Flax Seeds 101: Nutrition Facts and Health Benefits
By Adda Bjarnadottir, MS
Flax seeds (Linum usitatissimum) — also known as common flax or linseeds — are small oil seeds that originated in the Middle East thousands of years ago.
Flax seeds have been linked to health benefits, such as improved digestion and a reduced risk of heart disease, type 2 diabetes and cancer.
They're easily incorporated into your diet — grinding them is the best way to make the most of their health benefits.
Flax seeds are usually brown or yellow. They're sold whole, ground/milled or roasted — and are often processed into flaxseed oil.
This article tells you everything you need to know about flax seeds.
Flaxseeds have 534 calories per 3.5 ounces (100 grams) — corresponding to 55 calories for each tablespoon (10 grams) of whole seeds.
They consist of 42% fat, 29% carbs and 18% protein.
One tablespoon (10 grams) of whole flax seeds provides the following nutrients (4):
- Calories: 55
- Water: 7%
- Protein: 1.9 grams
- Carbs: 3 grams
- Sugar: 0.2 grams
- Fiber: 2.8 grams
- Fat: 4.3 grams
Carbs and Fiber
Flax seeds are made up of 29% carbs — a whopping 95% of which is fiber.
This means that they're low in net digestible carbs — the number of total carbs minus the amount of fiber — making them a low-carb food.
Two tablespoons (20 grams) of flax seeds provide about 6 grams of fiber. This is roughly 15–25% of the Reference Daily Intake (RDI) for men and women, respectively (5).
- 20–40% soluble fiber (mucilage gums)
- 60–80% insoluble fiber (cellulose and lignin)
When mixed with water, the mucilage gums in flax seeds become very thick. Combined with the insoluble fiber content, this makes flax seeds a natural laxative.
Flax seeds are made up of 18% protein. Their amino acid profile is comparable to soybeans.
Despite containing essential amino acids, they're lacking in the amino acid lysine.
Therefore, they're considered an incomplete protein (11).
Flax seeds contain 42% fat, with 1 tablespoon (10 grams) providing 4.3 grams.
This fat content is composed of (14):
- 73% polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as omega-6 fatty acids and the omega-3 fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)
- 27% monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids
ALA is an essential fatty acid, which means that your body cannot produce it. Thus, you need to obtain it from the food you eat.
Flaxseed oil contains the highest amount of ALA, followed by milled seeds. Eating the seeds whole provides the least amount of ALA, as the oil is locked up inside the fibrous structure of the seed (16).
Due to their high content of omega-3 fatty acids, flax seeds have a lower ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 than many other oil seeds.
However, flax seeds don't contain as much omega-3 as fish oils.
One type of flax seeds — solin, the yellow variety — is not as nutritious as regular flax seed. It has a very different oil profile and is low in omega-3 fatty acids (22).
Flax seeds are very high in fiber and provide good amounts of protein. They're also rich in fat and one of the best plant-based sources of heart-healthy omega-3 fatty acids.
Vitamins and Minerals
Flax seeds are a good source of several vitamins and minerals:
- Thiamine. This B vitamin is also known as vitamin B1. It's essential for normal metabolism and nerve function.
- Copper. An essential mineral, copper is important for growth, development and various bodily functions (23).
- Molybdenum. Flax seeds are rich in molybdenum. This essential trace mineral is abundant in seeds, grains and legumes (24).
- Magnesium. An important mineral that has many functions in your body, magnesium is occurs in high amounts in grains, seeds, nuts and green leafy vegetables (25).
- Phosphorus. This mineral is usually found in protein-rich foods and contributes to bone health and tissue maintenance (26).
Flax seeds are a good source of several vitamins and minerals needed for optimal health. These include thiamine (vitamin B1), copper, molybdenum, magnesium and phosphorus.
Other Plant Compounds
Flax seeds contain several beneficial plant compounds:
- p-Coumaric acid. This polyphenol is one of the main antioxidants in flax seeds.
- Ferulic acid. This antioxidant may help prevent several chronic diseases (27).
- Cyanogenic glycosides. These substances may form compounds called thiocyanates in your body, which can impair thyroid function in some people.
- Phytosterols. Related to cholesterol, phytosterols are found in the cell membranes of plants. They have been shown to have cholesterol-lowering effects (28).
- Lignans. Lignans are present in almost all plants, acting as both antioxidants and phytoestrogens. Flax seeds are exceptionally rich in lignans, containing up to 800 times more than other foods (29).
Brown flax seeds have slightly higher antioxidant activity than yellow varieties (15).
Flax seeds are one of the richest known dietary sources of lignans. These nutrients function as phytoestrogens (2).
Phytoestrogens are plant compounds that are similar to the female sex hormone estrogen. They have weak estrogenic and antioxidant properties (30).
They have been linked to a decreased risk of heart disease and metabolic syndrome, as they reduce levels of fat and glucose in your blood.
Flax lignans also help reduce blood pressure, oxidative stress and inflammation in your arteries (31).
Flax seeds are high in several plant compounds, including p-Coumaric acid, ferulic acid, cyanogenic glycosides, phytosterols and lignans. In particular, the last two have been linked to various benefits.
Flax seeds may be useful as a part of a weight loss diet.
They contain soluble fiber, which becomes highly sticky when mixed with water.
A review of controlled studies concluded that flax seeds promote weight loss in overweight and obese people. Those who added the seeds to their diet lost an average of 2.2 pounds (1 kg), compared to the control group (35).
The analysis also showed that weight loss tended to be greater in studies lasting for more than 12 weeks and among those who consumed more than 30 grams of flax seeds per day (35).
Flax seeds contain soluble fiber, which may promote weight loss by reducing hunger and decreasing cravings.
Flax seeds have been associated with major benefits for heart health, mainly attributed to their content of omega-3 fatty acids, lignans and fiber.
High blood cholesterol is a well-known risk factor for heart disease. This is especially true for oxidized LDL (bad) cholesterol (36).
Human studies note that daily consumption of flax seeds — or flaxseed oil — may lower cholesterol by 6–11%.
These seeds may be very useful when consumed along with cholesterol-lowering medication.
One 12-month study found that flax seeds caused an additional 8.5% reduction in LDL (bad) cholesterol, compared to a control group (45).
This cholesterol-lowering effect is thought to be caused by the high fiber and lignan content in flax seeds.
These substances bind with cholesterol-rich bile acids and carry them down your digestive tract. This reduces cholesterol levels in your body (46).
Omega-3 Fatty Acids
Omega-3 fatty acids are essential. They may have benefits for various aspects of heart health, including blood platelet function, inflammation, and blood pressure.
Flax seeds are very high in the omega-3 fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid (ALA).
They have been shown to decrease heart disease risk in animal studies by reducing inflammation in the arteries (47).
Several studies link ALA with a lower risk of stroke, heart attacks, and chronic kidney disease. These studies observed a 73% lower risk of sudden death as well, compared to people with lower ALA intake (48, 49, 50, 51).
In one study, people with heart disease were given 2.9 grams of ALA per day for one year. Those receiving the supplement had significantly lower rates of death and heart attacks than people in the control group (52).
In a 6-month study in people with elevated blood pressure, those consuming 3 tablespoons (30 grams) of flax seeds daily experienced a 10 and 7 mm Hg reduction in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively.
People with a systolic level — the top number in a blood pressure reading — greater than 140 mm Hg at the start of the study observed an even greater reduction of 15 mm Hg (56).
Flax seeds may help fight heart disease by lowering blood pressure, regulating blood cholesterol, and increasing your levels of heart-healthy omega-3 fatty acids.
Other Health Benefits of Flax Seeds
Flax seeds have been shown to benefit many aspects of human health.
Diarrhea and constipation cause major distress and may even threaten your health.
About 2–7% of people in the United States experience chronic diarrhea, while recurring constipation affects 12–19% of the population. Constipation rate can be as high as 27% in Europe, with women at twice the risk of men (62, 63).
Soluble fiber is also thought to bind to water in your digestive tract. This causes it to swell and increase the bulk of your stool, preventing diarrhea (65).
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 1 in 10 adults had diabetes in 2012 (68).
However, not all studies find flax seeds to be effective in regulating blood glucose and insulin levels (71).
Though the link between flax seeds and type 2 diabetes is still unclear, they may be considered a safe and healthy addition to your diet if you have type 2 diabetes (72).
Flax seeds may improve digestion by relieving diarrhea and constipation. They may also reduce fasting blood sugar in people with diabetes and lower your risk of several cancers.
Adverse Effects and Individual Concerns
Dry flax seeds are usually well tolerated, and allergy is rare (82).
Still, it's recommended to drink plenty of water when eating these seeds.
Flax seeds naturally contain plant compounds called cyanogenic glycosides. These substances can bind with sulfur compounds in your body to form thiocyanates.
Excessive amounts of thiocyanates may impair the function of your thyroid gland (83).
Moderate portions are highly unlikely to cause any adverse effects in healthy individuals. However, those with thyroid problems should consider avoiding high amounts of flax seeds (84).
Though the safe upper limit of flaxseed intake has not been determined, one study concluded that 5 tablespoons (50 grams) per day is safe and beneficial for most healthy people (14).
Similar to other seeds, flax seeds contain phytic acid.
Phytic acid is often referred to as an antinutrient, as it may reduce the absorption of minerals like iron and zinc (85).
Still, phytic acid doesn't cause any lasting reduction in mineral absorption and does not affect any subsequent meals.
Therefore, this should not be a major concern — except for people who are deficient in minerals like iron and/or follow an imbalanced diet.
For people who are not used to eating a lot of fiber, incorporating flax seeds too quickly can cause mild digestive problems. These include bloating, gas, abdominal pain and nausea.
It's best to start with small doses and work your way up to 1–2 tablespoons (10–20 grams) daily.
Adding flax seeds to your diet may also increase bowel movement frequency, as flax seeds are a natural laxative.
Risks During Pregnancy
Though human studies are limited, many health professionals fear that consuming flax seeds during pregnancy may have undesirable effects.
This is due to the phytoestrogens in the seeds, which may act similarly to the female sex hormone estrogen.
Animal studies show that flax seeds and flaxseed lignans may cause lower birth weight and affect the development of the offspring's reproductive system — especially if consumed during early pregnancy (86, 87).
It's unlikely that smaller doses of flax seeds will have an adverse effect.
However, during pregnancy and breastfeeding, it's recommended to limit your intake of flax seeds and other dietary sources of phytoestrogens. This also includes some soy products.
Large doses of omega-3 fatty acids may have blood-thinning effects (88).
Flax seeds may cause mild digestive issues. They contain plant compounds that may adversely affect some people and are not considered safe for high-dose consumption in early pregnancy.
The Bottom Line
Flax seeds have become popular due to their high content of omega-3 fatty acids, fiber, and other plant compounds, which are responsible for many of the seeds' benefits.
They may aid weight loss and improve blood sugar control, as well as heart and digestive health.
If you want to boost your health with these tiny powerhouses, you can buy them locally or online.
Reposted with permission from our media associate Healthline.
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Association Versus Intervention Studies<p>Many studies on the vitamin are association or observational studies. "By definition, these studies cannot prove the causal relationship, but only point to mere correlations," said Fassnacht. The physician tries to illustrate this with an example:</p><p>"Imagine two groups of 80-year-olds. One group is spry, active and does sports. If you compare them with another group living in nursing homes, the difference in vitamin D levels will be dramatic. Life expectancy would also be extremely different."</p><p>But to try to explain the difference in fitness by vitamin D status alone is far too simplistic. "Vitamin D levels are a good measure of how sick someone is. But not more," says Fassnacht. </p><p>According to Fassnacht, none of the intervention studies carried out to date -- that specifically examined the effect of vitamin D on various diseases -- has been able to confirm the previous association and laboratory studies or the presumed positive effect of vitamin D.</p>
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