/" target="_self"></a></p>
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