By Dr. Matthew Thorpe
Cumin is a spice made from the seeds of the Cuminum cyminum plant.
Many dishes use cumin, especially foods from its native regions of the Mediterranean and Southwest Asia.
Cumin lends its distinctive flavor to chili, tamales and various Indian curries. Its flavor has been described as earthy, nutty, spicy and warm.
What's more, cumin has long been used in traditional medicine.
Modern studies have confirmed some of the health benefits cumin is traditionally known for, including promoting digestion and reducing food-borne infections.
Research has also revealed some new benefits, such as promoting weight loss and improving blood sugar control and cholesterol.
This article will review nine evidence-based health benefits of cumin.
1. Promotes Digestion
The most common traditional use of cumin is for indigestion.
In fact, modern research has confirmed cumin may help rev up normal digestion (1).
For example, it increases the release of digestive proteins made in the mouth, stomach and small intestine, which may speed up digestion (2).
Cumin also increases the release of bile from the liver. Bile helps digest fats and certain nutrients in your gut (1).
In one study, 57 patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) reported improved symptoms after taking concentrated cumin for two weeks (3).
Summary: Cumin aids digestion by increasing the release of digestive proteins. It may also reduce symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome.
2. Is a Rich Source of Iron
Cumin seeds are naturally rich in iron (4).
One teaspoon of ground cumin contains 1.4 mg of iron, or 17.5 percent of the RDI for adults (5).
In particular, children need iron to support growth and young women need iron to replace blood lost during menstruation (6).
Few foods are as iron-dense as cumin. This makes it a good iron source, even when used in small amounts as a seasoning.
Summary: Many people around the world don't get enough iron. Cumin is very dense in iron, providing almost 20 percent of your daily iron in one teaspoon.
3. Contains Beneficial Plant Compounds
Several of these function as antioxidants, which are chemicals that reduce damage to your body from free radicals (12).
Free radicals are basically lonely electrons. Electrons like being in pairs and when they split up, they become unstable.
These lone or "free" electrons steal other electron partners away from other chemicals in your body. This process is called "oxidation."
Antioxidants like those in cumin give an electron to a lonely free radical electron, making it more stable (14).
Cumin's antioxidants likely explain some of its health benefits (15).
Summary: Free radicals are lone electrons that cause inflammation and damage DNA. Cumin contains antioxidants that stabilize free radicals.
4. May Help With Diabetes
Some of cumin's components have shown promise helping to treat diabetes.
One clinical study showed a concentrated cumin supplement improved early indicators of diabetes in overweight individuals, compared to a placebo (16).
Cumin also contains components that counter some of the long-term effects of diabetes.
They're produced spontaneously in the bloodstream when blood sugar levels are high over long periods of time, as they are in diabetes. AGEs are created when sugars attach to proteins and disrupt their normal function.
AGEs are likely responsible for damage to eyes, kidneys, nerves and small blood vessels in diabetes (17).
Cumin contains several components that reduce AGEs, at least in test-tube studies (18).
It is not yet clear what is responsible for these effects or how much cumin is needed to cause benefits.
Summary: Cumin supplements may help improve blood sugar control, though it is not clear what causes this effect or how much is needed.
5. May Improve Blood Cholesterol
Cumin has also improved blood cholesterol in clinical studies.
In one study, 75 mg of cumin taken twice daily for eight weeks decreased unhealthy blood triglycerides (21).
In another study, levels of oxidized "bad" LDL cholesterol were decreased by nearly 10 percent in patients taking cumin extract over one and a half months (22).
One study of 88 women looked at whether cumin affected levels of "good" HDL cholesterol. Those who took 3 grams of cumin with yogurt twice a day for three months had higher levels of HDL than those who ate yogurt without it (23).
It is not known if cumin used as seasoning in the diet has the same blood cholesterol benefits as the supplements used in these studies.
Also, not all studies agree on this effect. One study found no changes in blood cholesterol in participants who took a cumin supplement (24).
Summary: Cumin supplements have improved blood cholesterol in multiple studies. It is unclear if using cumin in small amounts as a seasoning has the same benefits.
6. May Promote Weight Loss and Fat Reduction
Concentrated cumin supplements have helped promote weight loss in a few clinical studies.
One study of 88 overweight women found that yogurt containing 3 grams of cumin promoted weight loss, compared to yogurt without it (23).
Another study showed that participants who took 75 mg of cumin supplements every day lost 3 pounds (1.4 kg) more than those who took a placebo (21).
A third clinical study looked at the effects of a concentrated cumin supplement in 78 adult men and women. Those who took the supplement lost 2.2 pounds (1 kg) more over eight weeks than those who did not (16).
Summary: Concentrated cumin supplements have promoted weight loss in multiple studies. Not all studies have shown this benefit and higher doses may be required for weight loss.
7. May Prevent Food-Borne Illnesses
One of cumin's traditional roles in seasoning may have been for food safety.
Many seasonings, including cumin, appear to have antimicrobial properties that may reduce the risk of food-borne infections (25).
When digested, cumin releases a component called megalomicin, which has antibiotic properties (8).
Additionally, a test-tube study showed that cumin reduces the drug resistance of certain bacteria (28).
Summary: Cumin's traditional use as a seasoning may restrict the growth of infectious bacteria and fungi. This may reduce food-borne illnesses.
8. May Help With Drug Dependence
Narcotic dependence is a growing concern internationally.
Opioid narcotics create addiction by hijacking the normal sense of craving and reward in the brain. This leads to continued or increased use.
Studies in mice have shown that cumin components reduce addictive behavior and withdrawal symptoms (29).
However, much more research is needed to determine whether this effect would be useful in humans.
The next steps include finding the specific ingredient that caused this effect and testing whether it works in humans (30).
Summary: Cumin extracts reduce signs of narcotic addiction in mice. It is not yet known if they would have similar effects in humans.
9. May Fight Inflammation
Test-tube studies have shown cumin extracts inhibit inflammation (31).
There is not enough information right now to know whether cumin in the diet or cumin supplements are useful in treating inflammatory diseases.
Summary: Cumin contains multiple plant compounds that decrease inflammation in test-tube studies. It is not clear if it can be used to help treat inflammatory diseases in people.
Should You Use Cumin?
You can get some of cumin's benefits just by using small amounts to season food.
These quantities will provide antioxidants, iron and potential benefits for controlling blood sugar.
Other, more experimental benefits—such as weight loss and improved blood cholesterol—may require a higher dose, probably in supplement form.
Multiple studies have tested cumin supplements of up to 1 gram (about 1 teaspoon) without their participants reporting problems. However, severe allergic reactions to cumin have been reported, but are very rare (33).
That said, be cautious when taking any supplement that contains much more cumin than you could possibly consume in food.
Just as with any ingredient, your body may not be equipped to process doses it would not normally experience in the diet.
If you decide to try supplements, let your doctor know what you're taking and use the supplements to complement, not replace, medical treatments.
Summary: You can get many of cumin's benefits just by using small amounts as seasoning. Other benefits may only be available at supplemental doses.
The Bottom Line
Cumin has many evidence-based health benefits. Some of these have been known since ancient times, while others are only just being learned about.
Using cumin as a spice increases antioxidant intake, promotes digestion, provides iron, may improve blood sugar control and may reduce food-borne illnesses.
Taking higher doses in supplement form has been linked to weight loss and improved blood cholesterol, though more research is needed.
I personally prefer to use cumin in cooking rather than as a supplement. This way, I take advantage of the 10th benefit of cumin—it's delicious.
Reposted with permission from our media associate Authority Nutrition.
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EcoWatch Daily Newsletter
By Dolf Gielen and Morgan Bazilian
John Kerry helped bring the world into the Paris climate agreement and expanded America's reputation as a climate leader. That reputation is now in tatters, and President-elect Joe Biden is asking Kerry to rebuild it again – this time as U.S. climate envoy.
Energy Is at the Center of the Climate Challenge<p>The <a href="https://science2017.globalchange.gov/chapter/1/" target="_blank">effects of climate change</a> are already evident across the globe, from <a href="https://theconversation.com/100-degrees-in-siberia-5-ways-the-extreme-arctic-heat-wave-follows-a-disturbing-pattern-141442" target="_blank">extreme heat waves</a> to <a href="https://science2017.globalchange.gov/chapter/12/" target="_blank">sea level rise</a>. But while the challenge is daunting, there is hope. Solar and wind power have become the <a href="https://www.irena.org/publications/2020/Jun/Renewable-Power-Costs-in-2019" target="_blank">cheapest forms of power generation globally</a>, and technology progress and innovation continue apace to support a transition to clean energy.</p><p>In the U.S. under a Biden administration, long-term national climate legislation will depend on who controls the Senate, and that won't be clear until after two run-off elections in Georgia in January.</p><p>But there is no shortage of <a href="https://www.bloomberg.com/features/2020-biden-climate-change-advice/" target="_blank">ideas for ways Biden</a> could still take action even if his proposals are blocked in Congress. For example, he could use executive orders and direct government agencies to tighten regulations on greenhouse gas emissions; increase research and development in clean energy technologies; and empower states to exceed national standards, <a href="https://www.reuters.com/article/us-autos-emissions-california/defying-trump-california-locks-in-vehicle-emission-deals-with-major-automakers-idUSKCN25D2CH" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">as California did in the past with auto emission standards</a>. A focus on a just and equitable transition for communities and people affected by the decline of fossil fuels will also be key to creating a sustainable transition.</p><p>The U.S. position as the world's largest oil and gas producer and consumer creates political challenges for any administration. U.S. forays into European energy security are often treated with suspicion. Recently, France blocked <a href="https://www.wsj.com/articles/frances-engie-backs-out-of-u-s-lng-deal-11604435609" target="_blank">a multi-billion dollar contract</a> to buy U.S. liquefied natural gas because of concerns about limited emissions regulations in Texas.</p><p>Strengthening cooperation and partnerships with like-minded countries will be critical to bring about a transition to cleaner energy as well as sustainability in agriculture, forestry, water and other sectors of the global economy.</p>
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By Maria Caffrey
As we approach the holidays I, like most people, have been reflecting on everything 2020 has given us (or taken away) while starting to look ahead to 2021.
We Need More Than Listening<p>By now we have all become sadly accustomed to the current administration sidelining scientists, most prominently Dr. Anthony Fauci, because the facts they provide do not fit with the political rhetoric of the moment.</p><p>I have <a href="https://www.csldf.org/2019/08/22/csldf-helps-climate-scientist-maria-caffrey-fight-for-scientific-integrity/" target="_blank">my own history</a> of filing a scientific integrity complaint with the National Park Service (which falls under the Department of the Interior) after senior ranking employees attempted to censor one of my scientific reports. I know all too well the damage and pain that these actions cause, not just for the individual scientist, but also because these <a href="https://www.ucsusa.org/resources/attacks-on-science" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">attacks on science</a> over the last few years have undermined sound, evidence-based decision making.</p><p>President-elect Biden has repeatedly said that he will <a href="https://thehill.com/homenews/521638-trump-biden-will-listen-to-the-scientists-if-elected" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">listen to the scientists</a>. While this is certainly a welcome change, listening can only take us so far. This past week Lauren Kurtz from the <a href="https://www.csldf.org/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Climate Science Legal Defense Fund</a> and my colleague <a href="https://www.ucsusa.org/about/people/gretchen-goldman" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Gretchen Goldman</a> published <a href="https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/ten-steps-that-can-restore-scientific-integrity-in-government/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">an article</a> listing 10 actions the new administration should implement to show their commitment to strengthening government science:</p><ol><li>Clearly prohibit political interference and censorship.</li><li>Protect scientists' communication rights.</li><li>Acknowledge that attempts to violate scientific integrity, even if ultimately not fruitful, are still violations.</li><li>Protect federal scientists' right to provide information to Congress and other lawmakers.</li><li>Commit to incorporating the best science as part of agency decisions.</li><li>Elevate agency scientific integrity policies to have the full force of law.</li><li>Publicly release anonymized information about scientific integrity complaints and their resolutions at every agency.</li><li>Institute an intra-agency workforce, potentially under the White House <a href="https://www.ucsusa.org/sites/default/files/2020-09/strengthening-science-and-si-at-ostp.pdf" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Office of Science and Technology Policy</a>, to coordinate scientific integrity efforts across agencies, foster discussion of policy improvements, and standardize criteria for policies across agencies.</li><li>Strengthen whistleblower protections.</li><li>Ensure that policies cover all actors who will be dealing with science.</li></ol>
Time for Action<p>I have spoken to many scientists, particularly federal scientists, who are eager to turn the page so they can hurry back to the work they had been doing before this administration, but I urge caution in assuming that things can be "normal" again.</p><p>Before Trump, I naively thought the scientific integrity policies established during the <a href="https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/blog/2016/12/19/scientific-integrity-policies-update" target="_blank">Obama administration</a> would be sufficient. I never imagined that any administration could so willfully ignore and attack expert advice and evidence that is intended to protect us and our public lands.</p><p>I have personally witnessed how hard our federal scientists work. They put in long hours with minimal pay (far less that what they could get if they worked in private industry) to pursue one simple goal: to make things better for the nation.</p><p>We need stronger scientific integrity policies to protect these people and their work. But more than that, we need stronger scientific integrity laws because they also benefit society.</p>
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Environmental campaigners stressed the need for the incoming Biden White House to put in place permanent protections for Alaska's Bristol Bay after the Trump administration on Wednesday denied a permit for the proposed Pebble Mine that threatened "lasting harm to this phenomenally productive ecosystem" and death to the area's Indigenous culture.
<div id="da98c" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="478a197b7c59c92787c92bec92f1ac39"><blockquote class="twitter-tweet twitter-custom-tweet" data-twitter-tweet-id="1331662923710693376" data-partner="rebelmouse"><div style="margin:1em 0">Bristol Bay forever, Pebble mine never. #NoPebbleMine #SaveBristolBay https://t.co/CBQ9zuy8A5</div> — Save Bristol Bay (@Save Bristol Bay)<a href="https://twitter.com/SaveBristolBay/statuses/1331662923710693376">1606328156.0</a></blockquote></div>
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