But does it live up to the hype?
This article uses scientific evidence to explore the benefits and myths of lemon water.
What is Lemon Water?
Lemon water is simply the juice from lemons mixed with water.
The amount of lemon you use depends on your personal preference and this drink can be enjoyed either cold or hot.
Some people also choose to add lemon rind, mint leaf or other ingredients.
Lemon water has become a popular morning beverage, since it's been claimed to help improve your mood, energy levels, immune system and metabolic health.
This is what a glass of lemon water looks like:
Bottom Line: Lemon water is simply water mixed with fresh lemon juice. Additional ingredients can be added.
Lemon Water Nutrition Facts
For the purpose of this article, the definition of lemon water is one glass of water mixed with the juice from half a lemon (1).
This is the nutrient breakdown for one glass:
- Calories: 9.
- Sugars: Less than 1 gram.
- Vitamin C: 25 percent of the RDI.
- Folate: 1 percent of the RDI.
- Potassium: 1 percent of the RDI.
One glass does not seem to provide a lot of nutrients, but drinking lemon water is a low-calorie and low-sugar beverage that can boost your vitamin C intake.
Additionally, remember that the exact nutritional value depends on how much lemon juice you add, as well as any other ingredients.
Bottom Line: Lemon water is high in vitamin C, relative to its calorie and sugar content. It also contains trace amounts of folate and potassium.
Lemon Water Contains Antioxidants
Lemon water contains other beneficial substances and is a source of plant compounds called flavonoids.
Many have antioxidant properties that appear to help protect your cells from damage.
All that said, there are no human studies to support these findings, so they may not be as useful in real life.
Bottom Line: Lemon water contains compounds that may protect your cells and improve metabolic health. However, human studies are needed.
Lemon Water May Help Treat Kidney Stones
Kidney stones are solid mineral formations that collect in the kidneys.
The most common type is made of a substance called calcium oxalate and is typically treated with a compound called citrate.
Increasing the amount of citrate in your urine is thought to prevent calcium from binding with other compounds and forming stones.
In short, citrate restores the urine's ability to prevent kidney stone formation.
It appears to be most effective when used alongside potassium citrate, the supplement form of citrate. However, lemon water may also be a good alternative for those who don't tolerate potassium citrate as a first-line treatment (10, 13).
Bottom Line: Studies show that lemon water can help treat kidney stones. It appears most effective alongside conventional therapy, but may also be a useful alternative treatment.
Lemon Water has the Benefits of Regular Water
Lemon water is water with a bit of lemon added, which means it has all the benefits of regular water.
Drinking plenty of water is known to have benefits for:
- Weight loss: Increases feelings of fullness and boosts metabolism slightly, which can help with weight loss.
- Mental health: Optimizes mood and memory.
- Digestive health: Helps relieve constipation.
- Exercise performance: Improves athletic performance.
Here's more information: 7 Science-Based Health Benefits of Drinking Enough Water.
Bottom Line: Drinking enough water has many health benefits. It can help you lose weight, feel great and improve your athletic performance.
Common Myths About Lemon Water and Health
There are many additional health claims surrounding lemon water, but most are not supported by any scientific evidence.
In fact, some have even been disproved. Below are six of the most common myths.
Myth 1: The Fiber in it Helps You Lose Weight
However, lemon water is basically filtered, heavily diluted lemon juice, which leaves it with only trace amounts of pectin. Even a whole lemon only contains 2 grams of fiber in total (1).
There is no evidence that lemon water has any more benefits for weight loss than plain water.
Myth 2: It Alkalizes Your Body
According to proponents of the alkaline diet, foods leave an “ash" in your system that influences the pH of your body—how acidic or alkaline it becomes.
Lemon water is said to be alkalizing. However, neither the pH of your blood nor cells can be altered by what you eat (16).
Myth 3: It Fights Cancer
This claim emerged from the alkaline diet myth and is built on the premise that cancer cells cannot thrive in an alkaline environment.
While cancer cells do prefer the cells around them to be acidic, studies show they can grow in alkaline environments as well. Also, cancer cells create their own acidic environment and eating alkalizing food doesn't stop it (17, 18).
Myth 4: It Cleanses and Detoxes
Water helps eliminate waste from your body through urination and healthy bowel movements. However, nothing in lemon water improves this process.
In fact, most claims that foods or beverages cleanse or detoxify your organs are simply untrue.
Myth 5: It Raises Your IQ
Drinking water—lemon-flavored or otherwise—may help you feel more focused in the morning, but it cannot increase intelligence.
Myth 6: It Has Natural Diuretic Effects
This may be true to a small extent, but it's so misleading that it's worth mentioning.
Any food that contains potassium can potentially increase urine output—that means virtually all fruits, vegetables, meat and dairy products.
Additionally, the more water you drink, the more you will urinate.
Bottom Line: The majority of the health claims are speculative and exaggerated. In some cases they have been proven to be false.
Does it Have Any Harmful Effects?
Lemon water is perfectly safe to drink.
However, the acid in lemons can damage your tooth enamel over time, which makes your teeth more prone to cavities.
You can manage this easily by drinking lemon water with a straw whenever possible, to avoid contact with your teeth.
Also, you should rinse your mouth with water afterwards. However, it is best to wait an hour before brushing your teeth. Brushing while your tooth enamel is an an acid-softened state can lead to damage.
If you're taking the lemon water with breakfast, then it's a good idea to brush your teeth before breakfast.
Bottom Line: Lemon water is safe to consume. However, it may damage your tooth enamel if you drink if often.
Does the Temperature of Lemon Water Matter?
The best temperature to drink lemon water is a highly debated topic.
For example, some claim cold water helps burn extra calories. Others believe warm water helps improve digestive health.
There is very little research to support either side and it's highly unlikely the temperature makes any meaningful difference.
Therefore, it simply comes down to what you feel like at the time.
Bottom Line: There is no strong evidence showing that the water is best consumed either hot or cold. Choose the temperature you enjoy most.
How to Make Your Own Lemon Water
Most recipes suggest using the juice from half a lemon mixed with a glass of water. You can tweak the amounts from there or add other ingredients.
Take Home Message
Lemon water is a healthy drink that can add a good amount of vitamin C to your diet.
It's a fantastic, flavorful alternative to plain water that has several health benefits.
However, if you already eat lots of fruits and vegetables and drink plenty of fluids, then lemon water will be of no nutritional benefit.
You should drink it for the taste rather than the health benefits.
This article was reposted from our media associate Authority Nutrition.
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By Suzanne Cords
One day Lizzie, the first-person narrator of the novel, receives an old book as a gift, with a dedication wishing the reader to be among the survivors. Like the preppers who build bunkers and stockpile supplies in remote areas to be ready for the end of the world, Lizzie is convinced that the end of the world is definitely near in times of a threatening climate disaster.
Lizzie, who lives in New York with her husband and son, is a university campus librarian. She worries about almost everything: her brother, an ex-junkie, or her dental insurance and the future in the face of the apocalypse. She is obsessed with reading reference books and articles about climate change.
She also devours words of wisdom, including about Buddhist spirituality: "A visitor once asked the old monks on Mount Athos what they did all day, and was told: We have died and we are in love with everything." But nothing can lift her spirits.
'Lizzie Is Just Like Us'
Lizzie observes rich New Yorkers plan their move to regions that are less threatened by climate change, something she simply cannot afford. Sometimes she watches disaster movies, which lead her to worry even more.
Above all, she is a gifted observer of her fellow human beings. "Young person worry: What if nothing I do matters? Old person worry: What if everything I do, does?"
Lizzie, the U.S. author told DW, is a bit like the rest of us — well aware of the climate crisis, but because she cares and worries about so many other things, that awareness falls by the wayside. That's how she felt herself, Jenny Offill said, but the more she looked into the issue, the more she saw a need for action on her part, too.
"I also was trying to see if there was a way to make it funny, because, you know, so much of the world of prepping and imagining disaster is actually sort of strangely funny."
The novel was shortlisted for the 2020 UK's Women's Prize for Fiction and has now been released in German translation.
Climate Activist With a Vision
But then, there is also this serious, scientifically based concern about what climate change means. In the past, says Offill, artists were the ones who would predict disasters; today it's the experts, as well as the students she teaches. In the end, their fears and their justified anger motivated her to take a closer look at the issue. Today, she is a climate activist herself, and is involved in initiatives along with many other artists.
Lizzie, the heroine of Weather, hasn't gotten that far. But she voices her fears, and that's a start. "Of course, the world continues to end," says Sylvia, a mentor of Lizzie's, at one point — and commences to water her garden. There is hope after all.
Reposted with permission from Deutsche Welle.
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By Jake Johnson
A federal appeals court on Tuesday dealt the final blow to former President Donald Trump's attempt to open nearly 130 million acres of territory in the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans to oil and gas drilling.
Though the Trump administration appealed the ruling, President Joe Biden revoked his predecessor's 2017 order shortly after taking office, rendering the court case moot. On Tuesday, the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals agreed to dismiss the Trump administration's appeal.
"Because the terms of the challenged Executive Order are no longer in effect, the relevant areas of the [Outer Continental Shelf] in the Chukchi Sea, Beaufort Sea, and Atlantic Ocean will be withdrawn from exploration and development activities," the court said in its order.
Erik Grafe of Earthjustice, which represented a coalition of advocacy groups that challenged Trump's order, said in a statement that "we welcome today's decision and its confirmation of President Obama's legacy of ocean and climate protection."
"As the Biden administration considers its next steps, it should build on these foundations, end fossil fuel leasing on public lands and waters, and embrace a clean energy future that does not come at the expense of wildlife and our natural heritage," Grafe continued. "One obvious place for immediate action is America's Arctic, including the Arctic Refuge and the Western Arctic, which the previous administration sought to relegate to oil development in a series of last-minute decisions that violate bedrock environmental laws."
VICTORY: 9th Circuit ends fight over President Trump's illegal attempt to open up 128 million acres of Atlantic & A… https://t.co/TvYVt2F1jO— Earthjustice (@Earthjustice)1618347073.0
In January, Biden ordered a temporary pause on new oil and gas leasing on federal lands and waters, a decision environmentalists hailed as a positive step that should be made permanent.
"We call on President Biden to keep his promise: a full and complete ban on fracking and fossil fuel extraction on public lands. Full stop," Food & Water Watch policy director Mitch Jones said at the time. "The climate crisis requires it and he promised it."
Reposted with permission from Common Dreams.
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By 2035, every new car and truck sold in the U.S. could be an EV, a new report says.
Accelerations in technology and especially battery affordability, paired with new policy, mean the dramatic transition would save American drivers $2.7 trillion by 2050, an average savings of $1,000 per household per year.
The ramp up in EV production would also create 2 million new jobs by 2035. Battery prices have fallen 74% since 2014, and their unexpectedly rapid fall is a key driver of the cost savings.
EVs are far simpler mechanically, and more efficient, than internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, which translates to reduced climate pollution and lower costs for consumers.
Strengthened vehicle efficiency standards and investment in fast charging infrastructure are needed to accelerate the transition, which would prevent 150,000 premature deaths and save $1.3 trillion in health environmental costs by 2050.
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Thousands of Superfund sites exist around the U.S., with toxic substances left open, mismanaged and dumped. Despite the high levels of toxicity at these sites, nearly 21 million people live within a mile of one of them, according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
Currently, more than 1,300 Superfund sites pose a serious health risk to nearby communities. Based on a new study, residents living close to these sites could also have a shorter life expectancy.
Published in Nature Communications, the study, led by Hanadi S. Rifai, a professor of civil and environmental engineering at the University of Houston, and a team of researchers, found that living in nearby zip codes to Superfund sites resulted in a decreased life expectancy of more than two months, the University of Houston reported.
"We have ample evidence that contaminant releases from anthropogenic sources (e.g., petrochemicals or hazardous waste sites) could increase the mortality rate in fence-line communities," Rifai told the University of Houston. "Results showed a significant difference in life expectancy among census tracts with at least one Superfund site and their neighboring tracts with no sites."
The study pulled data from 65,000 census tracts – defined geographical regions – within the contiguous U.S., The Guardian reported. With this data, researchers found that for communities that are socioeconomically challenged, this life expectancy could decrease by up to a year.
"It was a bit surprising and concerning," Rifai told The Guardian. "We weren't sure [when we started] if the fact that you are socioeconomically challenged would make [the Superfund's effects] worse."
The research team, for example, found that the presence of a Superfund site in a census tract with a median income of less than $52,580 could reduce life expectancy by seven months, the University of Houston reported.
Many of these toxic sites were once used as manufacturing sites during the Second World War. Common toxic substances that are released from the sites into the air and surface water include lead, trichlorethylene, chromium, benzene and arsenic – all of which can lead to health impacts, such as neurological damage among children, The Union of Concerned Scientists wrote in a blog.
"The EPA has claimed substantial recent progress in Superfund site cleanups, but, contrary to EPA leadership's grandiose declarations, the backlog of unfunded Superfund cleanups is the largest it has been in the last 15 years," the Union wrote.
Delayed cleanup could become increasingly dangerous as climate change welcomes more natural hazards, like wildfires and flooding. According to a Government Accountability Office report, for example, climate change could threaten at least 60 percent of Superfund sites in the U.S., AP News reported.
During the summer of 2018, a major wildfire took over the Iron Mountain Superfund site near Redding, CA, ruining wastewater treatment infrastructure that is responsible for capturing 168 million gallons of acid mine drainage every month, NBC News reported.
"There was this feeling of 'My God. We ought to have better tracking of wildfires at Superfund locations,'" Stephen Hoffman, a former senior environmental scientist at the EPA, told NBC News. "Before that, there wasn't a lot of thought about climate change and fire. That has changed."
In the study, researchers also looked at the impacts of floodings on Superfund sites, which could send toxins flowing into communities and waterways.
"When you add in flooding, there will be ancillary or secondary impacts that can potentially be exacerbated by a changing future climate," Rifai told the University of Houston. "The long-term effect of the flooding and repetitive exposure has an effect that can transcend generations."
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A weather research station on a bluff overlooking the sea is closing down because of the climate crisis.
The National Weather Service (NWS) station in Chatham, Massachusetts was evacuated March 31 over concerns the entire operation would topple into the ocean.
"We had to say goodbye to the site because of where we are located at the Monomoy Wildlife Refuge, we're adjacent to a bluff that overlooks the ocean," Boston NWS meteorologist Andy Nash told WHDH at the time. "We had to close and cease operations there because that bluff has significantly eroded."
Chatham is located on the elbow of Cape Cod, a land mass extending out into the Atlantic Ocean that has been reshaped and eroded by waves and tides over tens of thousands of years, The Guardian explained. However, sea level rise and extreme weather caused by the climate crisis have sped that change along.
"It's an extremely dynamic environment, which is obviously a problem if you are building permanent infrastructure here," Andrew Ashton, an associate scientist at Cape-Cod based Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, told The Guardian. "We are putting our foot on the accelerator to make the environment even more dynamic."
This was the case with the Chatham weather station. It used to be protected from the drop into the ocean by about 100 feet of land. However, storm action in 2020 alone washed away as much as six feet of land a day.
"We'd know[n] for a long time there was erosion but the pace of it caught everyone by surprise," Nash told The Guardian. "We felt we had maybe another 10 years but then we started losing a foot of a bluff a week and realized we didn't have years, we had just a few months. We were a couple of storms from a very big problem."
The Chatham station was part of a network of 92 NWS stations that monitor temperature, pressure, humidity, wind speed and direction and other data in the upper atmosphere, The Cape Cod Chronicle explained. The stations send up radiosondes attached to weather balloons twice a day to help with weather research and prediction. The Chatham station, which had been observing this ritual for the past half a century, sent up its last balloon the morning of March 31.
"We're going to miss the observations," Nash told The Cape Cod Chronicle. "It gives us a snapshot, a profile of the atmosphere when the balloons go up."
The station was officially decommissioned April 1, and the two buildings on the site will be demolished sometime this month. The NWS is looking for a new location in southeastern New England. In the meantime, forecasters will rely on data from stations in New York and Maine.
Nash said the leavetaking was bittersweet, but inevitable.
"[M]other nature is evicting us," he told The Cape Cod Chronicle.