In Deep Water—Bangladesh Waterkeeper Provides Hope for Revival of the Buriganga River
By Sudhirendar Sharma
South Asians share a common historical lineage, of revering and desecrating their rivers with equal impunity at the same time. No wonder, major rivers across the sub-continent are at various stages of neglect. Add legacy of failed institutions to this neglect and you get an all-pervasive picture of environmental callousness, of which polluted rivers are a sad reflection. Though millions depend on them, water courses seem to be nobody’s responsibility.
Buriganga is one such river, lifeline for millions living along the western and southern boundaries of Dhaka. While the river bank has slums and high rises in equal number, it has any number of poor taking a dip with a lucky few trapping contaminated fish too. At any given time of the day, one can notice hundreds of boats ferrying men and materials along and across its length. One amongst these is a small motorboat carrying a distinct identity as Buriganga Riverkeeper.
“The plight of the river is no secret; putting it on course [for] correction is daunting,” says Buriganga Riverkeeper Sharif Jamil. During his year on the boat as a Waterkeeper, he has learned more things about the river than the number of years he has spent in the city since childhood. That the river has lost one-third of its flow due to siltation and encroachment has been shocking. If the trend continues, the future of the 18-km stretch of the river in the city may be at risk.
The Buriganga was once the last stretch of the Ganges before it merges with the Bay of Bengal. However, the umbilical link was severed once the river changed its course but was instead fed by the flow from another river the Turag. But it has continued to be known as Buriganga: ‘buri’ means old and ‘Ganga’ for the Ganges. It was more than 400 years ago that the Mughals established the city of Dhaka on its bank.
It is no breaking news that the river is the final resting ground for municipal waste. Some 10,000 cubic litres of partially treated sewage flows into the river and an estimated 4,500 tons of solid waste get dumped on its floodplains each day. Sharif quotes studies to show that the river bottom is much worse, layered with two meter depth of polythene bags only. And, the distinct hanging toilets along the river stretch add to its woes.
Though the river is under the jurisdiction of the Bangladesh Inland Water Transport Authority, woefully little has been done to enforce regulations for protecting the river from pollution and encroachment. “As a Waterkeeper, my primary role is to organize and sensitize stakeholders for holding the violators accountable for the destruction of the river,” says Sharif. The challenge gets compounded as often it is the law enforcement machinery that violates norms.
As a member of the global alliance of more than 200 Waterkeepers spread across 21 countries, Sharif draws inspiration from Waterkeeper Alliance's success stories from as far as Hudson and Kansas rivers in the U.S. As an environmental activist, Buriganga offers the perfect ground for Sharif to test his skills in multi-lateral negotiations and legal advocacy. Although he runs a private enterprise for his livelihood, river revival and restoration has been his passion.
Waterkeeper Alliance is an innovative initiative that aims to reconnect people with their water courses. Founded in 1999 by Robert F. Kennedy, Jr. it is a global movement of on-the-water advocates who patrol and protect more than 100,000 miles of rivers and coastlines across six continents. There are 20 Waterkeepers in China, Nepal, Bangladesh and India. Waterkeepers on the Ganges and the Yamuna have yet to cut a new ground, though.
Using an array of strategies, including tracking down polluters, engaging in courtroom advocacy for stronger enforcement of environmental laws, rallying community support at town gatherings and educating young people about their rights and their environment, Sharif has been able to stir the imagination of people against inept governance and numbing of public mindscapes. "At the end of the day it is for the people living along the water front to own the river," said Sharif.
Sharif has tasted the first blood of success. By sustained monitoring along the river, he has been able to raise question on the delineation of the flood plain of the river. To his utter surprise, it was found that the pillars meant for demarcating the flood plain boundary were located at many places within the flowing river itself. Backed up by civil society groups, the government has now been pressured to recognize the legitimate floodplain of the river by removing encroachments.
“The political economy of river desecration is distinctly multidimensional and well-entrenched in a country that ranks 144 on the Corruption Index,” says Sharif. Waterkeeper’s primary goal is to help generate a movement to restore the rights of the river. Only if the river flows freely, can its water be made drinkable, fishable and swimmable.
Sudhirendar Sharma is a writer with the Ecological Foundation.
EcoWatch Daily Newsletter
By Danielle Nierenberg
Following the murder of George Floyd by police in Minneapolis, people around the United States are protesting racism, police brutality, inequality, and violence in their own communities. No matter your political affiliation, the violence by multiple police departments in this country is unacceptable.
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By Jacob L. Steenwyk and Antonis Rokas
From the mythical minotaur to the mule, creatures created from merging two or more distinct organisms – hybrids – have played defining roles in human history and culture. However, not all hybrids are as fantastic as the minotaur or as dependable as the mule; in fact, some of them cause human diseases.
When Looking Through a Microscope Isn’t Close Enough.<p>For the last few years, <a href="http://www.rokaslab.org/" target="_blank">our team at Vanderbilt University</a>, <a href="https://www.researchgate.net/lab/Gustavo-Goldman-Lab" target="_blank">Gustavo Goldman's team at São Paulo University in Brazil</a> and many other collaborators around the world have been collecting samples of fungi from patients infected with different species of <em>Aspergillus</em> molds. One of the species we are particularly interested in is <a href="https://doi.org/10.1006/rwgn.2001.0082" target="_blank"><em>Aspergillus nidulans</em>, a relatively common and generally harmless fungus</a>. Clinical laboratories typically identify the species of <em>Aspergillus</em> causing the infection by examining cultures of the fungi under the microscope. The problem with this approach is that very closely related species of <em>Aspergillus</em> tend to look very similar in their broad morphology or physical appearance when viewing them through a microscope.</p><p>Interested in examining the varying abilities of different <em>A. nidulans</em> strains to cause disease, we decided to analyze their total genetic content, or genomes. What we saw came as a total surprise. We had not collected <em>A. nidulans</em> but <em>Aspergillus latus</em>, a close relative of <em>A. nidulans</em> and, as we were to soon find out, <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2020.04.071" target="_blank">a hybrid species that evolved through the fusion of the genomes</a> of two other <em>Aspergillus</em> species: <em>Aspergillus spinulosporus</em> and an unknown close relative of <em>Aspergillus quadrilineatus</em>. Thus, we realized not only that these patients harbored infections from an entirely different species than we thought they were, but also that this species was the first ever <em>Aspergillus</em> hybrid known to cause human infections.</p>
Several Different Fungal Hybrids Cause Human Disease.<p>Hybrid fungi that can cause infections in humans are well known to occur in several different lineages of single-celled fungi known as yeasts. Notable examples include multiple different species of <a href="https://doi.org/10.1002/yea.3242" target="_blank">yeast hybrids</a> that cause the human diseases <a href="https://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/diseases/6218/cryptococcosis" target="_blank">cryptococcosis</a> and <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/fungal/diseases/candidiasis/index.html" target="_blank">candidiasis</a>. Although pathogenic yeast hybrids are well known, our discovery that the <em>A. latus</em> pathogen is a hybrid is a first for molds that cause disease in humans.</p>
(Left) Candida yeasts live on parts of the human body. Imbalance of microbes on the body can allow these yeasts, some of which are hybrids, to grow and cause infection. (Right) Cryptococcus yeasts, including ones that are hybrids, can cause life-threatening infections in primarily immunocompromised people. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention<p><a href="https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1008315" target="_blank">Why certain <em>Aspergillus</em> species are so deadly</a> while others are harmless remains unknown. This may in part be because <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fbr.2007.02.007" target="_blank">combinations of traits, rather than individual traits</a>, underlie organisms' ability to cause disease. So why then are hybrids frequently associated with human disease? Hybrids inherit genetic material from both parents, which may result in new combinations of traits. This may make them more similar to one parent in some of their characteristics, reflect both parents in others or may differ from both in the rest. It is precisely this mix and match of traits that hybrids have inherited from their parental species that <a href="https://www.nytimes.com/2010/09/14/science/14creatures.html" target="_blank">facilitates their evolutionary success</a>, including their ability to cause disease.</p>
The Evolutionary Origin of an Aspergillus Hybrid.<p>Multiple evolutionary paths can lead to the emergence of hybrids. One path is through mating, just as the horse and donkey mate to create a mule. Another path is through the merging or fusion of genetic material from cells of different species.</p><p>It is this second path that appears to have been taken by our fungus. <em>A. latus</em> appears to have two of almost everything compared to its parental species: twice the genome size, twice the total number of genes and so on. But unlike other hybrids, which are often sterile like the mule, we found that <em>A. latus</em> is capable of reproducing both asexually and sexually.</p><p>But how distinct were the parents of <em>A. latus</em>? By comparing the parts contributed by each parent in the <em>A. latus</em> genome, we estimate that its parents are approximately 93% genetically similar, which is about as related as we humans are with lemurs. In other words, <em>A. latus</em>, an agent of infectious disease, is the fungal equivalent of a human-lemur hybrid.</p>
How A. Latus Differs From its Parents.<p>Elucidating the identity of closely related fungal pathogens and how they differ from each other in infection-relevant characteristics is a key step toward reducing the burden of fungal disease. For example, we found that <em>A. latus</em> was three times more resistant than <em>A. nidulans</em>, the species it was originally identified as using microscopy-based methods, to one of the most common antifungal drugs, <a href="https://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB00520" target="_blank">caspofungin</a>. This result provides a clear example of the potential importance of accurate identification of the <em>Aspergillus</em> pathogen causing an infection.</p><p>We also examined how <em>A. latus</em> and <em>A. nidulans</em> interact with cells from our immune system. We found that immune cells were less efficient at combating <em>A. latus</em> compared to <em>A. nidulans</em>, suggesting the hybrid fungus may be trickier for our immune systems to identify and destroy.</p><p>In the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic, our quest to understand <em>Aspergillus</em> pathogens is becoming more urgent. Growing evidence suggests that <a href="https://doi.org/10.1111/myc.13096" target="_blank">a fraction of COVID-19 patients are also infected with <em>Aspergillus</em>.</a> More worrying is that these <a href="https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2607.201603" target="_blank">secondary <em>Aspergillus</em> infections</a> can worsen the clinical outcomes for those infected with the novel coronavirus. That being said, we stress that little is known about <em>Aspergillus</em> infections in COVID-19 patients due to a lack of systematic testing, and none of the infections identified so far appear to have been caused by hybrids.</p><p>So, when it comes to hybrids, some are fantastic (the minotaur), some are helpful (the mule) and some are dangerous (<em>Aspergillus latus</em>). Understanding more about the biology of <em>Aspergillus latus</em> may help in our understanding of how microbial pathogens arise and how to best prevent and combat their infections.</p>
This Saturday, June 6, marks National Trails Day, an annual celebration of the remarkable recreational, scenic and hiking trails that crisscross parks nationwide. The event, which started in 1993, honors the National Trail System and calls for volunteers to help with trail maintenance in parks across the country.
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By John Letzing
This past Wednesday, when some previously hard-hit countries were able to register daily COVID-19 infections in the single digits, the Navajo Nation – a 71,000 square-kilometer (27,000-square-mile) expanse of the western US – reported 54 new cases of what's referred to locally as "Dikos Ntsaaígíí-19."
The Navajo Nation covers the corners of three different states. Google Maps
Growing Contribution<img lazy-loadable="true" src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yMzM3NDY5Ny9vcmlnaW4ucG5nIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTY0NjM4MTgyM30.IuQTKQs1stvYYKD6vaVTrqAyoBsUG0BhDvlhxsyKwPA/img.png?width=980" id="02a05" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="2841f82b1785df5d5ed7bf64d3bb882b" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" />
World Economic Forum
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World Environment Day: A Time to Consider the Planet We’ll Return To, and Decide How to Care for It Going Forward
It's a different kind of World Environment Day this year. In prior years, it might have been enough to plant a tree, spend some extra time in the garden, or teach kids the importance of recycling. This year we have heavier tasks at hand. It's been months since we've been able to spend sufficient time outside, and as we lustfully watch the beauty of a new spring through our kitchen's glass windows, we have to decide how we'll interact with the natural world on our release, and how we can prevent, or be equipped to handle, future threats against our wellbeing.