By Dr. Atli Arnarson
Soybeans are one of the world's most popular and versatile food crops.
They are processed into a variety of food products, such as soy protein, tofu, soybean oil, soy sauce, miso, natto and tempeh.
Soybeans are also eaten whole, including as immature soybeans known as edamame. Traditionally eaten in Asia, edamame is gaining popularity in Western countries, where it is typically eaten as a snack.
This article lists the main science-based health benefits of edamame.
What is Edamame?
Edamame beans are whole, immature soybeans, sometimes referred to as vegetable-type soybeans.
They are green and differ in color from regular soybeans, which are typically light brown, tan or beige.
Edamame beans are often sold while still encased in their pods, which are not meant to be eaten. You can also buy shelled edamame, without the pods.
In the U.S., most edamame is sold frozen. Generally, you can easily heat the beans by boiling, steaming, pan-frying or microwaving them for a few minutes.
Traditionally, they are prepared with a pinch of salt and added to soups, stews, salads and noodle dishes or simply eaten as a snack.
Edamame is served in sushi bars and in many Chinese and Japanese restaurants. You can find it in most large supermarkets in the U.S., typically in the frozen vegetable section. Most health food stores also carry it.
But is edamame healthy? The answer may depend on who you ask.
Soy foods are controversial. Some people avoid eating soybeans regularly, partly because they may interfere with thyroid function (1).
For more information about people's concerns, read this article.
Nevertheless, despite these concerns, edamame and soybeans may also have several health benefits. Below are the top 8.
1. High in Protein
Getting enough protein is crucial for optimal health.
Vegans and those who rarely eat high-protein animal foods need to pay special attention to what they eat on a daily basis.
One concern is the relatively low protein content of many plant foods. However, there are a few exceptions.
For instance, beans are among the best plant-based protein sources. In fact, they are the cornerstone of many vegan and vegetarian diets.
A cup (155 grams) of cooked edamame provides around 18.5 grams of protein (2).
Additionally, soybeans are a whole protein source. Unlike most plant proteins, they provide all the essential amino acids your body needs, although they are not as high-quality as animal protein (3).
Summary: Edamame contains around 12 percent protein, which is a decent amount for a plant food. It is also a quality protein source, providing all the essential amino acids.
2. May Lower Cholesterol
One review concluded that eating 47 grams of soy protein per day can lower total cholesterol levels by 9.3 percent and LDL (the "bad") cholesterol by 12.9 percent (6).
Another analysis of studies found that 50 grams of soy protein per day reduced LDL cholesterol levels by 3 percent (7).
It is unclear if these small-to-modest changes in cholesterol levels translate into a lower risk of heart disease.
Despite these uncertainties, the US Food and Drug Administration approves health claims for soy protein in the prevention of heart disease (8).
In addition to being a decent source of soy protein, edamame is rich in healthy fiber, antioxidants and vitamin K.
Summary: Edamame is rich in protein, antioxidants and fiber that may lower circulating cholesterol levels. However, it is unclear whether eating edamame has any effects on the risk of heart disease.
3. Doesn't Raise Blood Sugar
This is because fast digestion and carb absorption spikes blood sugar levels, a condition known as hyperglycemia.
Like other beans, edamame does not excessively raise blood sugar levels.
This makes edamame suitable for people with diabetes. It's also an excellent addition to a low-carb diet.
Summary: Edamame is low in carbs. It is suitable for people with type 2 diabetes, as well as those who follow a low-carb diet.
4. Rich in Vitamins and Minerals
Edamame contains high amounts of several vitamins and minerals, as well as fiber.
Edamame contains significantly more vitamin K and folate than mature soybeans.
In fact, if you eat a whole cup (155 grams), you will get around 52 percent of the RDI for vitamin K and more than 100 percent for folate.
Summary: Edamame is rich in several vitamins and minerals, especially vitamin K and folate.
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EcoWatch Daily Newsletter
By Naomi Larsson
For centuries, the delicate silver dove has been a symbol of love and fidelity.
Biodiversity and Habitat Loss<p>Their near extinction is a symbol of the <a href="https://www.dw.com/en/global-biodiversity-outlook-targets-extinction-summit-new-york-pledge/a-54932895" target="_blank">biodiversity crisis</a> in the UK, largely driven by habitat destruction. Britain is now one of the countries with the most <a href="https://www.wwf.org.uk/future-of-UK-nature#:~:text=The%20UK%20is%20one%20of,than%20half%20are%20in%20decline" target="_blank">depleted nature</a> in the world according to the World Wildlife Fund. Half its plant and animal species are in decline and more than <a href="https://www.rspb.org.uk/about-the-rspb/about-us/media-centre/press-releases/let-nature-sing-wales/#:~:text=a%20natural%20tragedy.-,Over%2040%20million%20birds%20have%20vanished%20from%20UK%20skies%20in,unaware%20of%20the%20impending%20danger" target="_blank">40 million birds</a> have vanished in just half a century.</p><p>"[Turtle doves] are the canary in the [coal] mine because there are all these other species before it and after it," said Tree. "It's an umbrella for all the other species that are heading that way."</p><p>Turtle doves migrate south through Europe to sub-Saharan Africa between July and September, ending up in dry woodland and farmland areas of countries like Mali and Senegal for winter. </p><p>Droughts in West Africa and the Sahel region are believed to have contributed to the fall in turtle dove species recorded in northern Europe, with low rainfall reducing supplies of the seeds and insects the birds rely on for energy for the long journey home.</p>
Conservation and Farming<p><a href="https://www.operationturtledove.org/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Operation Turtle Dove,</a> a partnership project of charities including the Essex Wildlife trust, works with landowners and farmers to actively build turtle dove habitat.</p><p>Outten works with <a href="https://www.ebws.org.uk/birdsites/blue-house-farm-ewt-north-fambridge" target="_blank">Blue House Farm</a>, a 660-acre nature reserve in the UK county of Essex, where they have replicated weedy fallow plots. </p><p>"We work on it every year to make sure it's in the condition it needs to be with plants such as clovers and black medic," Outten said. "These plants are native to the landscape and produce the seed the birds feed on." </p><p>The birds eat a wide range of seeds from various plants that would have been abundant 50 or 100 years ago, added Guy Anderson, program manager for species recovery with The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB). </p><p>"But it's simply true that with the gradual process of <a href="https://www.dw.com/en/farming-without-pesticides-how-can-we-make-agriculture-greener/a-52216796" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">intensifying our agricultural production</a>, the availability of those seeds has dropped and dropped," said Anderson.</p><p>Part of the project includes supplementary feeding — providing sources of food in the form of seed or grain. Under the Countryside Stewardship Scheme in England, farmers can receive financial support to create a turtle dove habitat. </p><p>Though they haven't recorded an increase in doves across the sites in the four years of working on the project, Outten said they are seeing improvements in how landowners and farmers manage habitat for the birds. </p>
A Turtle Dove Haven<p>The 3,500-acre Knepp Estate in West Sussex is another project taking a different approach and one of the few places where turtle dove numbers are increasing.</p><p>Isabella Tree and her husband Charlie Burrell converted their intensively farmed land into a rewilding project almost 20 years ago. They have let the land return to nature.</p><p>Just one year after they'd finished <a href="https://www.dw.com/en/uks-most-talented-architects-are-not-human/a-35952128" target="_blank">rewilding</a> the southern part of their property, they heard turtle doves for the first time. It's now a breeding hotspot for the birds with an estimated 19 pairs. Knepp is also home to <a href="https://www.rewildingbritain.org.uk/rewilding/rewilding-projects/knepp-estate" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">2% of the UK's population</a> of nightingales. </p><p>Tree is critical of supplementary feeding schemes that, in her view, are short term. She questions the chances of turtle doves getting to feed on scattered seeds before other mammals eat them first.</p>
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Green groups applauded Sen. Jeff Merkley on Wednesday for introducing a pioneering pair of bills that aim to "protect the long-term health and well-being of the American people and their economy from the catastrophic effects of climate chaos" by preventing banks and international financial institutions from financing fossil fuels.