By Dr. Verena Tan
For centuries, flaxseeds have been prized for their health-protective properties.
In fact, Charles the Great ordered his subjects to eat flaxseeds for their health. So it's no wonder they acquired the name Linum usitatissimum, meaning "the most useful."
Nowadays, flaxseeds are emerging as a "super food" as more scientific research points to their health benefits.
Here are 10 health benefits of flaxseeds that are backed by science.
1. Flaxseeds Are Loaded With Nutrients
Grown since the beginning of civilization, flaxseeds are one of the oldest crops. There are two types, brown and golden, which are equally nutritious.
A typical serving size for ground flaxseeds is 1 tablespoon (7 grams).
Just one tablespoon provides a good amount of protein, fiber and omega-3 fatty acids, in addition to being a rich source of some vitamins and minerals.
One tablespoon of ground flaxseeds contains the following (1):
• Calories: 37
• Protein: 1.3 grams
• Carbs: 2 grams
• Fiber: 1.9 grams
• Total fat: 3 grams
• Saturated fat: 0.3 grams
• Monounsaturated fat: 0.5 grams
• Polyunsaturated fat: 2.0 grams
• Omega-3 fatty acids: 1,597 mg
• Vitamin B1: 8 percent of the RDI
• Vitamin B6: 2 percent of the RDI
• Folate: 2 percent of the RDI
• Calcium: 2 percent of the RDI
• Iron: 2 percent of the RDI
• Magnesium: 7 percent of the RDI
• Phosphorus: 4 percent of the RDI
• Potassium: 2 percent of the RDI
Interestingly, flaxseeds' health benefits are mainly attributed to the omega-3 fatty acids, lignans and fiber they contain.
Summary: Flaxseeds are good sources of many nutrients. Their health benefits are mainly due to their content of omega-3 fats, lignans and fiber.
2. Flaxseeds Are High in Omega-3 Fats
If you are a vegetarian or don't eat fish, flaxseeds can be your best source of omega-3 fats.
ALA is one of the two essential fatty acids that you have to obtain from the food you eat, as your body doesn't produce them.
Animal studies have shown that the ALA in flaxseeds prevented cholesterol from being deposited in the blood vessels of the heart, reduced inflammation in the arteries and reduced tumor growth (3, 4, 5).
A Costa Rican study involving 3,638 people found that those who ate more ALA had a lower risk of heart attack than those who consumed less ALA (6).
Also, a large review of 27 studies involving more than 250,000 people found that ALA was linked to a 14 percent lower risk of heart disease (7).
Furthermore, a recent review of observational data concluded that ALA had heart health benefits comparable to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), two of the more well-known omega-3 fats (11).
Summary: Flaxseeds are a rich source of the omega-3 fatty acid ALA. Plant-based ALA fatty acids are proven to have heart health benefits and are linked to a lower risk of stroke.
3. Flaxseeds Are a Rich Source of Lignans, Which May Reduce Cancer Risk
Lignans are plant compounds that have antioxidant and estrogen properties, both of which can help lower the risk of cancer and improve health (12).
Interestingly, flaxseeds contain up to 800 times more lignans than other plant foods (5).
Observational studies show that those who eat flaxseeds have a lower risk of breast cancer, particularly postmenopausal women (13).
Additionally, according to a Canadian study involving more than 6,000 women, those who eat flaxseeds are 18 percent less likely to develop breast cancer (14).
However, men can also benefit from eating flaxseeds.
In a small study including 15 men, those given 30 grams of flaxseeds a day while following a low-fat diet showed reduced levels of a prostate cancer marker, suggesting a lower risk of prostate cancer (15).
Flaxseeds also appeared to have the potential to prevent colon and skin cancers in laboratory and animal studies. Yet, more research is needed to confirm this (16).
Nevertheless, the evidence thus far points to flaxseeds being a potentially valuable food in the fight against various cancers.
Summary: Flaxseeds contain a group of nutrients called lignans, which have powerful antioxidant and estrogen properties. They may help in preventing breast and prostate cancer, as well as other types of cancer.
4. Flaxseeds Are Rich in Dietary Fiber
What's more, flaxseeds contain two types of dietary fiber—soluble (20–40 percent) and insoluble (60–80 percent).
This fiber duo gets fermented by the bacteria in the large bowel, bulks up stools and results in more regular bowel movements.
On one hand, soluble fiber increases the consistency of the contents of your intestine and slows down your digestion rate. This has been shown to help regulate blood sugar and lower cholesterol (18).
On the other hand, insoluble fiber allows more water to bind to the stools, increases their bulk and results in softer stools. This is useful for preventing constipation and for those who have irritable bowel syndrome or diverticular disease (5).
Summary: With so much fiber packed in each tiny seed, adding flaxseeds to your diet promotes regular bowel movements and can improve your digestive health.
5. Flaxseeds May Improve Cholesterol
Another health benefit of flaxseeds is their ability to lower cholesterol levels.
In one study in people with high cholesterol, consuming 3 tablespoons (30 grams) of flaxseed powder daily for three months lowered total cholesterol by 17 percent and "bad" LDL cholesterol by almost 20 percent (19).
In postmenopausal women, consuming 30 grams of flaxseeds daily lowered total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol by approximately 7 percent and 10 percent, respectively (21).
These effects appear to be due to the fiber in flaxseeds, as it binds to bile salts and is then excreted by the body.
To replenish these bile salts, cholesterol is pulled from your blood into your liver. This process lowers your blood levels of cholesterol (18).
This is definitely good news for those wanting to improve their cholesterol.
Summary: The high fiber content of flaxseeds can help lower cholesterol and may play an important role in improving heart health.
6. Flaxseeds May Lower Blood Pressure
A Canadian study found eating 30 grams of flaxseeds daily for six months lowered systolic and diastolic blood pressure by 10 mmHg and 7 mmHg, respectively (23).
For those who were already taking blood pressure medication, flaxseeds lowered blood pressure even further and decreased the number of patients with uncontrolled high blood pressure by 17 percent (23).
Furthermore, according to a large review that looked at data from 11 studies, taking flaxseeds daily for more than three months lowered blood pressure by 2 mmHg (24).
While that might seem insignificant, a 2-mmHg reduction in blood pressure can lower the risk of dying from stroke by 10 percent and from heart disease by 7 percent (25).
Summary: Flaxseeds have been proven to lower blood pressure and are especially helpful for those with high blood pressure.
7. They Contain High-Quality Protein
Flaxseeds are a great source of plant-based protein, and there's growing interest in flaxseed protein and its health benefits. Flaxseed protein is rich in the amino acids arginine, aspartic acid and glutamic acid (26, 27).
If you are considering cutting back on meat and worried that you will be too hungry, flaxseeds may just be your answer.
In fact, in one recent study, 21 adults were given an animal protein meal or plant protein meal. The study found no difference in terms of appetite, satiety or food intake noted between the two meals (31).
It's likely both the animal and plant protein meals stimulated hormones in the gut to bring about the feeling of fullness, which resulted in eating less at the next meal.
Summary: Flaxseeds are a good source of plant-based protein and can be an alternative protein source for people who do not eat meat.
8. Flaxseeds May Help Control Blood Sugar
Type 2 diabetes is a major health problem worldwide.
It's characterized by high blood sugar levels as a result of either the body's inability to secrete insulin or resistance to it.
A few studies have found that people with type 2 diabetes who added 10–20 grams of flaxseed powder to their daily diet for at least one month saw reductions of 8–20 percent in blood sugar levels (20, 32, 33).
This blood sugar-lowering effect is notably due to flaxseeds' insoluble fiber content. Research has found that insoluble fiber slows down the release of sugar into the blood and reduces blood sugar (5, 34).
However, one study found no change in blood sugar levels or any improvement in diabetes management (35).
This might be due to the small numbers of subjects in the study and the use of flaxseed oil. Flaxseed oil lacks fiber, which is credited with flaxseeds' ability to lower blood sugar.
Overall, flaxseeds can be a beneficial and nutritious addition to the diet of people with diabetes.
Summary: Flaxseeds may lower blood sugar due to their insoluble fiber content. They can be a beneficial addition to the diet of people with diabetes.
9. Flaxseeds Keep Hunger at Bay, Which May Aid Weight Control
If you have the tendency to snack between meals, you might want to consider adding flaxseeds to your beverage to stave off hunger pangs.
The feelings of reduced hunger were likely due to the soluble fiber content of flaxseeds. It slows digestion in the stomach, which triggers a host of hormones that control appetite and provide a feeling of fullness (37, 38, 39).
Flaxseeds' dietary fiber content may aid weight control by suppressing hunger and increasing feelings of fullness.
Summary: Flaxseeds keep you full for longer and may help you manage your weight by controlling your appetite.
10. Flaxseeds Can Be a Versatile Ingredient
Flaxseeds or flaxseed oil can be added to many common foods. Try the following:
• Adding them to water and drinking it as part of your daily fluid intake
• Drizzling flaxseed oil as a dressing on salad
• Sprinkling ground flaxseeds over your hot or cold breakfast cereal
• Mixing ground flaxseeds into your favorite yogurt
• Adding ground flaxseeds into cookie, muffin, bread or other batters
• Mixing ground flaxseeds into smoothies to thicken up the consistency
• Adding ground flaxseeds to water as an egg substitute
• Incorporating flaxseeds into meat patties
Summary: Flaxseeds are versatile can be easily added to your daily diet. There are a variety of recipes you can try.
Tips for Adding Flaxseeds to Your Diet
Many impressive health benefits are attributed to consuming flaxseeds.
Here are some tips on how you can add these tiny seeds into your diet.
Consume Ground Seeds Rather Than Whole
Opt for ground flaxseeds, as they are easier to digest.
You won't reap as many benefits from whole flaxseeds, as your intestines cannot break down the tough outer shell of the seeds.
That being said, you can still buy whole flaxseeds, grind them in a coffee grinder and store the ground flaxseeds in an airtight container.
What About Flaxseed Oil?
The resurgence of the use of flaxseed oil is due to its nutritional properties and health benefits.
It's usually extracted by a process called cold pressing.
Given that oil is sensitive to heat and light, it's best kept in dark glass bottles and stored in a dark, cool place like a kitchen cabinet.
Because some of its nutrients are heat sensitive, flaxseed oil is not suitable for high-temperature cooking.
Nevertheless, some studies have shown that using flaxseed oil in light stir-frying of up to 350°F/177°C did not cause any reduction in the quality of the oil (5).
It's worth noting that flaxseed oil contains more ALA than flaxseeds. One tablespoon of ground flaxseeds contains 1.6 grams, while one tablespoon of flaxseed oil contains 7 grams.
Nonetheless, flaxseeds contain a host of other beneficial nutrients that are not included in its extracted oil, such as fiber. To fully reap the health benefits of flaxseeds, ground flaxseeds will make a great first choice.
How Much Do You Need?
The health benefits noted in the studies above were observed with just 1 tablespoon (10 grams) of ground flaxseeds per day.
However, it's recommended to keep serving sizes to less than 5 tablespoons (50 grams) of flaxseeds per day.
Summary: Ground flaxseeds provide the greatest health benefits. If using flaxseed oil, remember to store it in a cool, dark place and use it when cooking at a lower temperature to retain its nutritional properties.
The Bottom Line
When it comes to nutritional goodness, flaxseeds are full of it.
Though tiny, they are rich in the omega-3 fatty acid ALA, lignans and fiber, all of which have been shown to have many potential health benefits.
They can be used to improve digestive health, lower blood pressure and bad cholesterol, reduce the risk of cancer and may benefit people with diabetes.
As a versatile food ingredient, flaxseeds or flaxseed oil are easy to add to your diet.
With many proven health benefits and possibly more, there's no better time than now to grab some flaxseeds from your local grocery store.
Reposted with permission from our media associate Authority Nutrition.
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By Ana Maldonado-Contreras
- Your gut is home to trillions of bacteria that are vital for keeping you healthy.
- Some of these microbes help to regulate the immune system.
- New research, which has not yet been peer-reviewed, shows the presence of certain bacteria in the gut may reveal which people are more vulnerable to a more severe case of COVID-19.
You may not know it, but you have an army of microbes living inside of you that are essential for fighting off threats, including the virus that causes COVID-19.
How Do Resident Bacteria Keep You Healthy?<p>Our immune defense is part of a complex biological response against harmful pathogens, such as viruses or bacteria. However, because our bodies are inhabited by trillions of mostly beneficial bacteria, virus and fungi, activation of our immune response is tightly regulated to distinguish between harmful and helpful microbes.</p><p>Our bacteria are spectacular companions diligently helping prime our immune system defenses to combat infections. A seminal study found that mice treated with antibiotics that eliminate bacteria in the gut exhibited an impaired immune response. These animals had low counts of virus-fighting white blood cells, weak antibody responses and poor production of a protein that is vital for <a href="https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1019378108" target="_blank">combating viral infection and modulating the immune response</a>.</p><p><a href="https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0184976" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">In another study</a>, mice were fed <em>Lactobacillus</em> bacteria, commonly used as probiotic in fermented food. These microbes reduced the severity of influenza infection. The <em>Lactobacillus</em>-treated mice did not lose weight and had only mild lung damage compared with untreated mice. Similarly, others have found that treatment of mice with <em>Lactobacillus</em> protects against different <a href="https://doi.org/10.1038/srep04638" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">subtypes of</a> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-17487-8" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">influenza</a> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1008072" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">virus</a> and human respiratory syncytial virus – the <a href="https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-39602-7" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">major cause of viral bronchiolitis and pneumonia in children</a>.</p>
Chronic Disease and Microbes<p>Patients with chronic illnesses including Type 2 diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular disease exhibit a hyperactive immune system that fails to recognize a harmless stimulus and is linked to an altered gut microbiome.</p><p>In these chronic diseases, the gut microbiome lacks bacteria that activate <a href="https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1198469" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">immune cells</a> that block the response against harmless bacteria in our guts. Such alteration of the gut microbiome is also observed in <a href="https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1002601107" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">babies delivered by cesarean section</a>, individuals consuming a poor <a href="https://doi.org/10.1038/nature12820" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">diet</a> and the <a href="https://doi.org/10.1038/nature11053" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">elderly</a>.</p><p>In the U.S., 117 million individuals – about half the adult population – <a href="https://health.gov/our-work/food-nutrition/2015-2020-dietary-guidelines/guidelines/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">suffer from Type 2 diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease or a combination of them</a>. That suggests that half of American adults carry a faulty microbiome army.</p><p>Research in my laboratory focuses on identifying gut bacteria that are critical for creating a balanced immune system, which fights life-threatening bacterial and viral infections, while tolerating the beneficial bacteria in and on us.</p><p>Given that diet affects the diversity of bacteria in the gut, <a href="https://www.umassmed.edu/nutrition/melody-trial-info/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">my lab studies show how diet can be used</a> as a therapy for chronic diseases. Using different foods, people can shift their gut microbiome to one that boosts a healthy immune response.</p><p>A fraction of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19 disease, develop severe complications that require hospitalization in intensive care units. What do many of those patients have in common? <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6912e2.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Old age</a> and chronic diet-related diseases like obesity, Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.</p><p><a href="http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jada.2008.12.019" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Black and Latinx people are disproportionately affected by obesity, Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease</a>, all of which are linked to poor nutrition. Thus, it is not a coincidence that <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6933e1.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">these groups have suffered more deaths from COVID-19</a> compared with whites. This is the case not only in the U.S. but also <a href="https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/europe/blacks-in-britain-are-four-times-as-likely-to-die-of-coronavirus-as-whites-data-show/2020/05/07/2dc76710-9067-11ea-9322-a29e75effc93_story.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">in Britain</a>.</p>
Discovering Microbes That Predict COVID-19 Severity<p>The COVID-19 pandemic has inspired me to shift my research and explore the role of the gut microbiome in the overly aggressive immune response against SARS-CoV-2 infection.</p><p>My colleagues and I have hypothesized that critically ill SARS-CoV-2 patients with conditions like obesity, Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease exhibit an altered gut microbiome that aggravates <a href="https://theconversation.com/exercise-may-help-reduce-risk-of-deadly-covid-19-complication-ards-136922" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">acute respiratory distress syndrome</a>.</p><p>Acute respiratory distress syndrome, a life-threatening lung injury, in SARS-CoV-2 patients is thought to develop from a <a href="http://doi.org/10.1016/j.cytogfr.2020.05.003" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">fatal overreaction of the immune response</a> called a <a href="https://theconversation.com/blocking-the-deadly-cytokine-storm-is-a-vital-weapon-for-treating-covid-19-137690" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">cytokine storm</a> <a href="http://doi.org/10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30216-2" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">that causes an uncontrolled flood</a> <a href="http://doi.org/10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30216-2" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">of immune cells into the lungs</a>. In these patients, their own uncontrolled inflammatory immune response, rather than the virus itself, causes the <a href="http://doi.org/10.1007/s00134-020-05991-x" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">severe lung injury and multiorgan failures</a> that lead to death.</p><p>Several studies <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trsl.2020.08.004" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">described in one recent review</a> have identified an altered gut microbiome in patients with COVID-19. However, identification of specific bacteria within the microbiome that could predict COVID-19 severity is lacking.</p><p>To address this question, my colleagues and I recruited COVID-19 hospitalized patients with severe and moderate symptoms. We collected stool and saliva samples to determine whether bacteria within the gut and oral microbiome could predict COVID-19 severity. The identification of microbiome markers that can predict the clinical outcomes of COVID-19 disease is key to help prioritize patients needing urgent treatment.</p><p><a href="https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.01.05.20249061" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">We demonstrated</a>, in a paper which has not yet been peer reviewed, that the composition of the gut microbiome is the strongest predictor of COVID-19 severity compared to patient's clinical characteristics commonly used to do so. Specifically, we identified that the presence of a bacterium in the stool – called <em>Enterococcus faecalis</em>– was a robust predictor of COVID-19 severity. Not surprisingly, <em>Enterococcus faecalis</em> has been associated with <a href="https://doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2011.05.035" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">chronic</a> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/S0002-9440(10)61172-8" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">inflammation</a>.</p><p><em>Enterococcus faecalis</em> collected from feces can be grown outside of the body in clinical laboratories. Thus, an <em>E. faecalis</em> test might be a cost-effective, rapid and relatively easy way to identify patients who are likely to require more supportive care and therapeutic interventions to improve their chances of survival.</p><p>But it is not yet clear from our research what is the contribution of the altered microbiome in the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection. A recent study has shown that <a href="https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.12.11.416180" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">SARS-CoV-2 infection triggers an imbalance in immune cells</a> called <a href="https://doi.org/10.1111/imr.12170" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">T regulatory cells that are critical to immune balance</a>.</p><p>Bacteria from the gut microbiome are responsible for the <a href="https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.30916.001" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">proper activation</a> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1198469" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">of those T-regulatory</a> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1038/nri.2016.36" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">cells</a>. Thus, researchers like me need to take repeated patient stool, saliva and blood samples over a longer time frame to learn how the altered microbiome observed in COVID-19 patients can modulate COVID-19 disease severity, perhaps by altering the development of the T-regulatory cells.</p><p>As a Latina scientist investigating interactions between diet, microbiome and immunity, I must stress the importance of better policies to improve access to healthy foods, which lead to a healthier microbiome. It is also important to design culturally sensitive dietary interventions for Black and Latinx communities. While a good-quality diet might not prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection, it can treat the underlying conditions related to its severity.</p><p><em><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/ana-maldonado-contreras-1152969" target="_blank">Ana Maldonado-Contreras</a> is an assistant professor of Microbiology and Physiological Systems at the University of Massachusetts Medical School.</em></p><p><em>Disclosure statement: Ana Maldonado-Contreras receives funding from The Helmsley Charitable Trust and her work has been supported by the American Gastroenterological Association. She received The Charles A. King Trust Postdoctoral Research Fellowship. She is also member of the Diversity Committee of the American Gastroenterological Association.</em></p><p><em style="">Reposted with permission from <a href="https://theconversation.com/a-healthy-microbiome-builds-a-strong-immune-system-that-could-help-defeat-covid-19-145668" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" style="">The Conversation</a>. </em></p>
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