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Will Gov. Brown Plug the Dangerous Hole in California’s Climate Action?
By Kelly Trout
California Gov. Jerry Brown is gearing up to host leaders from state, tribal, and local governments, business and citizens from around the world at a Global Climate Action Summit in San Francisco this September. His goal is to "inspire deeper commitments" in support of the Paris agreement goals. He has emphasized that, on climate, "so far the response is not adequate to the challenge" and "no nation or state is doing what they should be doing."
A new report released by Oil Change International in partnership with 14 other environmental justice and climate groups shows that California will fall short of its own commitment to climate leadership unless it embarks on a managed phase-out of its oil and gas production. If Gove. Brown is serious about marshaling a response that is adequate to the challenge, he must take steps to limit fossil fuel production as part of California's suite of climate policies.
Here's what we lay out:
Climate Leadership is Being Redefined
The science tells us that climate safety requires rapid decarbonization within a few decades. Our previous analysis has shown that fossil fuel projects already operating or under construction across the world contain more oil, gas and coal than the world can afford to burn under the Paris goals. It follows that any action that enables new fossil fuel production and infrastructure is incompatible with the Paris goals. Climate leadership requires managing a just and equitable transition off fossil fuel production. As the global Lofoten Declaration underscores, wealthy fossil fuel producers like California have a responsibility to move first.
Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Developed Fossil Fuel Reserves, Compared to Carbon Budgets for Likely Chance of 2°C and Medium Chance of 1.5°C.Rystad Energy, International Energy Agency, World Energy Council, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Oil Change International analysis.
California Has No Plan for a Just Transition Off Oil Extraction
If you don't live in the heavy extraction zones of California—centered in Kern and LA Counties—you may not know that California is a top oil producer in the U.S., and has been for over a century. Under the Brown administration, the state has issued more than 20,000 new permits for drilling to oil companies, enabling the industry to keep tapping more fossil fuels.
The Kern River oil field in Kern County is one of California's largest. Antandrus / Wikipedia / CC BY-SA 3.0
California currently has no policy in place to manage its own transition off oil extraction. This is not only inconsistent with the Paris goals, but exacerbates environmental injustice. A significant portion of extraction is occurring directly in and around neighborhoods—and disproportionately in communities of color.
California Can Ramp Down its Oil Extraction in a Climate-Safe and Equitable Way
Our new report examines straightforward policy steps California can take to limit new production and begin a managed ramp-down of existing oil and gas wells. If California takes these steps, it would become the first major oil and gas producing jurisdiction to do so, setting a global precedent for climate leadership for others around the world to emulate.
1. Cease issuing permits for new oil and gas extraction wells.
We show that the permitting of new oil and gas extraction wells in California could enable 560 million barrels of new oil production from 2019 through 2030, which would dig the world into a deeper carbon hole at a time when we need to be winding down the fossil fuel industry instead. This new production could lead to more than 360 million metric tons of CO2 equivalent, increasing emissions associated with California oil production by 55 percent over the next 12 years. By ceasing such permits, California would limit new fossil fuel production, as required by the Paris goals.
2. Implement a statewide health and safety buffer zone in which existing wells are phased out as quickly as possible.
In partnership with the FracTracker Alliance, we found that nearly 8,500 active oil and gas wells across California operate within 2,500 feet of homes, schools and hospitals—a proximity linked to the greatest exposure to toxic air pollution. These wells, which are disproportionately located in some of the state's most polluted communities, were responsible for 12 percent of statewide oil production in 2016. STAND-L.A., an alliance of environmental justice groups, is calling for a setback law in the city of LA that would phase out operation of wells within 2,500 feet of sensitive areas. Enacting a similar policy statewide would begin a proactive managed decline of existing extraction in a way that prioritizes the health of historically overburdened communities.
Projected California Oil Production with and without New Wells and a 2,500' Health Buffer Zone, 2019-2030.Oil Change International and FracTracker Alliance analysis, using historical data from the Division of Oil, Gas, and Geothermal Resources and DrillingInfo
3. Develop a plan for the managed decline of California's entire fossil fuel sector as part of the state's climate initiatives.
All in all, the oil production avoided by halting new well permits combined with phasing out wells within 2,500 feet of sensitive areas could total 660 million barrels from 2019 through 2030. To put this amount in context, meeting Gov. Brown's goal to reduce oil use in cars and trucks by 50 percent by 2030 would save about 430 million barrels of oil over the next 12 years, compared to reference-case projections. If California does not limit production, it could add a greater amount of new oil supply to the market, undermining the effectiveness of demand-side measures. Ultimately, California should "cut with both arms of the scissors"—acting aggressively to reduce oil supply, consumption and related infrastructure like refineries and export terminals together—to maximize the effectiveness of its climate policies.
4. Develop a just transition plan that protects people whose livelihoods are affected by the economic shift.
Leadership in managing the decline of fossil fuel production must include a commitment to a just transition. This means providing decent work and social protection to workers and communities affected by the shift to a climate-safe economy, and investing in their vision of a brighter future.
The groundwork for a just transition must be laid through a process of democratic social dialogue and planning between employers, workers, unions, frontline communities and organizations, and local and state agencies. To facilitate this planning process, we recommend that California establish a Just Transition Task Force.
Implementing a just transition plan will also require significant dedicated resources. We propose one solution for raising funds from the oil industry itself: A 5 to 10 percent Just Transition Fee on the value of oil production could generate $3.5 to $6.9 billion in revenue from 2019 through 2030. These funds, to be dedicated exclusively to just transition needs, could cover basic social protection costs for workers like wage replacement and college tuition before phasing out with the decline of extraction.
Californian Leadership is Needed Now
As Gov. Brown has acknowledged, the world currently faces a dangerous gap between the ambition of current pledges and action, and what's required to meet the Paris goals. California would set an urgently needed example of global leadership by becoming the first major oil and gas producer to establish policies to phase out its oil production in line with climate limits. Such policies would also help protect the health of local communities in California being unfairly harmed by extraction now.
Gov. Brown can act: The state has clear regulatory authority both to stop issuing permits for new wells and to institute a health and safety buffer zone. California has the resources and moral responsibility to act. Now, will Gov. Brown and other state leaders show the political resolve to act—to say "no" to oil and gas company plans and show the world how to manage a fair and equitable transition away from oil extraction?
Reposted with permission from our media associate Oil Change International.
EcoWatch Daily Newsletter
By Tom Duszynski
The coronavirus is certainly scary, but despite the constant reporting on total cases and a climbing death toll, the reality is that the vast majority of people who come down with COVID-19 survive it. Just as the number of cases grows, so does another number: those who have recovered.
In mid-March, the number of patients in the U.S. who had officially recovered from the virus was close to zero. That number is now in the tens of thousands and is climbing every day. But recovering from COVID-19 is more complicated than simply feeling better. Recovery involves biology, epidemiology and a little bit of bureaucracy too.
How does your body fight off COVID-19?<p>Once a person is exposed the coronavirus, the body starts producing <a href="https://www.mblintl.com/products/what-are-antibodies-mbli/" target="_blank">proteins called antibodies to fight the infection</a>. As these <a href="https://www.statnews.com/2020/03/27/serological-tests-reveal-immune-coronavirus/" target="_blank">antibodies start to successfully contain the virus</a> and keep it from replicating in the body, symptoms usually begin to lessen and you start to feel better. Eventually, if all goes well, your immune system will completely destroy all of the virus in your system. A person who was infected with and survived a virus with no long-term health effects or disabilities has "recovered."</p><p>On average, a person who is infected with SARS-CoV-2 will feel ill for about seven days from the onset of symptoms. Even after symptoms disappear, there still may be small amounts of the virus in a patient's system, and they should stay <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/if-you-are-sick/steps-when-sick.html" target="_blank">isolated for an additional three days</a> to ensure they have truly <a href="https://health.usnews.com/conditions/articles/coronavirus-recovery-what-to-know" target="_blank">recovered and are no longer infectious</a>.</p>
What about immunity?<p>In general, once you have recovered from a viral infection, your body will keep cells called lymphocytes in your system. These cells "remember" viruses they've previously seen and can react quickly to fight them off again. If you are exposed to a virus you have already had, your antibodies will likely stop the virus before it starts causing symptoms. <a href="https://dx.doi.org/10.5114%2Fceji.2018.77390" target="_blank">You become immune</a>. This is the <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK27158/" target="_blank">principle behind many vaccines</a>.</p><p>Unfortunately, immunity isn't perfect. For many viruses, like mumps, immunity can wane over time, leaving you <a href="https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/04/160421145747.htm" target="_blank">susceptible to the virus in the future</a>. This is why you need to get revaccinated – those "booster shots" – occasionally: to prompt your immune system to make more antibodies and memory cells.</p><p>Since this coronavirus is so new, scientists still don't know whether people who recover from COVID-19 are <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/faq.html" target="_blank">immune to future infections of the virus</a>. Doctors are finding antibodies in ill and recovered patients, and <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/clinical-guidance-management-patients.html" target="_blank">that indicates the development of immunity</a>. But the question remains how long that immunity will last. Other coronaviruses like <a href="https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25685" target="_blank">SARS and MERS produce an immune response</a> that will protect a person at least for a short time. I would suspect the same is true of SARS-CoV-2, but the research simply hasn't been done yet to say so definitively.</p>
Why have so few people officially recovered in the US?<p>This is a dangerous virus, so the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is being extremely careful when deciding what it means to recover from COVID-19. Both medical and testing criteria must be met before a person is <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/disposition-in-home-patients.html" target="_blank">officially declared recovered</a>.</p><p>Medically, a person must be fever-free without fever-reducing medications for three consecutive days. They must show an improvement in their other symptoms, including reduced coughing and shortness of breath. And it must be at least seven full days <a href="https://health.usnews.com/conditions/articles/coronavirus-recovery-what-to-know" target="_blank">since the symptoms began</a>.</p><p>In addition to those requirements, the CDC guidelines say that a person must test negative for the coronavirus twice, with the <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/if-you-are-sick/care-for-someone.html" target="_blank">tests taken at least 24 hours apart</a>.</p><p>Only then, if both the symptom and testing conditions are met, is a person officially considered recovered by the CDC.</p><p>This second testing requirement is likely why there were so few official recovered cases in the U.S. until late March. Initially, there was a <a href="https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/18/health/coronavirus-test-shortages-face-masks-swabs.html" target="_blank">massive shortage of testing in the U.S.</a> So while many people were certainly recovering over the last few weeks, this could not be officially confirmed. As the country enters the height of the pandemic in the coming weeks, focus is still on <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-nCoV/hcp/clinical-criteria.html" target="_blank">testing those who are infected</a>, not those who have likely recovered.</p><p>Many more people are being tested now that states and private companies have begun <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/cases-updates/testing-in-us.html" target="_blank">producing and distributing tests</a>. As <a href="https://www.dispatch.com/news/20200406/coronavirus-in-ohio-from-its-rocky-start-testing-for-covid-19-slowly-ramping-up" target="_blank">the number of available tests increases</a> and the pandemic eventually slows in the country, more testing will be available for those who have appeared to recover. As people who have already recovered are tested, the appearance of any new infections will help researchers learn <a href="https://www.statnews.com/2020/03/24/we-need-smart-coronavirus-testing-not-just-more-testing/" target="_blank">how long immunity can be expected to last</a>.</p>
Once a person has recovered, what can they do?<p>Knowing whether or not people are immune to COVID-19 after they recover is going to determine what individuals, communities and society at large can do going forward. If scientists can show that recovered patients are immune to the coronavirus, then a person who has recovered could in theory <a href="https://www.vox.com/2020/3/30/21186822/immunity-to-covid-19-test-coronavirus-rt-pcr-antibody" target="_blank">help support the health care system</a> by caring for those who are infected.</p><p>Once communities pass the peak of the epidemic, the number of new infections will decline, while the number of <a href="https://www.newsweek.com/china-says-passed-peak-coronavirus-epidemic-covid-19-1491863" target="_blank">recovered people will increase</a>. As these trends continue, the risk of transmission will fall. Once the risk of transmission has fallen enough, community-level isolation and social distancing orders will begin to relax and businesses will start to reopen. Based on what other countries have gone through, it will be <a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-020-00154-w" target="_blank">months until the risk of transmission is low</a> in the U.S.</p><p>But before any of this can happen, the U.S. and the world need to make it through the peak of this pandemic. Social distancing works to slow the spread of infectious diseases and <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/need-extra-precautions/what-you-can-do.html" target="_blank">is working for COVID-19</a>. Many people will <a href="https://www.yalemedicine.org/stories/2019-novel-coronavirus/" target="_blank">need medical help to recover</a>, and social distancing will slow this virus down and give people the best chance to do so.</p>
By Elizabeth Claire Alberts
The future for the world's oceans often looks grim. Fisheries are set to collapse by 2048, according to one study, and 8 million tons of plastic pollute the ocean every year, causing considerable damage to delicate marine ecosystems. Yet a new study in Nature offers an alternative, and more optimistic view on the ocean's future: it asserts that the entire marine environment could be substantially rebuilt by 2050, if humanity is able to step up to the challenge.
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By Zulfikar Abbany
Bread has been a source of basic nutrition for centuries, the holy trinity being wheat, maize and rice. It has also been the reason for a lot of innovation in science and technology, from millstones to microbiological investigations into a family of single-cell fungi called Saccharomyces.
Chemical leavening<p>If you like a little heft in your loaf, you will need a leavening agent.</p><p>For those short on time, you can use baking soda. That's a chemical compound of sodium bicarbonate mixed with potassium bitartrate, or cream of tartar.</p><p>Soda breads have their traditions in parts of eastern and central Europe, and in Ireland and Scotland, with Melrose loaves and "farls."</p><p>They can taste a bit bland, though, and are often considered only as an emergency solution on Sundays. No disrespect intended: They taste just fine fresh from the oven.</p><p>Whether it's chemical or more "natural," leavening relies largely on the production of carbon dioxide.</p><p>When you mix an acid, such as vinegar, buttermilk, yogurt or apple cider, with an alkaline compound like baking soda, you get CO2. That CO2 creates bubbles, which in turn capture steam in the oven and allow a bread to rise.</p><p><span></span>But it's better with yeast. Tastes better, too. It just takes more time. </p>
What is yeast?<p>There are yeasts all around us — on grains, in the air, in biofuels. It even lives inside us, but that's not always a good thing.</p><p><a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1090575/pdf/1471-2334-5-22.pdf" target="_blank">Candida yeast</a> can cause infections of the skin, feet, mouth, penis or vagina if it builds up too much in the body.</p><p>One of the most common yeasts, however, is <em>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</em>. That's <a href="https://www.dw.com/en/an-early-beer-archaeologists-tap-ground-at-worlds-oldest-brewery/a-45480731" target="_blank">"brewer's"</a> or "baker's" yeast.</p><p>You can get fresh baker's yeast, often in 42-gram (1.48-ounce) cubes, or as dried yeast (quick action or active, which requires rehydration) in a sachet of 7 grams.</p><p>There's little difference: One is compressed and the other is dehydrated and granulated. But they do the same thing, essentially. </p><p>Some commercial yeast producers add molasses and other nutrients. But natural yeast has plenty of useful nutrients in it anyway, including B group vitamins, so who knows whether it's good or necessary to add them. </p>
How does yeast work?<p>When you mix flour, yeast and water, you set off a veritable chain reaction. Enzymes in the wheat convert starch into sugar. And the yeast creates enzymes of its own to convert those sugars into a form it can absorb.</p><p>The yeast "feeds" on the sugars to create carbon dioxide and alcohol. The yeast burps and farts, releasing gases into the mix, and that creates bubbles to trap CO2. </p><p>It's a vital fermentation process that breaks down the gluten in the flour and helps make your bread more digestible.</p><p>The yeast cells split and reproduce, generating lactic and carbonic acid, raising the temperature and ultimately adding flavor to the mix.</p><p>The longer you leave the yeast to do its thing, the better for your bread. Time is more important than the amount of yeast. </p><p>In fact, that's an enduring question — how much yeast? I'll use 20 grams fresh yeast for 500 grams of flour. Others say that's enough yeast for 1 kilo. If you are converting a dry-yeast recipe to fresh yeast, some bakers advise tripling the weight. So, if a sachet of dried yeast is 7 grams, your fresh yeast is 21 grams.</p><p><span></span>But that also depends on the flours you are using, temperatures in the bowl and the room, and a host of other things. You'll just have to experiment and see. No number of books (and I've read a stack on bread) will help as much as trial and error.</p>
Wild yeast: Sourdough<p>So, good bread needs time. If you have a lot of time, why not move it up a notch and grow wild yeast — a sourdough starter — in your own home?</p><p>A sourdough starter is not to be mistaken (as it often is) for the leaven, or "mother," "sponge," or <em>levain</em>. That's more a second stage, a descendant of the starter. You take a scoop from your starter and add it to another flour and water mixture when you prepare the dough for a new loaf. </p><p>The sourdough process utilizes yeasts naturally present in flour and … yet more time. A longer fermentation process allows a richer lactic acid bacteria <em>lactobacilli</em> or LAB to evolve, and that can be healthy for your gut microbiome.</p><p>It's simple enough to start a sourdough starter. All you need is flour, warm water and time.</p><p>Some suggest equal measures of whole-grain flour and water at 28 degrees Celsius (82 degrees Fahrenheit), some say room temperature — just don't let the water exceed 40 C or the yeasts will die. Some suggest two parts flour to three parts water. But it's up to you whether you want a drier or wetter starter. You will know only through experimentation. </p><p>Some say you should filter tap water to remove chemicals like fluoride and avoid using water that's boiled and then cooled. Others say that really doesn't matter.</p><p>The main thing is, keep it clean and give it time. Days, weeks, months and years.</p>
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