By Brian Barth
1. Grow from Seeds, Not Starts
A six-pack of lettuce seedlings costs anywhere from $3 to $6, while a pack of 500 lettuce seeds costs no more than $3. There's no reason to be intimidated: it's a bit more work to start seeds in flats indoors, which gives you a head start on the growing season, but sowing seeds directly in the garden bed takes no more time than planting seedlings.
2. Go to a Seed Swap
Shopping for seeds is fun, and you can find some real bargains if you're scrupulous enough. But going to a seed swap—a party where everyone shows up ready to trade seeds they've saved from the year before—is arguably even more fun and will save you money, too. Which brings about another point—save your seeds in the fall! As long as they're not patented, saving seed doesn't cost a thing.
3. Take Cuttings
You're probably thinking: saving seed is fine for vegetables, but who really grows blueberries or dogwood trees from seed? That's true. Lots of things are hard to grow from seed, or don't grow "true" from seed because they are propagated asexually (meaning they're genetic clones). The good news is virtually all perennials, most shrubs and vines, and many trees are easily propagated by cuttings. Find a neighbor or a friend with the desired plant, cut off a few pencil-size sticks, pot them up in moist perlite, and within a few weeks or months, depending on the plant, you should start to see roots and leaves emerging.
4. Repurpose and Upcycle
Plants are costly enough, but planters, pavers, arbors, and other hardscape materials are where the budget quickly enters the four-figure range. But one man's junk pile is another man's goldmine, right? Planters can be fashioned out of everything from an old bathtub to used wooden pallets. I've seen arbors made from a repurposed satellite dish mounted on a pole and trellises built from ancient bedsprings. Instead of expensive flagstone, try broken concrete—some people lovingly refer to it as urbanite and dye the surface for a more attractive finish. But exercise restraint: When you go overboard, upcycling can make you feel like you have a yard full of junk.
5. Forage for Your Gardening Supplies
Nature also offers free materials to help you get the most mileage from your gardening dollar. Bamboo poles at a garden center, which are used for everything from tomato stakes to building beautiful oriental fences and arbors, run from $1 to $10 (or more) a piece, depending on the size. But lots of folks have a yard full of bamboo and would be happy for you to come take some of it off their hands. There are many other examples like this—any time you think, oh I wish I had the money to buy that for the garden, rack your brain for a free, locally harvestable alternative.
6. Design It Yourself
Professional garden design can run several thousand dollars, even for a small yard. There are reasons for that (i.e. years of training and experience), but with a bit of patient effort you'll be surprised at what you can come up with. Start at the library, where there are volumes upon volumes of garden design books and references that will tell you exactly what conditions are preferred by every plant in the known universe and how to build patios, fences, raised beds, gazebos, waterfalls, and anything else you can dream up. Then map out your yard on paper, as accurately as you can, and start penciling in ideas. Give yourself a full year to come up with a design, making careful observations through the seasons and taking the time to visualize your ideas in detail before you start building.
7. Make Your Own Soil Amendments
Buying bags of compost and all-natural fertilizers can really add up, but if you think about what is actually in those products—mostly animal by-products (like bat guano, feather meal, and bone meal) and various forms of organic matter (shredded bark, coco husks, etc)—it seems a pity to pay. If you don't have your own chickens or other livestock as a manure source, you can certainly find a friend or local farmer who will let you clean out their barn. Mix the manure with wood shavings, grass clippings, leaves—any form of organic matter you can get your hands on will do—and then pile it up and let it stew for a few months into a rich black compost. For extra nutrients, save your eggshells and crush them into the compost (adds calcium and phosphorus) and, if you live near the beach, harvest some seaweed for a boost of micronutrients—just be sure to rinse the seaweed thoroughly in fresh water to get rid of the salt.
8. Avail Yourself to Free Compost and Mulch
Tree-cutting companies often have big piles of mulch on hand that they give away for free. And many municipalities convert their citizens' green waste into compost and mulch, which they then give away for free at the landfill or sell for a nominal cost. These freebies aren't always the greatest quality—they may contain shredded trash or seeds of invasive species, for example—so use at your own risk.
9. Become a "Free List" Specialist
Craigslist has a "Free Stuff" section that is often a goldmine for everything from live plants to pots to piles of compost, and many other classified services have their own "Free Lists" or barter sections. Many communities have a local "Buy Nothing" Facebook group, or a neighborhood-centric "virtual garage sale" where most items are priced-to-move. Beyond total freebies, scouring flea markets and garage sales is a great way to find gently used gardening tools at a fraction of the cost of buying them new.
10. Grow Organic
Sticking with all-natural methods does have its financial benefits. Chemical pesticides always cost money, for example, but attracting beneficial insects to the garden (good bugs that eat the bad bugs) is surprisingly easy and totally free. Same with herbicides: You can manually remove pesky weeds, smother them to death under black plastic or layers of cardboard and woodchips, or even borrow a couple of goats to munch through particularly heavy vegetation (they love eating things like kudzu, poison ivy and thorny briars). In addition to composting, you can use living plants, called cover crops, to return nutrients to your soil the all-natural, and inexpensive, way.
Reposted with permission from our media associate Modern Farmer.
By Karen L. Smith-Janssen
Colette Pichon Battle gave a December 2019 TEDWomen Talk on the stark realities of climate change displacement, and people took notice. The video racked up a million views in about two weeks. The attorney, founder, and executive director of the Gulf Coast Center for Law & Policy (GCCLP) advocates for climate justice in communities of color. Confronted with evidence showing how her own South Louisiana coastal home of Bayou Liberty will be lost to flooding in coming years, the 2019 Obama Fellow dedicates herself to helping others still reeling from the impacts of Katrina face the heavy toll that climate change has taken—and will take—on their lives and homelands. Her work focuses on strengthening multiracial coalitions, advocating for federal, state, and local disaster mitigation measures, and redirecting resources toward Black communities across the Gulf South.
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By Stuart Braun
"These are not just wildfires, they are climate fires," Jay Inslee, Governor of Washington State, said as he stood amid the charred remains of the town of Malden west of Seattle earlier this month. "This is not an act of God," he added. "This has happened because we have changed the climate of the state of Washington in dramatic ways."
'These Aren't Wildfires'<p>Sam Ricketts, who led climate policy and strategy for Governor Jay Inslee's 2020 presidential campaign, tweeted on September 11 that "These aren't wildfires. These are #climatefires, driven by fossil fuel pollution."</p><p>"The rate and the strength and the devastation wrought by these disasters are fueled by climate change," Ricketts told DW of fires that have burnt well over 5 million acres across California, Oregon, Washington State, and into neighboring Idaho. </p><p>In a two-day period in early September, Ricketts notes that more of Washington State burned than in almost any entire fire season until now, apart from 2015. </p><p>California, meanwhile, was a tinderbox after its hottest summer on record, with temperatures in Death Valley reaching nearly 130 degrees Fahrenheit, according to the U.S. National Weather Service. It has been reported as the hottest temperature ever measured on Earth.</p>
<div id="29ad9" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="8346fe7350e1371d400097cd48bf45a2"><blockquote class="twitter-tweet twitter-custom-tweet" data-twitter-tweet-id="1306969603180879872" data-partner="rebelmouse"><div style="margin:1em 0">Drought-parched wetlands in South America have been burning for weeks. https://t.co/pjAKdFcKPg #Pantanal https://t.co/ImN2C5vwcp</div> — NASA Earth (@NASA Earth)<a href="https://twitter.com/NASAEarth/statuses/1306969603180879872">1600440810.0</a></blockquote></div><p>As evidenced by Australia's apocalyptic Black Summer of 2019-2020, fires are burning bigger and for longer, with new records set year-on-year. Right now, Brazil's vast and highly biodiverse Pantanal wetlands are suffering from catastrophic fires.</p>
#climatefires Started in Australia<p>Governor Inslee this month invoked the phrase climate fires for arguably the first time in the U.S., according to Ricketts.</p><p>But the term was also used as fires burnt out of control in Australia in late 2019. In the face of a 2000km (more than 1,200 miles) fire front, and government officials and media who <a href="https://www.dw.com/en/trump-climate-change-denial-emissions-environment-germany-fake-heartland-seibt/a-52688933" target="_blank">played down the link to climate change</a>, Greens Party Senator Sarah Hanson-Young and a friend decided that reference to bushfires was inadequate. </p><p>"We both just said, we've got to start calling them climate fires, that's what they are," the Australian Senator told DW.</p><p>Hanson-Young says scientists have been warning for decades that these would be the effects of global heating. "We've been told these kinds of extreme weather events and destruction is what climate change would look like, and it's right here on our doorstep," she said from her home state of South Australia — where by early September fire warnings had already been issued.</p><p>"Calling them climate fires was making it absolutely crystal clear. It is essential that there's no ambiguity," she said </p><p>Having deliberately invoked the term, Hanson-Young soon started to push it on social media via a #climatefires hashtag. </p>
How to Talk About the Urgency of Global Heating<p>The need to use more explicit language when talking about extreme weather events linked to climate change is part of a broader push to express the urgency of global heating. In 2019, activist Greta Thunberg tweeted that the term "climate change" did not reflect the seriousness of the situation. </p><p>"Can we all now please stop saying 'climate change' and instead call it what it is: climate breakdown, climate crisis, climate emergency, ecological breakdown, ecological crisis and ecological emergency?" she wrote. </p><p>"Climate change has for a long time been talked about as something that is a danger in the future," said Hansen-Young. "But the consequences are already here. When people hear the word crisis, they understand that something has to happen, that action has to be taken."</p><p><span></span>Some terms are now used in public policy, with state and national governments, and indeed the EU Parliament, declaring an official climate emergency in the last year. </p>
Words That Reflect the Science<p>But while the West Coast governors all fervently link the fires to an unfolding climate crisis, U.S. President Donald Trump continues to avoid any reference to climate. In a briefing about the fires, he responded to overtures by Wade Crowfoot, California's Natural Resources Secretary, to work with the states on the climate crisis by stating: "It'll start getting cooler. You just watch." Crowfoot replied by saying that scientists disagreed. Trump rejoined with "I don't think science knows, actually." </p><p>It was reminiscent of the anti-science approach to the coronavirus pandemic within the Trump administration, <a href="https://www.dw.com/en/donald-trump-admits-playing-down-coronavirus-risks/a-54874350" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">at least publicly</a>. Fossil fuel companies are also benefiting from his disavowal of climate science, with the Trump administration having <a href="https://www.dw.com/en/opinion-trumps-paris-climate-accord-exit-isnt-really-a-problem/a-51124958" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">pulled out of the Paris Agreement</a> and reopened fossil fuel infrastructure like the Keystone XL pipeline. </p><p>But the science community has responded, with Scientific American magazine endorsing Trump's Democratic presidential challenger Joe Biden, the first presidential endorsement in its 175-year history. </p><p>Hanson-Young says the use of explicit language like climate fires has also been important in Australia due to the climate denialism of politicians and the press, especially in publications owned by Rupert Murdoch. As fires burnt out much of Australia's southeast coast, they were commonly blamed on arson — a tactic also recently used in the U.S.</p>
Climate Rhetoric Could Help Decide Election<p>The language of climate has begun to influence the U.S. presidential election campaign, with Democratic nominee Joe Biden labelling President Trump a "climate arsonist."</p><p>Biden is touting a robust climate plan that includes a 2050 zero emissions target and a return to the Paris Agreement. Though lacking the ambition of The New Green Deal, it has been front and center of his policy platform in recent days, at a time when five hurricanes are battering the U.S. Gulf Coast while smoke blanketing the West Coast spreads all the way to the East. </p><p>People are experiencing the climate crisis in a visceral way and almost universally relate to the language of an emergency, says Ricketts. "They know something is wrong."</p>
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World's Richest One Percent Are Producing More Than Double the Carbon Emissions as the Bottom 50 Percent
A new report from Oxfam found that the wealthiest one percent of the world produced a carbon footprint that was more than double that of the bottom 50 percent of the world, The Guardian reported. The study examined 25 years of carbon dioxide emissions and wealth inequality from 1990 to 2015.
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