By Dr. Matthew Thorpe
Cumin is a spice made from the seeds of the Cuminum cyminum plant.
Many dishes use cumin, especially foods from its native regions of the Mediterranean and Southwest Asia.
Cumin lends its distinctive flavor to chili, tamales and various Indian curries. Its flavor has been described as earthy, nutty, spicy and warm.
What's more, cumin has long been used in traditional medicine.
Modern studies have confirmed some of the health benefits cumin is traditionally known for, including promoting digestion and reducing food-borne infections.
Research has also revealed some new benefits, such as promoting weight loss and improving blood sugar control and cholesterol.
This article will review nine evidence-based health benefits of cumin.
1. Promotes Digestion
The most common traditional use of cumin is for indigestion.
In fact, modern research has confirmed cumin may help rev up normal digestion (1).
For example, it increases the release of digestive proteins made in the mouth, stomach and small intestine, which may speed up digestion (2).
Cumin also increases the release of bile from the liver. Bile helps digest fats and certain nutrients in your gut (1).
In one study, 57 patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) reported improved symptoms after taking concentrated cumin for two weeks (3).
Summary: Cumin aids digestion by increasing the release of digestive proteins. It may also reduce symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome.
2. Is a Rich Source of Iron
Cumin seeds are naturally rich in iron (4).
One teaspoon of ground cumin contains 1.4 mg of iron, or 17.5 percent of the RDI for adults (5).
In particular, children need iron to support growth and young women need iron to replace blood lost during menstruation (6).
Few foods are as iron-dense as cumin. This makes it a good iron source, even when used in small amounts as a seasoning.
Summary: Many people around the world don't get enough iron. Cumin is very dense in iron, providing almost 20 percent of your daily iron in one teaspoon.
3. Contains Beneficial Plant Compounds
Several of these function as antioxidants, which are chemicals that reduce damage to your body from free radicals (12).
Free radicals are basically lonely electrons. Electrons like being in pairs and when they split up, they become unstable.
These lone or "free" electrons steal other electron partners away from other chemicals in your body. This process is called "oxidation."
Antioxidants like those in cumin give an electron to a lonely free radical electron, making it more stable (14).
Cumin's antioxidants likely explain some of its health benefits (15).
Summary: Free radicals are lone electrons that cause inflammation and damage DNA. Cumin contains antioxidants that stabilize free radicals.
4. May Help With Diabetes
Some of cumin's components have shown promise helping to treat diabetes.
One clinical study showed a concentrated cumin supplement improved early indicators of diabetes in overweight individuals, compared to a placebo (16).
Cumin also contains components that counter some of the long-term effects of diabetes.
They're produced spontaneously in the bloodstream when blood sugar levels are high over long periods of time, as they are in diabetes. AGEs are created when sugars attach to proteins and disrupt their normal function.
AGEs are likely responsible for damage to eyes, kidneys, nerves and small blood vessels in diabetes (17).
Cumin contains several components that reduce AGEs, at least in test-tube studies (18).
It is not yet clear what is responsible for these effects or how much cumin is needed to cause benefits.
Summary: Cumin supplements may help improve blood sugar control, though it is not clear what causes this effect or how much is needed.
5. May Improve Blood Cholesterol
Cumin has also improved blood cholesterol in clinical studies.
In one study, 75 mg of cumin taken twice daily for eight weeks decreased unhealthy blood triglycerides (21).
In another study, levels of oxidized "bad" LDL cholesterol were decreased by nearly 10 percent in patients taking cumin extract over one and a half months (22).
One study of 88 women looked at whether cumin affected levels of "good" HDL cholesterol. Those who took 3 grams of cumin with yogurt twice a day for three months had higher levels of HDL than those who ate yogurt without it (23).
It is not known if cumin used as seasoning in the diet has the same blood cholesterol benefits as the supplements used in these studies.
Also, not all studies agree on this effect. One study found no changes in blood cholesterol in participants who took a cumin supplement (24).
Summary: Cumin supplements have improved blood cholesterol in multiple studies. It is unclear if using cumin in small amounts as a seasoning has the same benefits.
6. May Promote Weight Loss and Fat Reduction
Concentrated cumin supplements have helped promote weight loss in a few clinical studies.
One study of 88 overweight women found that yogurt containing 3 grams of cumin promoted weight loss, compared to yogurt without it (23).
Another study showed that participants who took 75 mg of cumin supplements every day lost 3 pounds (1.4 kg) more than those who took a placebo (21).
A third clinical study looked at the effects of a concentrated cumin supplement in 78 adult men and women. Those who took the supplement lost 2.2 pounds (1 kg) more over eight weeks than those who did not (16).
Summary: Concentrated cumin supplements have promoted weight loss in multiple studies. Not all studies have shown this benefit and higher doses may be required for weight loss.
7. May Prevent Food-Borne Illnesses
One of cumin's traditional roles in seasoning may have been for food safety.
Many seasonings, including cumin, appear to have antimicrobial properties that may reduce the risk of food-borne infections (25).
When digested, cumin releases a component called megalomicin, which has antibiotic properties (8).
Additionally, a test-tube study showed that cumin reduces the drug resistance of certain bacteria (28).
Summary: Cumin's traditional use as a seasoning may restrict the growth of infectious bacteria and fungi. This may reduce food-borne illnesses.
8. May Help With Drug Dependence
Narcotic dependence is a growing concern internationally.
Opioid narcotics create addiction by hijacking the normal sense of craving and reward in the brain. This leads to continued or increased use.
Studies in mice have shown that cumin components reduce addictive behavior and withdrawal symptoms (29).
However, much more research is needed to determine whether this effect would be useful in humans.
The next steps include finding the specific ingredient that caused this effect and testing whether it works in humans (30).
Summary: Cumin extracts reduce signs of narcotic addiction in mice. It is not yet known if they would have similar effects in humans.
9. May Fight Inflammation
Test-tube studies have shown cumin extracts inhibit inflammation (31).
There is not enough information right now to know whether cumin in the diet or cumin supplements are useful in treating inflammatory diseases.
Summary: Cumin contains multiple plant compounds that decrease inflammation in test-tube studies. It is not clear if it can be used to help treat inflammatory diseases in people.
Should You Use Cumin?
You can get some of cumin's benefits just by using small amounts to season food.
These quantities will provide antioxidants, iron and potential benefits for controlling blood sugar.
Other, more experimental benefits—such as weight loss and improved blood cholesterol—may require a higher dose, probably in supplement form.
Multiple studies have tested cumin supplements of up to 1 gram (about 1 teaspoon) without their participants reporting problems. However, severe allergic reactions to cumin have been reported, but are very rare (33).
That said, be cautious when taking any supplement that contains much more cumin than you could possibly consume in food.
Just as with any ingredient, your body may not be equipped to process doses it would not normally experience in the diet.
If you decide to try supplements, let your doctor know what you're taking and use the supplements to complement, not replace, medical treatments.
Summary: You can get many of cumin's benefits just by using small amounts as seasoning. Other benefits may only be available at supplemental doses.
The Bottom Line
Cumin has many evidence-based health benefits. Some of these have been known since ancient times, while others are only just being learned about.
Using cumin as a spice increases antioxidant intake, promotes digestion, provides iron, may improve blood sugar control and may reduce food-borne illnesses.
Taking higher doses in supplement form has been linked to weight loss and improved blood cholesterol, though more research is needed.
I personally prefer to use cumin in cooking rather than as a supplement. This way, I take advantage of the 10th benefit of cumin—it's delicious.
Reposted with permission from our media associate Authority Nutrition.
EcoWatch Daily Newsletter
By Joe Leech
The human body comprises around 60% water.
It's commonly recommended that you drink eight 8-ounce (237-mL) glasses of water per day (the 8×8 rule).
1. Helps Maximize Physical Performance<p>If you don't stay hydrated, your physical performance can suffer.</p><p>This is particularly important during intense exercise or high heat.</p><p>Dehydration can have <a href="https://www.healthline.com/health/how-to-tell-if-youre-dehydrated" target="_blank">a noticeable effect</a> if you lose as little as 2% of your body's water content. However, it isn't uncommon for athletes to lose as much as 6–10% of their water weight via sweat.</p><p>This can lead to altered body temperature control, reduced motivation, and increased fatigue. It can also make exercise feel much more difficult, both physically and mentally.</p><p>Optimal hydration has been shown to prevent this from happening, and it may even reduce the <a href="https://www.healthline.com/health/oxidative-stress" target="_blank">oxidative stress</a> that occurs during high intensity exercise. This isn't surprising when you consider that muscle is about 80% water.<a href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19344695" target="_blank"><span></span></a></p><p>If you exercise intensely and tend to sweat, staying hydrated can help you perform at your absolute best.</p><p><strong>Summary</strong></p><p><strong></strong>Losing as little as 2% of your body's water content can significantly impair your physical performance.</p>
2. Significantly Affects Energy Levels and Brain Function<p>Your brain is strongly influenced by your hydration status.</p><p>Studies show that even mild dehydration, such as the loss of 1–3% of body weight, can impair many aspects of brain function.</p><p>In a study in young women, researchers found that fluid loss of 1.4% after exercise impaired both mood and concentration. It also increased the frequency of headaches.</p><p>Many members of this same research team conducted a similar study in young men. They found that fluid loss of 1.6% was detrimental to working memory and increased feelings of anxiety and fatigue.<a href="https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition/article/mild-dehydration-impairs-cognitive-performance-and-mood-of-men/3388AB36B8DF73E844C9AD19271A75BF/core-reader" target="_blank"></a></p><p>A fluid loss of 1–3% equals about 1.5–4.5 pounds (0.5–2 kg) of body weight loss for a person weighing 150 pounds (68 kg). This can easily occur through normal daily activities, let alone during exercise or high heat.</p><p>Many other studies, with subjects ranging from <a href="https://www.healthline.com/health/parenting/signs-of-dehydration-in-toddlers" target="_blank">children</a> to <a href="https://www.healthline.com/health/symptoms-of-dehydration-in-elderly" target="_blank">older adults</a>, have shown that mild dehydration can impair mood, memory, and brain performance.</p><p><strong>Summary</strong></p><p><strong></strong>Mild dehydration (fluid loss of 1–3%) can impair energy levels, impair mood, and lead to major reductions in memory and brain performance.</p>
3. May Help Prevent and Treat Headaches<p>Dehydration can trigger <a href="https://www.healthline.com/health/dehydration-headache" target="_blank">headaches</a> and migraine in some individuals.<span></span></p><p>Research has shown that a headache is one of the most common symptoms of dehydration. For example, a study in 393 people found that 40% of the participants experienced a headache as a result of dehydration.</p><p>What's more, some studies have shown that drinking water can help relieve headaches in those who experience frequent headaches.</p><p>A study in 102 men found that drinking an additional 50.7 ounces (1.5 liters) of water per day resulted in significant improvements on the Migraine-Specific Quality of Life scale, a scoring system for <a href="https://www.healthline.com/health/migraine-symptoms" target="_blank">migraine symptoms</a>.<a href="https://academic.oup.com/fampra/article/29/4/370/492787" target="_blank"></a></p><p>Plus, 47% of the men who drank more water reported headache improvement, while only 25% of the men in the control group reported this effect.<a href="https://academic.oup.com/fampra/article/29/4/370/492787" target="_blank"></a></p><p>However, not all studies agree, and researchers have concluded that because of the lack of high quality studies, more research is needed to confirm how increasing hydration may help improve headache symptoms and decrease headache frequency.<a href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26200171" target="_blank"></a></p><p><strong>Summary</strong></p><p><strong></strong>Drinking water may help reduce headaches and headache symptoms. However, more high quality research is needed to confirm this potential benefit.</p>
4. May Help Relieve Constipation<p><a href="https://www.healthline.com/health/constipation" target="_blank">Constipation</a> is a common problem that's characterized by infrequent bowel movements and difficulty passing stool.</p><p>Increasing fluid intake is often recommended as a part of the treatment protocol, and there's some evidence to back this up.</p><p>Low water consumption appears to be a risk factor for constipation in both younger and older individuals.</p><p>Increasing hydration may help decrease constipation.</p><p><a href="https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/mineral-water-benefits" target="_blank">Mineral water</a> may be a particularly beneficial beverage for those with constipation.</p><p>Studies have shown that mineral water that's rich in magnesium and sodium improves bowel movement frequency and consistency in people with constipation.<a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5334415" target="_blank"></a></p><p><strong>Summary</strong></p><p><strong></strong>Drinking plenty of water may help prevent and relieve constipation, especially in people who generally don't drink enough water.</p>
5. May Help Treat Kidney Stones<p>Urinary stones are painful clumps of mineral crystal that form in the urinary system.</p><p>The most common form is <a href="https://www.healthline.com/health/kidney-stones" target="_blank">kidney stones</a>, which form in the kidneys.</p><p>There's limited evidence that water intake can help prevent recurrence in people who have previously gotten kidney stones.<a href="https://www.cochranelibrary.com/cdsr/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD004292.pub3/full" target="_blank"></a></p><p>Higher fluid intake increases the volume of urine passing through the kidneys. This dilutes the concentration of minerals, so they're less likely to crystallize and form clumps.</p><p>Water may also help prevent the initial formation of stones, but studies are required to confirm this.</p><p><strong>Summary</strong></p><p><strong></strong>Increased water intake appears to decrease the risk of kidney stone formation.</p>
6. Helps Prevent Hangovers<p>A hangover refers to the unpleasant symptoms experienced after drinking <a href="https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/alcohol-good-or-bad" target="_blank">alcohol</a>.</p><p>Alcohol is a diuretic, so it makes you lose more water than you take in. This can lead to dehydration.</p><p>Although dehydration isn't the main cause of hangovers, it can cause symptoms like thirst, fatigue, headache, and dry mouth.</p><p>Good ways <a href="https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/7-ways-to-prevent-a-hangover" target="_blank">to reduce hangovers</a> are to drink a glass of water between drinks and have at least one big glass of water before going to bed.</p><p><strong>Summary</strong></p><p><strong></strong>Hangovers are partly caused by dehydration, and drinking water can help reduce some of the main symptoms of hangovers.</p>
7. Can Aid Weight Loss<p>Drinking plenty of water can help you <a href="https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/how-to-lose-weight-as-fast-as-possible/" target="_blank">lose weight</a>.</p><p>This is because water can increase satiety and boost your metabolic rate.</p><p>Some evidence suggests that increasing water intake can promote weight loss by slightly increasing your metabolism, which can increase the number of calories you burn on a daily basis.</p><p>A 2013 study in 50 young women with overweight demonstrated that drinking an additional 16.9 ounces (500 mL) of water 3 times per day before meals for 8 weeks led to significant reductions in body weight and body fat compared with their pre-study measurements.</p><p>The timing is important too. Drinking water half an hour before meals is the most effective. It can make you feel more full so that you <a href="https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/35-ways-to-cut-calories" target="_blank">eat fewer calories</a>.</p><p>In one study, dieters who drank 16.9 ounces (0.5 liters) of water before meals lost 44% more weight over a period of 12 weeks than dieters who didn't drink water before meals.</p>
The Bottom Line<p>Even mild dehydration can affect you mentally and physically.</p><p>Make sure that you <a href="https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/how-much-water-should-you-drink-per-day" target="_blank">get enough water each day</a>, whether your personal goal is 64 ounces (1.9 liters) or a different amount. It's one of the best things you can do for your overall health.</p>
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Since even moderate-intensity workouts offer a slew of benefits, walking is a good choice for people looking to stay healthy.
How to Rock Your Walk<p>Walking isn't just fun and healthy. It's accessible.</p><p>"Walking is cheap," says Dr. John Paul H. Rue, a sports medicine doctor at <a href="https://mdmercy.com/" target="_blank">Mercy Medical Center in Baltimore</a>. "You can do it anywhere at any time; [it] requires little to no special equipment and has many of the same cardio benefits as running or other more intense workouts."</p><p>Want to up your walking game? Try the tips below.</p>
Use Hand Weights<p>Cardio and strength training can go hand-in-hand when you add weights to your walk.</p><p>A <a href="https://journals.lww.com/acsm-msse/Fulltext/2019/03000/Associations_of_Resistance_Exercise_with.14.aspx" target="_blank">2019 study</a> found that weight training is good for your heart, and <a href="https://www.mayoclinicproceedings.org/article/S0025-6196(17)30167-2/abstract" target="_blank">research</a> shows it reduces the risk of developing a <a href="https://www.healthline.com/health/nutrition-metabolism-disorders" target="_blank">metabolic disorder</a> by 17 percent. People with metabolic disorders have a higher chance of being diagnosed with high cholesterol, high blood pressure, and diabetes.</p><p>Rue suggests not carrying weights for your entire walk.</p><p>"Hand weights can give you an added level of energy burning, but you have to be careful with these because carrying [them] over a long period of time or while walking could actually lead to some overuse injuries," he says.</p>
Make It a Circuit<p>As another option, consider doing a circuit. First, put a pair of dumbbells on your lawn or somewhere in your home. Walk around the block once, then stop and do some bicep curls and tricep lifts before walking around the block again.</p><p>Rue recommends <a href="https://www.healthline.com/health/exercise-fitness/running-with-weights" target="_blank">avoiding ankle weights</a> during cardio workouts, as they force you to use your quadriceps rather than hamstrings. They can also cause muscle imbalance, according to the <a href="https://www.health.harvard.edu/staying-healthy/wearable-weights-how-they-can-help-or-hurt" target="_blank">Harvard Health Letter</a>.</p>
Find a Fitness Trail<p>Strength training isn't limited to weights. You can get stronger by <a href="https://www.healthline.com/health/bodyweight-workout" target="_blank">simply using your body</a>.</p><p>Often found at parks, fitness trails are obstacle courses with equipment for pullups, pushups, rowing, and stretches to build upper and lower body strength.</p><p>Try searching "fitness trails near me" online, checking out your local parks and recreation website, or calling the municipal office to <a href="https://calisthenics-parks.com/" target="_blank">find one</a>.</p>
Recruit a Friend<p>People who workout together stay healthy together.</p><p><a href="https://bmcgeriatr.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12877-017-0584-3" target="_blank">One study</a> showed that older adults who exercised with a group improved or maintained their functional health and enjoyed their lives more.</p><p>Enlist the help of a walking buddy with a regimen you aspire to have. If you don't know anyone in your area, apps like <a href="https://www.strava.com/" target="_blank">Strava</a> have social networking features so you can get support from fellow exercisers.</p>
Try Meditation<p>According to the <a href="https://www.nccih.nih.gov/research/statistics/nhis/2017" target="_blank">2017 National Health Interview Survey</a>, published by the National Institutes of Health, meditation is on the rise, and for good reason.</p><p>Researchers <a href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29616846/" target="_blank">found</a> that mind-body relaxation practices can regulate inflammation, <a href="https://www.healthline.com/health/biological-rhythms" target="_blank">circadian rhythms</a>, and <a href="https://www.healthline.com/health/glucose" target="_blank">glucose</a> metabolism, as well as lower <a href="https://www.healthline.com/health/high-blood-pressure-hypertension" target="_blank">blood pressure</a>.</p><p>"Any form of exercise can be turned into a meditation of some type, either by the surroundings you are walking in, like a park or trail, or by blocking out the outside world with music on your headphones," Rue says.</p><p>You can also play a podcast or download an app like <a href="https://www.headspace.com/headspace-meditation-app" target="_blank">Headspace</a> that has a library of guided meditations to practice while you walk.</p>
Do Fartlek Walks<p>Typically used in running, fartlek intervals alternate periods of increased and decreased speed. These are <a href="https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/benefits-of-hiit" target="_blank">high-intensity interval training (HIIT)</a> workouts, which allow exercisers to accomplish more in less time.</p><p><a href="https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0154075" target="_blank">One study</a> showed that 10-minute interval training improved <a href="https://www.healthline.com/health/metabolic-syndrome" target="_blank">cardiometabolic</a> health, or lowered the risk of heart disease, stroke, and diabetes, just as well as working out at a continuous pace for 50 minutes.</p><p><a href="https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0111489" target="_blank">Research</a> also shows that HIIT workouts increase muscle <a href="https://www.healthline.com/health/fast-twitch-muscles" target="_blank">oxidative</a> capacity, or the ability to use oxygen. To do a fartlek walk, try walking at an increased pace for 3 minutes, slow down for 2 minutes, and repeat.</p>
Gradually Increase Pace<p>A faster walking pace is associated with a lower risk of <a href="https://www.healthline.com/health/copd" target="_blank">chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)</a> and respiratory diseases, according to a <a href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30303933/" target="_blank">2019 study</a>.</p><p>Still, it's best not to go from a stroll to an Olympic-worthy power walk in a day. Instead, increase your pace gradually to prevent injury.</p><p>"Start by walking at a brisk pace for about 10 minutes per day, 3 to 5 days per week," Rue says. "Once you've done this for a few weeks, increase your time by 5 to 10 minutes per day until you get to 30 minutes."</p>
Add Stairs<p>You've likely heard that taking the stairs instead of an elevator is a way to add more movement into your daily routine. It's also a way to step up your walking. Stair climbing has been shown to <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2211335519301123?via%3Dihub" target="_blank">decrease the risk of mortality</a> and can easily add a bit more challenge to your walk.</p><p>If you don't have stairs in your home, you can often find them outside a local municipal building, train station, or at a high school stadium.</p>
Is Your Walk a True Cardio Workout?<p>Not all walks are equal. A walk that's too leisurely may not provide enough burn to qualify as cardio. To see if you're getting a good workout, try to <a href="https://www.healthline.com/health/how-to-check-heart-rate" target="_blank">measure your heart rate</a> using a monitor.</p><p>"A target goal for a good walking workout heart rate is about 50 to 70 percent of your maximum heart rate," Rue says, adding that maximum heart rate is <a href="https://www.healthline.com/health/fitness-exercise/fat-burning-heart-rate" target="_blank">typically calculated</a> by 220 beats per minute minus your age.</p><p>You can also monitor how easily you can carry on a conversation while you walk to gauge your heart rate.</p><p>"If you can walk and carry on a normal conversation, that's probably a lower intensity walk," says Rue. "If you are slightly breathless but can still have a conversation, that's probably a moderate workout. If you are out of breath and can't talk normally, that's a vigorous workout."</p>
Takeaway<p>By shaking up your routine, you can add excitement to your workout and reap even more rewards than a basic walk provides. Increasing the pace and intensity of a workout will make it more effective.</p><p>Simply pick your favorite variation to add some spice to your next walk.</p>
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