13 Emerging Benefits and Uses of Yuzu Fruit
Yuzu (Citrus junos) is a hybrid citrus fruit also known as yuja. It originated in China more than 1,000 years ago and now grows in Japan, Korea, and other parts of the world.
The fruit is small, with a diameter of 2–3 inches (5.5–7.5 cm). It has a relatively thick yellow skin and is more aromatic and much sourer than other citrus fruits.
Particularly popular in East Asian cuisine, its juice, peel, and seeds serve as gourmet flavorings for vinegars, seasonings, sauces, and marmalades. Yuzu oil is also commonly used in cosmetics, perfume, and aromatherapy.
Curiously, this fruit may provide several benefits, including reducing inflammation and promoting heart health.
Here are 13 emerging benefits and uses of yuzu.
1. Highly Nutritious
Yuzu is low in calories but highly nutritious. In fact, 3.5 ounces (100 grams) provides (1):
- Calories: 53
- Carbs: 13.3 grams
- Protein: 0.8 grams
- Fat: 0.3 grams
- Fiber: 1.8 grams
- Vitamin C: 59% of the Daily Value (DV)
- Vitamin A: 31% of the DV
- Thiamine: 5% of the DV
- Vitamin B6: 5% of the DV
- Vitamin B5: 4% of the DV
- Copper: 5% of the DV
It also contains smaller amounts of magnesium, iron, zinc, calcium, riboflavin, niacin, and vitamin E.
What's more, it harbors powerful plant compounds like carotenoids, flavonoids, and limonoids.
These all act as antioxidants in the body, and studies show that they may help reduce inflammation, fight cancer cells, and promote heart health.
Yuzu is low in calories and particularly rich in vitamins A and C. It also provides numerous plant compounds.
2. Contains Powerful Antioxidants
Antioxidants are compounds that neutralize free radicals, which are reactive molecules that damage cells and cause oxidative stress when their numbers get too high in the body. This stress is associated with many diseases.
Diets rich in antioxidants are thought to reduce your risk of brain ailments, heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and certain types of cancer.
Yuzu contains several antioxidants, including vitamin C, carotenoids, and flavonoids.
Vitamin C is not only an antioxidant but also helps regenerate other antioxidants in your body, such as vitamin E.
In addition, a test-tube study noted that limonene, a flavor compound in the peel of yuzu and other citrus fruits, acts as an antioxidant and helps reduce inflammation. It may be particularly useful in treating some types of asthma.
Furthermore, animal and test-tube studies show that yuzu extract's antioxidants may combat obesity and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).
Though these findings are promising, human studies are needed.
Yuzu contains powerful antioxidants like vitamin C and limonene, which help neutralize harmful free radicals and reduce inflammation in your body.
3. May Improve Blood Flow
Blood clotting ensures that you stop bleeding after a cut or scrape. However, excessive clotting can cause blockages in small and large blood vessels — which may lead to heart disease, heart attack, and stroke.
Interestingly, test-tube and animal studies reveal that yuzu extract may have anti-clotting effects by inhibiting the grouping of platelets.
These properties are linked to two key flavonoids, hesperidin and naringin, in both the flesh and peel.
By improving blood flow, yuzu extract may reduce your risk of heart disease. However, significantly more research is needed before it can be recommended for this use.
Two flavonoids in yuzu may help reduce blood clotting. This may improve blood flow and reduce your risk of heart disease, though further research is needed.
4. May Have Anticancer Properties
Yuzu packs many substances that may protect against cancer.
Of particular interest are limonoids, which occur in several citrus fruits. Test-tube studies demonstrate that they fight breast, colon, and prostate cancers.
Additionally, yuzu peel contains tangeretin and the flavonoid nobiletin. In test-tube and animal studies, nobiletin suppresses tumor growth, while tangeretin is effective at inhibiting leukemia cell growth.
Despite these promising findings, human research is needed.
Yuzu is rich in compounds with potential anticancer benefits. Nonetheless, studies in people are necessary.
5. May Protect Your Brain
Animal and test-tube studies suggest that yuzu may protect your brain against diseases like Alzheimer's.
In fact, a study in rats with induced brain dysfunction found that long-term intake of Yuzu extract improved brain function and blood sugar control.
Plus, the yuzu flavonoid naringenin has particular brain-protective effects.
In two studies in mice with induced memory loss, naringenin extracted from yuzu improved memory and reduced oxidative stress from brain-damaging proteins.
All the same, research is limited to animal studies.
Yuzu extract may reduce brain dysfunction and improve memory, potentially safeguarding against ailments like Alzheimer's. However, further research is needed.
6. Its Fragrance Has Soothing Effects
Compounds like limonene and linalool are responsible for yuzu oil's distinct aroma, which carries notes of grapefruit, mandarin, bergamot, and lime.
Interestingly, several studies note that yuzu oil has soothing effects, potentially helping reduce tension and anxiety.
In one study, 20 women inhaled yuzu scent for 10 minutes. They experienced a decrease in stress markers, mood disturbance, tension, depression, anger, and confusion for 30 minutes.
Another two studies in small groups of young women determined that 10-minute inhalation likewise decreased heart rate and improved nerve system activity.
Additionally, inhaling diffused yuzu essential oil decreased tension, anger, and fatigue better than inhaling hot steam and similar to lavender oil.
Finally, a study in 60 mothers who were at the hospital with their sick child found that an aromatherapy room diffused with yuzu oil significantly reduced anxiety levels in the mothers.
As such, yuzu's scent may offer emotional relief akin to other pleasing aromas.
Inhaling yuzu's aroma may reduce your heart rate and help relieve stress, anxiety, and other tensions.
7–12. Other Potential Benefits and Uses
Although research is limited, yuzu may offer several other benefits, including:
- May provide antidiabetes effects. In a study in mice fed a high-fat diet, yuzu peel extract helped regulate blood sugar levels.
- May help reduce cholesterol. A study in mice fed a high-cholesterol diet revealed that yuzu peel extract reduced body weight and LDL (bad) cholesterol.
- Possible uses for heart failure. Animal studies indicate that yuzu extract may reduce some of the damage to heart muscle caused by a heart attack, which may help prevent future heart failure.
- May improve bone health. An animal study found that giving rats yuzu peel extract helped maintain bone strength.
- May protect against infection. Yuzu seed extract has been shown to have antimicrobial activity against a variety of infectious organisms, including influenza, E. coli, Salmonella, and S. aureus.
- Utilized in anti-aging cosmetics. This citrus fruit is used in cosmetics for skin lightening and collagen synthesis, which may help prevent wrinkles.
Keep in mind that many of these purported benefits are related to concentrated extracts or specific compounds rather than the fruit itself.
Thus, it's unlikely that you would consume enough yuzu to see these effects, as it's primarily used as a flavoring agent — not eaten on its own.
Animal and test-tube studies suggest that yuzu extract may fight infections and support healthy blood sugar, as well as heart and bone health. It's also used in cosmetics. Still, research is limited.
13. Easy to Add to Your Diet
Because of its sourness, yuzu isn't normally eaten on its own. Nonetheless, you can enjoy it in a variety of ways.
Yuzu is traditionally used for making Asian vinegars and seasonings. In Japanese cuisine, it's often added to pastes, powders, marmalades, jellies, sweets, and tea.
Because it has a similar acidity as lemons and limes, it makes a great replacement for either of these fruits in dressings, condiments, desserts, baked goods, and drinks.
It may be difficult to buy the fruit at your local supermarket, but its juice is available at specialty stores and online.
Look for 100% yuzu juice with no additives to get the most benefits. Many yuzu products pack significant amounts of sugar to counterbalance its sourness, so be sure to read the ingredient list.
Finally, you can enjoy its aroma via essential oil — or by zesting the rind and adding it to a small bowl of neutral oil, such as grapeseed.
Keep in mind that essential oils should never be ingested and must be diluted prior to use.
Yuzu can be used as a substitute for lemon or lime in many dishes, and it's particularly suitable for sauces, marmalades, jellies, drinks, and sweets. Be sure to watch for added sugars in products made with this fruit.
The Bottom Line
Yuzu is an aromatic citrus fruit notable for its sour taste, health benefits, and pleasing scent.
Although human studies are limited, its extracts and compounds have been linked to numerous benefits — including brain health, blood flow, and anticancer effects.
Its flesh, juice, and zest can be enjoyed in many dishes, such as dressings, seasonings, teas, and drinks. It proves a great substitute for other citrus fruits.
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Timeline for Australia's waste export ban. Australian Government
Trash Into Treasure<p>The benefits to the environment of boosting recycling rates are well known – less landfill, less plastic in our ocean, reduced need for virgin materials, and lower carbon emissions. The Recycling Modernization Fund initiative aims to divert more than 10 million tons of waste from landfill, part of an <a href="http://www.environment.gov.au/protection/waste-resource-recovery/publications/national-waste-policy-action-plan" target="_blank">overall strategy to reduce the total waste generated per person by 10%</a>, and push <a href="https://www.environment.gov.au/system/files/resources/7381c1de-31d0-429b-912c-91a6dbc83af7/files/national-waste-report-2018.pdf" target="_blank">Australia's total resource recovery rate from 58% in 2017</a> to 80% by 2030.</p><p>But like many countries, Australia is focusing on the economic benefits of better waste management as well.</p><p>"This will mean Australia converts more waste into higher valued resources ready for reuse locally by manufacturers and brands in their packaging and products," Rose Read, CEO of the National Waste and Recycling Industry Council, <a href="https://uk.reuters.com/article/us-australia-waste/australia-to-set-up-132-million-fund-to-boost-recycling-following-export-curbs-idUKKBN247060" target="_blank">told Reuters</a>.</p>
Green Jobs<p>The great potential of the circular economy to create green jobs is being recognized across the world.</p><p>In the UK, the Waste and Resources Action Program has launched a <a href="https://wrap.org.uk/buildbackbetter" target="_blank">six-point plan which it claims could add $90 billion to the economy, and create 500,000 new jobs</a>. Investment in the circular economy forms a significant part of the <a href="https://www.nytimes.com/2020/07/14/us/politics/biden-climate-plan.html" target="_blank">$2 trillion climate plan that Democratic candidate Joe Biden</a> is taking into November's US presidential election. And the <a href="https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_20_940" target="_blank">European Union has put its Green New Deal at the heart of its plans for recovery</a> from the economic shock of COVID-19.</p><p>The World Economic Forum's <a href="http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_The_Future_Of_Nature_And_Business_2020.pdf" target="_blank">Future of Nature and Business</a> report identifies 15 systemic transitions with annual business opportunities worth $10 billion a year that could create 395 million jobs by 2030.</p><p>As is the case with Australia's Recycling Modernization Fund, a combination of private enterprise and government investment can offer ways to get people back to work by building a more environmentally sustainable economy.</p>
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The Great American Outdoors Act is now the law of the land.
<div id="e0008" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="ffc07febbf5d2d585ad06d3f43e2be56"><blockquote class="twitter-tweet twitter-custom-tweet" data-twitter-tweet-id="1290667833999929344" data-partner="rebelmouse"><div style="margin:1em 0">🚨Breaking News: The President has just signed the bipartisan #GreatAmericanOutdoorsAct. It will help: 🏗️ Restore… https://t.co/RPefKPMn7S</div> — Fix Our Parks (@Fix Our Parks)<a href="https://twitter.com/FixOurParksUS/statuses/1290667833999929344">1596554165.0</a></blockquote></div>
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By Andrew J. Whelton and Caitlin R. Proctor
In recent years wildfires have entered urban areas, causing breathtaking destruction.
Survivors left everything to flee the Camp Fire's path. Andrew Whelton / Purdue University
Wildfires and Water<p>Both the Tubbs and Camp fires destroyed fire hydrants, water pipes and meter boxes. Water leaks and ruptured hydrants were common. The Camp Fire inferno spread at a speed of one football field per second, chasing everyone – including water system operators – out of town.</p><p>After the fires passed, testing ultimately revealed widespread hazardous drinking water contamination. Evidence suggests that the toxic chemicals originated from a combination of <a href="https://doi.org/10.1002/aws2.1183" target="_blank">burning vegetation, structures and plastic materials</a>.</p>
Pipes, water meters and meter covers after wildfires destroyed them. Caitlin Proctor, Amisha Shah, David Yu, and Andrew Whelton/Purdue University
Dangerous Contamination Levels<p>Benzene was found at concentrations of 40,000 parts per billion (ppb) in drinking water after the Tubbs Fire and at more than 2,217 ppb after the Camp Fire. According to the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, children exposed to benzene for a single day can suffer <a href="https://engineering.purdue.edu/PlumbingSafety/resources/Benzene-Levels-in-Water.pdf" target="_blank">harm at levels as low as 26 ppb</a>.</p><p>The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recommends limiting children's short-term acute exposure to <a href="https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2018-03/documents/dwtable2018.pdf" target="_blank">200 ppb</a>, and long-term exposure to less than <a href="https://www.epa.gov/ground-water-and-drinking-water/national-primary-drinking-water-regulations" target="_blank">5 ppb</a>. The EPA regulatory level for what constitutes a hazardous waste is <a href="https://19january2017snapshot.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2015-06/documents/tclp.pdf" target="_blank">500 ppb</a>.</p><p>In early 2019, California conducted contaminated water testing on humans by taking contaminated water from the Paradise Irrigation District and asking persons to smell it. The state found that even when people smelled contaminated water that had less than 200 ppb benzene, <a href="https://engineering.purdue.edu/PlumbingSafety/resources/Dissipatiion-of-Burn-Related-VOC-From-Water.pdf" target="_blank">at least one person reported nausea and throat irritation</a>. The test also showed that water contained a variety of other benzene-like compounds that first responders had not sampled for.</p><p>The officials who carried out this small-scale test did not appear to realize the significance of what they had done, until we asked whether they had had their action approved in advance by an institutional review board. In response, they asserted that such a review was not needed.</p><p>In our view, this episode is telling for two reasons. First, one subject reported an adverse health effect after being exposed to water that contained benzene at a level below the EPA's recommended one-day limit for children. Second, doing this kind of test without proper oversight suggests that officials greatly underestimated the potential for serious contamination of local water supplies and public harm. After the Camp Fire, together with the EPA, we estimated that some plastic pipes needed <a href="https://engineering.purdue.edu/PlumbingSafety/opinions/Final-HDPE-Service-Line-Decontamination-2019-03-18.pdf" target="_blank">more than 280 days</a> of flushing to make them safe again.</p>
Plastic pipes can be damaged by heat and fire contact. Andrew Whelton / Purdue University
Building Codes Could Make Areas Disaster-Ready<p>Our research underscores that community building codes are inadequate to prevent wildfire-caused pollution of drinking water and homes.</p><p>Installing one-way valves, called backflow prevention devices, at each water meter can prevent contamination rushing out of the damaged building from flowing into the larger buried pipe network.</p><p>Adopting codes that required builders to install fire-resistant meter boxes and place them farther from vegetation would help prevent infrastructure from burning so readily in wildfires. Concrete meter boxes and water meters with minimal plastic components would be less likely to ignite. Some plastics may be practically impossible to make safe again, since all types are susceptible to fire and heat.</p><p>Water main shutoff valves and water sampling taps should exist at every water meter box. Sample taps can help responders quickly determine water safety.</p>
<span style="display:block;position:relative;padding-top:56.25%;" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="9540d7e271306ed417112042a3efc9a4"><iframe lazy-loadable="true" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/GnlrzI1wdAI?rel=0" width="100%" height="auto" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" style="position:absolute;top:0;left:0;width:100%;height:100%;"></iframe></span>
The Smell Test Doesn’t Work<p>Under no circumstance should people be told to <a href="https://www.waterboards.ca.gov/press_room/press_releases/2018/pr122418_voc.pdf" target="_blank">smell the water</a> to determine its safety, as was recommended for months after the Camp Fire. Many chemicals have no odor when they are harmful. Only testing can determine safety.</p><p>Ordering people to boil their water will not make it safe if it contains toxic chemicals that enter the air. Boiling just transmits those substances into the air faster. "Do not use" orders can keep people safe until agencies can test the water. Before such advisories are lifted or modified, regulators should be required to carry out a full chemical screen of the water systems. Yet, <a href="https://doi.org/10.1002/aws2.1183" target="_blank">disaster</a> after <a href="https://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlehtml/2017/ew/c5ew00294j" target="_blank">disaster</a>, government agencies have failed to take this step.</p><p>Buildings should be tested to find contamination. <a href="https://www.purdue.edu/newsroom/releases/2020/Q1/study-your-homes-water-quality-could-vary-by-the-room-and-the-season.html" target="_blank">Home drinking water quality can differ from room to room</a>, so reliable testing should sample both cold and hot water at many locations within each building.</p><p>While infrastructure is being repaired, survivors need a safe water supply. Water treatment devices sold for home use, such as refrigerator and faucet water filters, are not approved for extremely contaminated water, although product sales representatives and government officials may <a href="https://undark.org/2019/09/19/camp-fire-california-drinking-water-carcinogens/" target="_blank">mistakenly think</a> the devices can be used for that purpose.</p><p>To avoid this kind of confusion, external technical experts should be called in assist local public health departments, which can quickly become overwhelmed after disasters.</p>
<div id="71cf9" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="e059d199e8368d282a31601e372e4dda"><blockquote class="twitter-tweet twitter-custom-tweet" data-twitter-tweet-id="1204068265980547075" data-partner="rebelmouse"><div style="margin:1em 0">The Los Angeles City Council's Planning and Land Use Committee signed off on an effort to expand the city's fire-re… https://t.co/fP8Z8mUq7R</div> — IntlCodeCouncil (@IntlCodeCouncil)<a href="https://twitter.com/IntlCodeCouncil/statuses/1204068265980547075">1575907219.0</a></blockquote></div>
Preparing for Future Fires<p>The damage that the Tubbs and Camp fires caused to local water systems was preventable. We believe that urban and rural communities, as well as state legislatures, should establish codes and lists of authorized construction materials for high-risk areas. They also should establish rapid methods to assess health, prepare for water testing and decontamination, and set aside emergency water supplies.</p><p>Wildfires are coming to urban areas. Protecting drinking water systems, buried underground or in buildings, is one thing communities can do to prepare for that reality.</p>
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