Scientists, Governments Discuss Crucial IPCC Report on Climate Change
The United Nations' 48th session of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) opened its crucial meeting in Incheon, South Korea on Monday to deliver the authoritative, scientific guide for governments to stave off disastrous climate change.
"This is one of the most important meetings in the IPCC's history," chair Hoesung Lee of South Korea said in his opening remarks.
South Korea is a fitting host country for the session after experiencing its hottest summer on record, highest ever number of daytime heatwaves and tropical nights and new maximum temperature record of above 40°C (104°C) in 2018, the World Meteorological Organization noted.
“This is one of the most important meetings in the IPCC’s history”. https://t.co/a1e6EKt5uA #IPCC Chair Hoesung Lee… https://t.co/HY79VZPTqP— UN Climate Change (@UN Climate Change)1538375818.0
The landmark Paris agreement set a warming limit of "well below 2°C" over pre-Industrial Revolution levels with an aspirational 1.5°C target to avoid dangerous climate effects such as sea level rise, extreme weather and droughts.
After adopting the Paris accord in 2015, governments commissioned the IPCC to prepare a Special Report, or SR15, on the impacts of global warming of 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels. Earlier drafts of the report warn that human-induced warming will exceed 1.5°C by around 2040 if emissions continue at their present rate. Additionally, only "rapid and far-reaching" changes in the world economy can keep global warming below the internationally agreed target barrier, the draft said.
At this week's meeting, IPCC scientists and government delegates will work together to distill the special report into a 15-page Summary for Policymakers, due for publication on Oct. 8, according to BBC News.
The diplomats might find themselves in the "awkward position of vetting and validating a major UN scientific report that underscores the failure of their governments to take stronger action on climate," Agence France Presse wrote.
Notably, this is the first IPCC report to be released since President Donald Trump's announcement to withdraw the U.S. from the Paris agreement last year. The U.S. is one of the world's largest single emitters of greenhouse gases.
"This is the first report coming up for approval since the Trump administration took office," Michael Oppenheimer, a professor of geosciences and international affairs at Princeton University, and an IPCC author on a another report-in-progress, told AFP.
It's not clear how the U.S. government will respond to the report. However, a State Department spokesperson told AFP that veteran climate diplomat Trigg Talley will head the U.S. delegation, which another veteran IPCC author called "reassuring."
"Never in the history of the IPCC has there been a report that is so politically charged," Henri Waisman, a senior researcher at the Institute for Sustainable Development and International Relations, and one of the report's 86 authors, added to AFP.
Last week, The Washington Post revealed that the Trump administration not only acknowledges the existence of climate change, but also predicts that Earth will inevitably warm by as much as 7°F (4°C) by 2100.
As EcoWatch wrote, the 7°F estimate is based on what scientists predict will happen if no meaningful action is taken to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions. In such a world, ocean acidification would devastate coral reefs, parts of Miami and New York City would be underwater and large parts of the world would regularly suffer from extreme heat waves.
Greenpeace International said the IPCC's special report must finally spark governments into action to avoid climate catastrophe.
"We are on the edge and the climate impacts that scientists warned us about decades ago are here. This is our new reality," the organization's executive director Jennifer Morgan said in a press release. "This IPCC report will make clear the choices and the trade-offs. For decision makers around the world, it is now their responsibility to listen and step up with real climate leadership."
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By Loveday Wright and Stuart Braun
After a Japanese-owned oil tanker struck a reef off Mauritius on July 25, a prolonged period of inaction is threatening to become an ecological disaster.
<div id="bb0a7" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="e5aefc0fff61ab1aea2f4b03c5399864"><blockquote class="twitter-tweet twitter-custom-tweet" data-twitter-tweet-id="1291765757013983238" data-partner="rebelmouse"><div style="margin:1em 0">The #oilspill is devastating but I want to honour the community mobilisation at the Mahebourg waterfront today (to… https://t.co/UWFkZFdjdi</div> — Fabiola Monty (@Fabiola Monty)<a href="https://twitter.com/LFabiolaMonty/statuses/1291765757013983238">1596815930.0</a></blockquote></div><p>"Booms are made of nylon mesh filled with #sugarcane straws all hand-stitched by Mauritian volunteers, empty plastic bottles used as buoys," described Mauritian journalist Zeenat Hansrod in a tweet. </p>
How to Tackle Oil Spills<p>The method for tackling oil spills depends on several factors, including the type and amount of oil in question, location and weather conditions.</p><p>"Once the oil comes to shore, the more intensive the cleaning technique. You can risk causing further damage," said Nicky Cariglia, an independent consultant at Marittima, who specializes in marine pollution. </p><p>"If you wanted to remove all traces of oil, the techniques available become increasingly aggressive the less oil that remains. In mangroves, you would have the added risk of causing damage by trampling," Cariglia told DW. Highly sensitive mangrove ecosystems line the Mauritius east coast that is threatened by the current spill.</p><p>Because oil normally has a lower density than water, it floats on the surface of the ocean. This means that for clean-up action to be most effective, it should happen very quickly after a spill, before the oil disperses. </p>
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When Europeans first arrived in North America, Atlantic puffins were common on islands in the Gulf of Maine. But hunters killed many of the birds for food or for feathers to adorn ladies' hats. By the 1800s, the population in Maine had plummeted.
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A "major" natural gas explosion killed two people and seriously injured at least seven in Baltimore, Maryland Monday morning.
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Nearly 900 people across the U.S. and Canada have been sickened by salmonella linked to onions distributed by Thomson International, the The New York Times reported.
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In the coming days, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is expected to use its power to roll back yet another Obama-era environmental protection meant to curb air pollution and slow the climate crisis.
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By Alex Kirby
The temperature of the Arctic matters to the entire world: it helps to keep the global climate fairly cool. Scientists now say that by 2035 there could be an end to Arctic sea ice.
Melt Ponds Crucial<p>"The prospect of loss of sea ice by 2035 should really be focusing all our minds on achieving a low-carbon world as soon as humanly feasible."</p><p><a href="http://www.reading.ac.uk/search/search-staff-details.aspx?id=10813" target="_blank">Dr. David Schroeder from the University of Reading</a>, UK, who co-led the implementation of the melt pond scheme in the climate model, says, "This shows just how important sea ice processes like melt ponds are in the Arctic, and why it is crucial that they are incorporated into climate models."</p><p>The extent of the areas <a href="https://nsidc.org/cryosphere/seaice/characteristics/formation.html" target="_blank">sea ice</a> covers varies between summer and winter. If more solar energy is absorbed at the surface, and temperatures rise further, a cycle of warming and melting occurs during summer months.</p><p>When the ice forms, the ocean water beneath becomes saltier and denser than the surrounding ocean. Saltier water sinks and moves along the ocean bottom towards the equator, while warm water from mid-depths to the surface travels from the equator towards the poles.</p><p>Scientists refer to this process as the ocean's global "conveyor-belt." Changes to the volume of sea ice can disrupt normal ocean circulation, with consequences for global climate. </p>
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