How to Prepare for a Hurricane
By Brooke Bauman
As the climate changes and ocean temperatures and sea levels rise, flooding from hurricanes has become more serious. That's why it's important for people who live in places vulnerable to hurricanes to prepare for the dangers associated with flooding and storm surge.
How Climate Change is Influencing Storm Surge
Many people associate hurricanes with high winds, but storm surge — the wall of water pushed ashore by the storm — can be an equal or even greater danger for people and property.
"We want people to know that they can hide from the wind, but they need to run from the water," said Jay Wiggins, who directs the Emergency Management-Homeland Security Agency in Glynn County, Georgia.
Water weighs about 1,700 pounds per cubic yard. As it's pushed by hurricane winds, it can act like a battering ram, pummeling the shore and buildings.
Sea levels are rising in substantial part from warming ocean waters, melting glaciers, and ice sheets. Because of that sea-level rise, storm surges can inundate more coastline than they did in the past. Storm surges are particularly dangerous when they occur during high tide, because they can raise water levels by as much as 20 feet.
Although the overall number of hurricanes isn't known to be increasing, there is evidence that climate change is making some storms worse. For example, several studies have found that climate change increased the odds of the intense precipitation that fell during Hurricane Harvey, which made landfall in Texas in 2017. A 2013 study projected a 45-87 percent increase in the frequency of Category 4 and 5 hurricanes — the most dangerous categories — in the Atlantic Basin during this century.
How to Prepare for a Hurricane
Before a hurricane even pops up on the forecast, there are a few steps that you can take to prepare. Consider investing in flood insurance — or if you've already purchased it, familiarize yourself with the policy. Sign up for your community's emergency alert system.
If a hurricane is imminent, it's important to take additional precautions to minimize potential damage and threats to your safety. Here are some key steps that the Federal Emergency Management Agency recommends:
- Familiarize yourself with evacuation routes and plan to follow local evacuation orders if possible.
- If you are not ordered or are unable to evacuate, store enough food, water, supplies, and medications for at least three days.
- Put important documents in a safe, waterproof place.
- Charge all electronic devices that you might need.
- Turn your fridge to the coldest setting so that if you lose power, it will stay cooler for longer.
- Cover windows with plywood boards and place sandbags around doorways to reduce the risk of water damage — note that some flood insurance policies may cover up to $1,000 in avoidance measures to protect your property.
- Bring lightweight objects indoors.
- Create a plan to contact family and friends. Save phone calls for emergencies because the lines will likely be busy; rely mostly on text and social media to communicate.
What to Do During a Hurricane
FEMA warns to not walk, swim, or drive through floodwaters. Floods can develop quickly, so stay alert for the potential of flash flooding.
According to the Department of Homeland Security's Ready campaign, six inches of water can knock a person down and one foot of water can be enough to pick up some vehicles.
Avoid flood water. It may contain dangerous debris and be contaminated. Floodwaters also pose the danger of electrocution if electronics or downed power lines are exposed to water.
And creatures like snakes may lurk on or beneath the surface.
What to Do After a Hurricane
Before you begin to clean up, listen to authorities for further instructions. In addition, follow these FEMA guidelines.
- Stay off the roads unless it's an emergency.
- Avoid driving in or making contact with floodwaters.
- Beware of electrocution. Don't touch electrical equipment if it's wet or while you're standing in water.
- Use a generator or other gasoline-powered machinery only outdoors and away from windows.
- Always use heavy gloves and boots while cleaning to protect yourself from sharp objects and biting creatures.
- If your home was exposed to water, it likely contains mold. Consult these EPA guidelines on protecting your safety while cleaning mold after a flood.
ChavoBart Digital Media contributed reporting.
Brooke Bauman is an intern at Yale Climate Connections and a student at UNC-Chapel Hill studying environmental science, geography, and journalism.
- Climate Change Is Causing Us 'Eco-Anxiety' - EcoWatch ›
- Hurricane Expected to Hit Louisiana This Weekend, and New ... ›
- How Rural Areas Like Florida's Panhandle Can Become More ... ›
EcoWatch Daily Newsletter
The Washington Redskins will retire their controversial name and logo, the National Football League (NFL) team announced Monday.
By Alyssa Murdoch, Chrystal Mantyka-Pringle and Sapna Sharma
Summer has finally arrived in the northern reaches of Canada and Alaska, liberating hundreds of thousands of northern stream fish from their wintering habitats.
A Good News Story?<p>On the surface, the <a href="https://doi.org/10.1111/fwb.13569" target="_blank">results from our study</a> appear to provide a "good news" story. Warming temperatures were linked to higher numbers of fish, more species overall and, therefore, potentially more fishing opportunities for northerners.</p><p>Initially, we were surprised to learn that warming was increasing the distribution of cold-adapted fish. We reasoned that modest amounts of warming could lead to benefits such as increased food and winter habitat availability without reaching stressful levels for many species.</p>
Photo of Arctic grayling (left) and Dolly Varden trout (right). Alyssa Murdoch / Lilian Tran / Nunavik Research Centre and Tracey Loewen / Fisheries and Oceans Canada<p>Yet, not all fish species fared equally well. Ecologically unique northern species — those that have evolved in colder, more nutrient-poor environments, such as Arctic grayling and Dolly Varden trout — were showing declines with warming.</p>
Fish Strandings and Buried Eggs<p>Recent news headlines run the gamut for Pacific salmon — from their increased escapades <a href="https://nunatsiaq.com/stories/article/more-pacific-salmon-showing-up-in-western-arctic-waters/" target="_blank">into the Arctic</a> to <a href="https://www.juneauempire.com/news/warm-waters-across-alaska-cause-salmon-die-offs/" target="_blank">massive pre-spawning die-offs</a> in central Alaska. Similarly, results from our study revealed different outcomes for fish depending on local climatic conditions, including Pacific salmon.</p><p>We found that warmer spring and fall temperatures may be helping juvenile salmon by providing a longer and more plentiful growing season, and by supporting early egg development in northern regions that were previously too cold for survival.</p><p>In contrast, salmon declined in regions that were experiencing wetter fall conditions, pointing to an increased risk of flooding and sedimentation that could bury or dislodge incubating eggs.</p>
Headwaters of the Wind River within the largely intact Peel River watershed in northern Canada. Don Reid / Wildlife Conservation Society Canada / Author provided<p>Interestingly, we found that certain climatic combinations, such as warmer summer water temperatures with decreased summer rainfall, were important in determining where Pacific salmon could survive. Summer warming in drier watersheds led to declines, suggesting that lowered streamflows may have increased the risk of fish becoming stranded in subpar habitats that were too warm and crowded.</p>
The Fate of Northern Fisheries<p>The promise of a warmer and more accessible Arctic has attracted mounting interest in new economic opportunities, <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2019.103637" target="_blank">including fisheries</a>. As warming rates at higher latitudes are already <a href="https://www.ipcc.ch/sr15/" target="_blank">two to three times global levels</a>, it seems probable that northern biodiversity will experience dramatic shifts in the coming decades.</p><p>Despite the many unknowns surrounding the future of Pacific salmon, many fisheries are currently <a href="https://doi.org/10.1080/03632415.2017.1374251" target="_blank">thriving following warmer and more productive northern oceans</a>, and some <a href="https://doi.org/10.14430/arctic68876" target="_blank">Arctic Indigenous communities are developing new salmon fisheries</a>.</p><p>As warming continues, the commercial salmon fishing industry is poised to expand northwards, but its success will largely depend on extenuating factors such as <a href="https://www.eenews.net/stories/1060023067" target="_blank">changes to marine habitat and food sources</a> and <a href="https://www.yukon-news.com/news/promising-chinook-salmon-run-failed-to-materialize-in-the-yukon-river-panel-hears/" target="_blank">how many fish are caught during the freshwater stages of their journey</a>.</p><p>Even with the potential for increased northern biodiversity, it is important to recognize that some northern communities may be unable to adapt or may <a href="https://thenarwhal.ca/searching-for-the-yukon-rivers-missing-chinook/" target="_blank">lose individual species that are associated with important cultural values</a>.</p>
- New England Fishing Communities Being Destroyed by 'Climate ... ›
- Shrimp Fishing Banned in Gulf of Maine Due to Ocean Warming ... ›
- Atlantic Salmon Is All But Extinct as a Genetically Eroded Version of ... ›
A heat wave that set in over the South and Southwest left much of the U.S. blanketed in record-breaking triple digit temperatures over the weekend. The widespread and intense heat wave will last for weeks, making the magnitude and duration of its heat impressive, according to The Washington Post.
- Hot Weather and COVID-19: Added Threats of Reopening States in ... ›
- 50 Million Americans Are Currently Living Under Some Type of Heat ... ›
- Second Major Heat Wave This Summer Smashes Records Across ... ›
By Joni Sweet
If you get a call from a number you don't recognize, don't hit decline — it might be a contact tracer calling to let you know that someone you've been near has tested positive for the coronavirus.
Interviews With Contact Tracers<p>Contact tracing is a public health strategy that involves identifying everyone who may have been in contact with a person who has the coronavirus. Contact tracers collect information and provide guidance to help contain the transmission of disease.</p><p>It's been used during outbreaks of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), Ebola, measles, and now the coronavirus that causes COVID-19.</p><p>It starts when the local department of health gets a report of a confirmed case of the coronavirus in its community and gives that person a call. The contact tracer usually provides information on how to isolate and when to get treatment, then tries to figure out who else the person may have exposed.</p><p>"We ask who they've been in contact with in the 48 hours prior to symptom onset, or 2 days before the date of their positive test if they don't have symptoms," said <a href="https://case.edu/medicine/healthintegration/people/heidi-gullett" target="_blank">Dr. Heidi Gullett</a>, associate director of the Center for Community Health Integration at the Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine and medical director of the Cuyahoga County Board of Health in Ohio.</p>
“You’ve Been Exposed”<p>After the case interview, contact tracers will get to work calling the folks who may have been exposed to the coronavirus by the person who tested positive.</p><p>"We give them recommendations about quarantining or isolating, getting tested, and what to do if they become sick. If they're not already sick, we still want them to self-quarantine so that they don't spread the disease to anyone else if they were to become sick," said Labus.</p><p>Generally, the contact tracer won't ask for additional contacts unless they happen to call someone who is sick or has a confirmed case of the virus. They will help ensure the contact has the resources they need to isolate themselves, if necessary. The contact tracer may continue to stay in touch with that person over the next 14 days.</p><p>"We follow the percentage of people that were contacts, then converted into being actual cases of the virus. It's an important marker to help us understand what kind of transmission happens in our community and how to control the virus," said Gullett.</p>
Why You Should Participate (and What Happens If You Don’t)<p>A <a href="https://www.thelancet.com/journals/laninf/article/PIIS1473-3099(20)30457-6/fulltext" target="_blank">Lancet study</a> from June 16, which looked at data from more than 40,000 people, found that COVID-19 transmission could be reduced by 64 percent through isolating those who have the coronavirus, quarantining their household, and contacting the people they may have exposed.</p><p>The combination strategy was significantly more effective than mass random testing or just isolating the sick person and members of their household.</p><p>However, contact tracing is only as effective as people's willingness to participate, and a small number of people who've contracted the coronavirus or were potentially exposed are reluctant to talk.</p><p>"Contact tracers have all been hung up on, cussed at, yelled at," said Gullet.</p><p>The hesitation to talk to contact tracers often stems from concerns over privacy — a serious issue in healthcare.</p>
- Anti-Racism Protests Are Not Driving Coronavirus Spikes, Data ... ›
- Cell Phone Tracking Analysis Shows Where Florida Springbreakers ... ›
NASA scientists say that warmer than average surface sea temperatures in the North Atlantic raise the concern for a more active hurricane season, as well as for wildfires in the Amazon thousands of miles away, according to Newsweek.
By Andrea Germanos
Oxfam International warned Thursday that up to 12,000 people could die each day by the end of the year as a result of hunger linked to the coronavirus pandemic—a daily death toll surpassing the daily mortality rate from Covid-19 itself.
- These 6 Men Have as Much Wealth as Half the World's Population ... ›
- Climate Change Forces 20 Million People to Flee Each Year, Oxfam ... ›
By Jun N. Aguirre
An oil spill on July 3 threatens a mangrove forest on the Philippine island of Guimaras, an area only just recovering from the country's largest spill in 2006.
- 15,000 Gallon Oil Spill Threatens River and Drinking Water in Native ... ›
- Mysterious Oil Spill on Massachusetts' Charles River Spurs Major ... ›
- Disastrous Russian Oil Spill Reaches Pristine Arctic Lake - EcoWatch ›