9 Health Benefits of Eating Whole Grains
Whole grains have been a part of the human diet for tens of thousands of years (1).
But proponents of many modern diets, such as the paleo diet, claim that eating grains is bad for your health.
While a high intake of refined grains is linked to health problems like obesity and inflammation, whole grains are a different story.
In fact, eating whole grains is associated with various benefits, including a lower risk of diabetes, heart disease, and high blood pressure.
Here are the top 9 health benefits of eating whole grains.
What Are Whole Grains?
Grains are the seeds of grass-like plants called cereals. Some of the most common varieties are corn, rice, and wheat.
Some seeds of non-grass plants, or pseudocereals, are also considered whole grains, including buckwheat, quinoa, and amaranth.
Whole-grain kernels have three parts (2):
- Bran. This is the hard, outer shell. It contains fiber, minerals, and antioxidants.
- Endosperm. The middle layer of the grain is mostly made up of carbs.
- Germ. This inner layer has vitamins, minerals, protein, and plant compounds.
Grains can be rolled, crushed, or cracked. Nonetheless, as long as these three parts are present in their original proportion, they're considered whole grains.
Refined grains have had the germ and bran removed, leaving only the endosperm.
Though enriched refined grains have had some vitamins and minerals added back, they're still not as healthy or nutritious as the whole versions.
Common varieties of whole grains include:
- brown rice
- whole rye
- wild rice
- wheat berry
Products made from these foods are considered whole grain. These include certain types of bread, pasta, and breakfast cereals.
When you purchase processed whole-grain products, read the ingredient list to make sure they're made entirely from whole grains, not a mixture of whole and refined grains.
Also, keep an eye on the sugar content, especially in the case of breakfast cereals, which are often loaded with added sugar. Seeing "whole grain" on the packaging does not automatically mean that the product is healthy.
Whole grains contain all three parts of the grain. There are many different kinds, including whole wheat and whole corn, oats, brown rice, and quinoa.
1. High in Nutrients and Fiber
Whole grains deliver many important nutrients. These include:
- Fiber. The bran provides most of the fiber in whole grains.
- Vitamins. Whole grains are particularly high in B vitamins, including niacin, thiamine, and folate (3, 4).
- Minerals. They also contain a good amount of minerals, such as zinc, iron, magnesium, and manganese.
- Protein. Whole grains boast several grams of protein per serving.
- Antioxidants. Many compounds in whole grains act as antioxidants. These include phytic acid, lignans, ferulic acid, and sulfur compounds (5).
- Plant compounds. Whole grains deliver many types of plant compounds that play a role in preventing disease. These include polyphenols, stanols, and sterols (6).
The exact amounts of these nutrients depend on the type of grain.
- Fiber: 3 grams
- Manganese: 69% of the Reference Daily Intake (RDI)
- Phosphorous: 15% of the RDI
- Thiamine: 14% of the RDI
- Magnesium: 12% of the RDI
- Copper: 9% of the RDI
- Zinc and iron: 7% of the RDI
Whole grains deliver a variety of important nutrients, including vitamins, minerals, protein, fiber, and other healthy plant compounds.
2. Lower Your Risk of Heart Disease
One of the biggest health benefits of whole grains is that they lower your risk of heart disease, which is the leading cause of death worldwide (7).
A review of 10 studies found that three 1-ounce (28-gram) servings of whole grains daily may lower your risk of heart disease by 22% (8).
Researchers concluded that heart-healthy diets should include more whole grains and fewer refined grains.
Most studies lump together different types of whole grains, making it hard to separate the benefits of individual foods.
Still, whole-grain breads and cereals, as well as added bran, have been specifically linked to reduced heart disease risk (8).
Eating whole grains may lower your risk of heart disease, especially when they replace refined grains.
3. Lower Your Risk of Stroke
Whole grains may also help lower your risk of stroke (10).
In an analysis of 6 studies in nearly 250,000 people, those eating the most whole grains had a 14% lower risk of stroke than those eating the fewest (10).
Furthermore, certain compounds in whole grains, such as fiber, vitamin K, and antioxidants, can reduce your risk of stroke.
As part of a heart-healthy diet, whole grains may help lower your risk of stroke.
4. Reduce Your Risk of Obesity
Whole grains and products made from them are more filling than refined grains, and research suggests that they may lower your risk of obesity.
Another study reviewing research from 1965 to 2010 found that whole-grain cereal and cereal with added bran were associated with a modestly lower risk of obesity (13).
Decades of research suggest that whole grains are linked to a lower risk of obesity.
5. Lower Your Risk of Type 2 Diabetes
Eating whole in place of refined grains may lower your risk of type 2 diabetes (14).
In part, this is because fiber-rich whole grains can also help with weight control and prevent obesity, a risk factor for diabetes (16).
This could be due to magnesium, a mineral found in whole grains that helps your body metabolize carbs and is tied to insulin sensitivity (16).
Fiber and magnesium are two nutrients in whole grains that help lower your risk of type 2 diabetes.
6. Support Healthy Digestion
The fiber in whole grains can support healthy digestion in various ways.
First, fiber helps give bulk to stools and lowers your risk of constipation.
Due to their fiber content, whole grains help support healthy digestion by giving bulk to stools and feeding your beneficial gut bacteria.
7. Reduce Chronic Inflammation
Inflammation is at the root of many chronic diseases.
Some evidence suggests that whole grains can help reduce inflammation (19).
In one study, women who ate the most whole grains were least likely to die from inflammation-related chronic conditions (20).
What's more, in a recent study, people with unhealthy diets replaced refined wheat products with whole wheat products and saw a reduction in inflammatory markers (21).
The results of these and other studies support public health recommendations to replace most refined grains with whole grains (22).
Eating whole grains regularly could help lower inflammation, a key factor in many chronic diseases.
8. May Reduce Your Risk of Cancer
Research on whole grains and cancer risk have provided mixed results, though they show promise.
Lastly, other components of whole grains, including phytic acid, phenolic acids, and saponins, may slow the development of cancer (24).
Whole grains may help prevent colorectal cancer, one of the most common types of cancer. Still, research on whole grains' anticancer effects is mixed.
9. Linked to a Reduced Risk of Premature Death
When your risk of chronic disease is reduced, your risk of dying prematurely also goes down.
In fact, one study suggested that whole grain intake specifically lowered the risk of dying from heart disease, as well as any other cause (28).
The study used data from two large cohort studies, adjusting for other factors likely to influence death rates, such as smoking, body weight, and overall eating patterns.
Results indicated that every 1-ounce (28-gram) serving of whole grains was linked to a 5% lower risk of death (28).
Whole grains are linked to a lower risk of dying prematurely from any cause.
Whole Grains Are Not for Everyone
While whole grains are healthy for most people, they may not be appropriate for all people at all times.
Celiac Disease and Gluten Sensitivity
Wheat, barley, and rye contain gluten, a type of protein that some people are intolerant or allergic to.
Having a gluten allergy, celiac disease, or gluten sensitivity can cause a range of symptoms, including fatigue, indigestion, and joint pain.
Gluten-free whole grains, including buckwheat, rice, oats, and amaranth, are fine for most people with these conditions.
However, some have difficulty tolerating any type of grain and experience digestive distress and other symptoms.
Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Some grains, such as wheat, are high in short-chain carbohydrates called FODMAPs. These can cause symptoms in people with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), which is very common.
Some people have difficulty tolerating grains. The most well-known issue is gluten, which affects people with gluten allergy, celiac disease, or gluten sensitivity.
How to Incorporate Whole Grains Into Your Diet
You can incorporate whole grains into your diet in many ways.
Perhaps the simplest thing to do is to find whole-grain alternatives to refined grains in your diet.
For instance, if white pasta is a staple in your pantry, replace it with a 100% whole-wheat or other whole-grain pasta. Do the same for breads and cereals.
Be sure to read the ingredient list to see if a product is made from whole grains.
Look for the word "whole" in front of types of grains. If it simply says "wheat" instead of "whole wheat," it's not whole.
You can also experiment with new whole grains that you may not have tried before, such as quinoa.
Here are some ideas for adding whole grains to your diet:
- Make a cooked porridge out of oatmeal or other grains.
- Sprinkle toasted buckwheat groats on cereal or yogurt.
- Snack on air-popped popcorn.
- Make polenta out of whole-grain cornmeal.
- Swap out white rice with brown rice, or for a different whole grain like quinoa or farro.
- Add barley to vegetable soups.
- Try using whole-grain flours, such as whole-wheat pastry flour, in baking.
- Use stone-ground corn tortillas rather than white tortillas in tacos.
There are many ways to work whole grains into your diet. Replacing refined grains with whole grains is a good place to start.
The Bottom Line
Whole grains deliver a variety of health benefits.
Regularly eating whole grains may reduce your risk of heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and obesity. This is particularly true when they replace the refined grains in your diet.
High-fiber foods like whole grains also significantly improve your digestive health, though people with gluten intolerance must avoid wheat, barley, and rye.
For improved health and longevity, consider adding whole grains to your diet every day. Healthy, whole-grain breakfast cereals, such as steel-cut oatmeal, are a popular choice.
Reposted with permission from our media associate Healthline.
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By Jacob L. Steenwyk and Antonis Rokas
From the mythical minotaur to the mule, creatures created from merging two or more distinct organisms – hybrids – have played defining roles in human history and culture. However, not all hybrids are as fantastic as the minotaur or as dependable as the mule; in fact, some of them cause human diseases.
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Several Different Fungal Hybrids Cause Human Disease.<p>Hybrid fungi that can cause infections in humans are well known to occur in several different lineages of single-celled fungi known as yeasts. Notable examples include multiple different species of <a href="https://doi.org/10.1002/yea.3242" target="_blank">yeast hybrids</a> that cause the human diseases <a href="https://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/diseases/6218/cryptococcosis" target="_blank">cryptococcosis</a> and <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/fungal/diseases/candidiasis/index.html" target="_blank">candidiasis</a>. Although pathogenic yeast hybrids are well known, our discovery that the <em>A. latus</em> pathogen is a hybrid is a first for molds that cause disease in humans.</p>
(Left) Candida yeasts live on parts of the human body. Imbalance of microbes on the body can allow these yeasts, some of which are hybrids, to grow and cause infection. (Right) Cryptococcus yeasts, including ones that are hybrids, can cause life-threatening infections in primarily immunocompromised people. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention<p><a href="https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1008315" target="_blank">Why certain <em>Aspergillus</em> species are so deadly</a> while others are harmless remains unknown. This may in part be because <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fbr.2007.02.007" target="_blank">combinations of traits, rather than individual traits</a>, underlie organisms' ability to cause disease. So why then are hybrids frequently associated with human disease? Hybrids inherit genetic material from both parents, which may result in new combinations of traits. This may make them more similar to one parent in some of their characteristics, reflect both parents in others or may differ from both in the rest. It is precisely this mix and match of traits that hybrids have inherited from their parental species that <a href="https://www.nytimes.com/2010/09/14/science/14creatures.html" target="_blank">facilitates their evolutionary success</a>, including their ability to cause disease.</p>
The Evolutionary Origin of an Aspergillus Hybrid.<p>Multiple evolutionary paths can lead to the emergence of hybrids. One path is through mating, just as the horse and donkey mate to create a mule. Another path is through the merging or fusion of genetic material from cells of different species.</p><p>It is this second path that appears to have been taken by our fungus. <em>A. latus</em> appears to have two of almost everything compared to its parental species: twice the genome size, twice the total number of genes and so on. But unlike other hybrids, which are often sterile like the mule, we found that <em>A. latus</em> is capable of reproducing both asexually and sexually.</p><p>But how distinct were the parents of <em>A. latus</em>? By comparing the parts contributed by each parent in the <em>A. latus</em> genome, we estimate that its parents are approximately 93% genetically similar, which is about as related as we humans are with lemurs. In other words, <em>A. latus</em>, an agent of infectious disease, is the fungal equivalent of a human-lemur hybrid.</p>
How A. Latus Differs From its Parents.<p>Elucidating the identity of closely related fungal pathogens and how they differ from each other in infection-relevant characteristics is a key step toward reducing the burden of fungal disease. For example, we found that <em>A. latus</em> was three times more resistant than <em>A. nidulans</em>, the species it was originally identified as using microscopy-based methods, to one of the most common antifungal drugs, <a href="https://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB00520" target="_blank">caspofungin</a>. This result provides a clear example of the potential importance of accurate identification of the <em>Aspergillus</em> pathogen causing an infection.</p><p>We also examined how <em>A. latus</em> and <em>A. nidulans</em> interact with cells from our immune system. We found that immune cells were less efficient at combating <em>A. latus</em> compared to <em>A. nidulans</em>, suggesting the hybrid fungus may be trickier for our immune systems to identify and destroy.</p><p>In the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic, our quest to understand <em>Aspergillus</em> pathogens is becoming more urgent. Growing evidence suggests that <a href="https://doi.org/10.1111/myc.13096" target="_blank">a fraction of COVID-19 patients are also infected with <em>Aspergillus</em>.</a> More worrying is that these <a href="https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2607.201603" target="_blank">secondary <em>Aspergillus</em> infections</a> can worsen the clinical outcomes for those infected with the novel coronavirus. That being said, we stress that little is known about <em>Aspergillus</em> infections in COVID-19 patients due to a lack of systematic testing, and none of the infections identified so far appear to have been caused by hybrids.</p><p>So, when it comes to hybrids, some are fantastic (the minotaur), some are helpful (the mule) and some are dangerous (<em>Aspergillus latus</em>). Understanding more about the biology of <em>Aspergillus latus</em> may help in our understanding of how microbial pathogens arise and how to best prevent and combat their infections.</p>
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