Investors: No More Flaring of Fracked Oil and Gas in Bakken Shale
By Steve Horn
On March 27, the Coalition for Environmentally Responsible Economy (CERES) penned a letter calling for an end to the practice, writing:
We are a group of 37 investors, representing $500 billion in total assets, who are concerned about the financial risks associated with the flaring of natural gas that has accompanied fast-proliferating oil production from shale formations in North Dakota, Texas and elsewhere in the U.S.
We are concerned that excessive flaring, because of its impact on air quality and climate change, poses significant risks for the companies involved, and for the industry at large, ultimately threatening the industry’s license to operate.
As you know, shale oil production, made possible by hydraulic fracturing technology,…is poised to become the world’s largest oil producer in the next five years, with nearly all of this projected growth coming from shale oil. …
On a lifecycle basis, emissions from oil produced with high flaring rates may be comparable to those from Canada’s vast oil sands region.
The letter ended by calling for the building up of proper infrastructure, such as pipelines and refineries, in order to push for an elimination of the dirty practice. CERES concluded the letter with a firm request, stating, "We therefore are writing to request information about the amount your company is currently flaring, as well as details about your plans to reduce flaring at existing wells and prevent it at future wells."
U.S. Flaring in Context
DeSmogBlog, in the heat of the ongoing debate over TransCanada's proposed Keystone XL tar sands pipeline, noted in late January that the derailing of the northern portion of the pipeline could mean more gas flaring in the Bakken Shale basin, located in North Dakota, due to lack of pipeline infrastructure needed to bring the gas to market.
The original Keystone XL game plan included a key slice of the pie located in the northern U.S., known by the oil and gas industry as the TransCanada Bakken Marketlink project. This project would move the oil and gas obtained via the hydraulic fracturing ("fracking") process in the Bakken, as well as tar sands crude from Alberta, southward toward Cushing, Okla., eventually making its way to Port Arthur, Texas.
President Obama has delayed a decision on the fate of the northern half of the pipeline until after the November 2012 elections. And that means the oil and gas obtained via fracking in the Bakken Shale will continue to be flared at surreal rates.
As we explained in January, "…if the Marketlink Project goes down in flames…that means, ironically, more flames in the form of gas flaring."
In an overlooked September 2011 investigation, The New York Times revealed that the oil and gas industry flares roughly 30-percent of the gas fracked from the Bakken Shale.
The Times' Clifford Krauss wrote:
Every day, more than 100 million cubic feet of natural gas is flared this way—enough energy to heat half a million homes for a day.
The flared gas also spews at least two million tons of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere every year, as much as 384,000 cars or a medium-size coal-fired power plant would emit, alarming some environmentalists.
Why flare? The industry answer is quite blunt.
“I’ll tell you why people flare—It’s cheap,” said Troy Anderson to The Times, lead operator of a North Dakota gas-processing plant owned by Whiting Petroleum in The Times article.
“Pipelines are expensive: You have to maintain them. You need permits to build them. They are a pain.”
More Context: Devastation of Flaring in Nigeria
We've seen this play out before and history shows that flaring can cause devastation on a massive scale.
The flares also contain widely-recognised toxins, such as benzene, which pollute the air. Local people complain of respiratory problems such as asthma and bronchitis. According to the U.S. government, the flares contribute to acid rain and villagers complain of the rain corroding their buildings. The particles from the flares fill the air, covering everything with a fine layer of soot.
Local people also complain about the roaring noise and the intense heat from the flares. They live and work alongside the flares with no protection.
The Independent of London, in June 2010, noted that Nigeria's gas flares were visible from outer space. In that article, Christopher Cragg, now senior vice president of operations of Oil States International, Inc. and director of Powell Industries, Inc., stated the following of flaring:
It is one of the largest single pointless emissions of greenhouse gas on the planet, with obvious implications for climate change that will not only affect Nigeria, but also the rest of the world.
An important documentary on flaring in the Niger Delta, titled, Poison Fire, can be seen below.
North Dakota the New Nigeria?
Nigeria has been ravaged at the hands of gas flaring. Will North Dakota's Bakken and other shale basins go the way of the Niger Delta?
The evidence is a bit ominous.
For example, gas flared in the Bakken, like in Nigeria, can be seen from outer space, a stark portrayal of the vast amount of gas being flared off in North Dakota on a daily basis.
So, kudos to CERES for taking on this fight. If you're going to drill it, use it. If not, leave it in the ground.
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By Aaron W Hunter
A chance discovery of a beautifully preserved fossil in the desert landscape of Morocco has solved one of the great mysteries of biology and paleontology: how starfish evolved their arms.
The Pompeii of palaeontology. Aaron Hunter, Author provided<h2></h2><p>Although starfish might appear very robust animals, they are typically made up of lots of hard parts attached by ligaments and soft tissue which, upon death, quickly degrade. This means we rely on places like the Fezouata formations to provide snapshots of their evolution.</p><p>The starfish fossil record is patchy, especially at the critical time when many of these animal groups first appeared. Sorting out how each of the various types of ancient starfish relate to each other is like putting a puzzle together when many of the parts are missing.</p><h2>The Oldest Starfish</h2><p><em><a href="https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/216101v1.full.pdf" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Cantabrigiaster</a></em> is the most primitive starfish-like animal to be discovered in the fossil record. It was discovered in 2003, but it has taken over 17 years to work out its true significance.</p><p>What makes <em>Cantabrigiaster</em> unique is that it lacks almost all the characteristics we find in brittle stars and starfish.</p><p>Starfish and brittle stars belong to the family Asterozoa. Their ancestors, the Somasteroids were especially fragile - before <em>Cantabrigiaster</em> we only had a handful of specimens. The celebrated Moroccan paleontologist Mohamed <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2016.06.041" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Ben Moula</a> and his local team was instrumental in discovering <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0031018216302334?via%3Dihub" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">these amazing fossils</a> near the town of Zagora, in Morocco.</p><h2>The Breakthrough</h2><p>Our breakthrough moment came when I compared the arms of <em>Cantabrigiaster</em> with those of modern sea lilles, filter feeders with long feathery arms that tend to be attached to the sea floor by a stem or stalk.</p><p>The striking similarity between these modern filter feeders and the ancient starfish led our team from the University of Cambridge and Harvard University to create a new analysis. We applied a biological model to the features of all the current early Asterozoa fossils in existence, along with a sample of their closest relatives.</p>
Cantabrigiaster is the most primitive starfish-like animal to be discovered in the fossil record. Aaron Hunter, Author provided<p>Our results demonstrate <em>Cantabrigiaster</em> is the most primitive of all the Asterozoa, and most likely evolved from ancient animals called crinoids that lived 250 million years before dinosaurs. The five arms of starfish are a relic left over from these ancestors. In the case of <em>Cantabrigiaster</em>, and its starfish descendants, it evolved by flipping upside-down so its arms are face down on the sediment to feed.</p><p>Although we sampled a relatively small numbers of those ancestors, one of the unexpected outcomes was it provided an idea of how they could be related to each other. Paleontologists studying echinoderms are often lost in detail as all the different groups are so radically different from each other, so it is hard to tell which evolved first.</p>
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