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Growth of Carbon Capture and Storage Stalled in 2011

Climate

Worldwatch Institute

Funding for carbon capture and storage technology, a tool for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, remained unchanged at US$23.5 billion in 2011 in comparison to the previous year, according to a new report from the Worldwatch Institute. Although there are currently 75 large-scale, fully-integrated carbon capture and storage projects in 17 countries at various stages of development, only eight are currently operational—a figure that has not changed since 2009

Carbon capture and storage, more commonly known as CCS, refers to the technology that attempts to capture carbon dioxide from its anthropogenic source—often industry and power generation systems—and then store it in permanent geologic reservoirs so that it never enters the atmosphere. The U.S. is the leading funder of large-scale CCS projects, followed by the European Union and Canada. The new Worldwatch report, part of the Institute’s Vital Signs Online series of analyses of environmentally related trends and data, discusses a number of new CCS projects and facilities throughout the world. Among these is the Century Plant in the U.S., which began operating in 2010.

“Although CCS technology has the potential to significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions—particularly when used in greenhouse gas intensive coal plants—developing the CCS sector to the point that it can make a serious contribution to emissions reduction will require large-scale investment,” said report author and Worldwatch Sustainable Energy Fellow, Matthew Lucky.

Today, the total storage capacity of all active and planned large-scale CCS projects is equivalent to only about 0.5 percent of the emissions from energy production in 2010. “Capacity will have to be increased several times over before CCS can begin to make a serious dent in global emissions,” said Lucky.

The prospects for future development and application of CCS technology will likely be influenced by a number of factors, the report explains. Last March the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) imposed regulations on CO2 emissions from power plants. As a result, U.S. power producers will soon be unable to build traditional coal plants without carbon control capabilities (including CCS). The technology will therefore likely become increasingly important as power producers adjust to the new regulations.

Globally, an international regulatory framework for CCS is developing slowly and the technology has been addressed in international climate negotiations. Its classification as a Clean Development Mechanism—a mechanism created through the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate change to allow industrialized countries to gain credit for emissions reductions they achieve through funding development projects in developing countries—has raised objections, however, from those who argue that it risks prolonging the use carbon-intensive industries.

“CCS technology is worth exploring as one of a large array of potential strategies for slowing the buildup of CO2 in the atmosphere,” said Worldwatch president Robert Engelman. “But as this report demonstrates, right now there’s little progress in realizing this potential. A technology capable of permanently sequestering large amounts of carbon will be expensive, and so far the world’s markets and governments haven’t assigned much value to carbon or to the prevention of human-caused climate change. Ultimately, that will be needed for progress in CCS development and implementation.”

Further highlights:

  • There are now 7 large-scale CCS plants currently under construction, bringing the total annual storage capacity of operating and under constructions plants to 34.97 million tons of carbon dioxide a year.
  • According to the International Energy Agency, an additional $2.5–3 trillion will need to be invested in CCS between 2010 and 2050 to cut greenhouse gas emissions in half by mid-century.
  • On average, $5–6.5 billion a year will need to be invested in CCS globally until 2020 for the development of this technology.
  • About 76 percent of global government funding for large-scale CCS has been allocated to power generation projects.

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Up to half of the detrimental impacts of the "landscape simplification" that monocropping entails come as a result of a diminished mix of ecosystem service-providing insects, a team of scientists reported Oct. 16 in the journal Science Advances.

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"Our study shows that biodiversity is essential to ensure the provision of ecosystem services and to maintain a high and stable agricultural production," Matteo Dainese, the study's lead author and a biologist at Eurac Research in Bolzano, Italy, said in a statement.

It stands to reason that, with declines in the sheer numbers of insects that ferry pollen from plant to plant and keep crop-eating pests under control, these services will wane as well. But until now, it hasn't been clear how monocultures affect the number and mix of these species or how crop yields might change as a result.

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The researchers also looked at a third measure of the makeup of insect populations — what they called "evenness." In natural ecosystems, a handful of dominant species with many more individuals typically live alongside a higher number of rarer species. The team found as landscapes became less diverse, dominant species numbers dwindled and rare species gained ground. This resulting, more equitable mix led to less pollination (though it didn't end up affecting pest control).

"Our study provides strong empirical support for the potential benefits of new pathways to sustainable agriculture that aim to reconcile the protection of biodiversity and the production of food for increasing human populations," Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter, one of the study's authors and an animal ecologist at the University of Würzburg in Germany, said in the statement.

The scientists figure that the richness of pollinator species explains around a third of the harmful impacts of less diverse landscapes, while the richness of pest-controlling species accounts for about half of the same measure. In their view, the results of their research point to the need to protect biodiversity on and around crops in an uncertain future.

"Under future conditions with ongoing global change and more frequent extreme climate events, the value of farmland biodiversity ensuring resilience against environmental disturbances will become even more important," Steffan-Dewenter said.

Reposted with permission from our media associate Mongabay.

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