New Report Promotes Need for Fashion Industry Action
By Linda Greer
The fashion industry doesn't necessarily have the biggest nose-to-the-grindstone, follow-the-numbers reputation of an industry, let's face it. It is better known for its creativity, innovation and trendsetting.
But this sector packs a major punch environmentally, let me tell you—in terms of climate impact, water use and pollution. We urgently need a serious and professional effort in the ranks, but we are suffering from what I like to think of as the sector's "youthful exuberance" on the sustainability front, which is generating much more buzz than meaningful results to the planet.
A path-breaking report issued Tuesday from ClimateWorks Foundation and Quantis should really help us all.
First, the headline news: The fashion industry is estimated to contribute fully 8 percent of the world's greenhouse gas emissions. What! That surprised even me, falling just short of the contribution of the entire global transportation sector! (14 percent, according to IPCC.)
How is that possible? Well, a perfect storm of globalization (which moved manufacturing to countries without strong environmental controls) population growth, rapid increase in GDP (and hence purchasing power) around the world, and, most notably, fast fashion trends (that rapidly multiplied the amount of clothing people buy per capita)—and the sum of these trends has increased this sector's climate impacts by 25 percent in a little over a decade. Yup, that much since only 2005! In case those figures are not enough to wake you up, the sector is projected to further sharply increase its climate impact by nearly half as much again by 2030. That is, unless we change the status quo.
These numbers should better motivate all of us—multinational apparel retailers and brands, designers, policy wonks, NGOs and ordinary customers alike—to more urgent and effective action to stem the tide of the accelerating damage that the fashion industry is causing.
Fortunately, the ClimateWorks/Quantis report also provides some uniquely helpful information to craft a path forward for the serious reductions we need. By diving deeper into each phase of apparel manufacturing than previous analysis, this study identifies the specific hot spots in the manufacturing process which need the most attention. In a nutshell, it directs the industry's focus to the areas that matter the most, so that companies don't waste time on the small stuff.
Spoiler alert! The biggest hot spot of concern in the global fashion industry is fabric dyeing and finishing, weighing in at 36 percent of the sector's total carbon footprint. That's where a tremendous amount of the pollution comes from as well, by the way, and is precisely where NRDC's Clean by Design program has focused for more than five years. We're here to tell you that there are plenty of opportunities to significantly reduce climate, water and chemical use in this phase of apparel manufacturing with fixes that will save you money. We're also here to tell you that despite the stellar and well-documented results of Clean by Design at more than 100 fabric mills around the world, participation in the program is nowhere near what it should be. "Rise up," we have been saying to multi-national apparel retailers and brands, without enough response.
And the smallest impact in the manufacturing process? The cut-and-sew garment factories. Weighing in at a lowly 7 percent … and at the very spot where so many companies are focusing their supply chain efforts. This final step in manufacturing may be where companies find it easiest to start, I know, and is where many labor issues lie. But it is not where it is most important to work, as far as environmental impact is concerned. Given the urgent timeline under which we need to reduce climate impacts, we really do need to focus our efforts where the impact is greatest, rather than waste time in areas of marginal impact.
So, hear ye, hear ye!! A shout out to those companies in the apparel sector that have joined the "We Are Still In" post-Paris movement and/or those otherwise interested in putting their shoulder to the wheel by committing to set Science Based Targets (SBT) for climate reductions consistent with no more than a 2 degree increase in temperature. Tuesday's report empowers you to step up and set ambitious, achievable targets for your reductions.
Report in hand, NRDC has just launched an effort to create model SBT's for the fashion industry. We'll include a specific roadmap of reductions you can pursue to achieve the targets we propose. We'd love to hear from anyone already at work on this mission and/or from those who would like to just follow along. Stay tuned for more.
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By Beth Ann Mayer
Since even moderate-intensity workouts offer a slew of benefits, walking is a good choice for people looking to stay healthy.
How to Rock Your Walk<p>Walking isn't just fun and healthy. It's accessible.</p><p>"Walking is cheap," says Dr. John Paul H. Rue, a sports medicine doctor at <a href="https://mdmercy.com/" target="_blank">Mercy Medical Center in Baltimore</a>. "You can do it anywhere at any time; [it] requires little to no special equipment and has many of the same cardio benefits as running or other more intense workouts."</p><p>Want to up your walking game? Try the tips below.</p>
Use Hand Weights<p>Cardio and strength training can go hand-in-hand when you add weights to your walk.</p><p>A <a href="https://journals.lww.com/acsm-msse/Fulltext/2019/03000/Associations_of_Resistance_Exercise_with.14.aspx" target="_blank">2019 study</a> found that weight training is good for your heart, and <a href="https://www.mayoclinicproceedings.org/article/S0025-6196(17)30167-2/abstract" target="_blank">research</a> shows it reduces the risk of developing a <a href="https://www.healthline.com/health/nutrition-metabolism-disorders" target="_blank">metabolic disorder</a> by 17 percent. People with metabolic disorders have a higher chance of being diagnosed with high cholesterol, high blood pressure, and diabetes.</p><p>Rue suggests not carrying weights for your entire walk.</p><p>"Hand weights can give you an added level of energy burning, but you have to be careful with these because carrying [them] over a long period of time or while walking could actually lead to some overuse injuries," he says.</p>
Make It a Circuit<p>As another option, consider doing a circuit. First, put a pair of dumbbells on your lawn or somewhere in your home. Walk around the block once, then stop and do some bicep curls and tricep lifts before walking around the block again.</p><p>Rue recommends <a href="https://www.healthline.com/health/exercise-fitness/running-with-weights" target="_blank">avoiding ankle weights</a> during cardio workouts, as they force you to use your quadriceps rather than hamstrings. They can also cause muscle imbalance, according to the <a href="https://www.health.harvard.edu/staying-healthy/wearable-weights-how-they-can-help-or-hurt" target="_blank">Harvard Health Letter</a>.</p>
Find a Fitness Trail<p>Strength training isn't limited to weights. You can get stronger by <a href="https://www.healthline.com/health/bodyweight-workout" target="_blank">simply using your body</a>.</p><p>Often found at parks, fitness trails are obstacle courses with equipment for pullups, pushups, rowing, and stretches to build upper and lower body strength.</p><p>Try searching "fitness trails near me" online, checking out your local parks and recreation website, or calling the municipal office to <a href="https://calisthenics-parks.com/" target="_blank">find one</a>.</p>
Recruit a Friend<p>People who workout together stay healthy together.</p><p><a href="https://bmcgeriatr.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12877-017-0584-3" target="_blank">One study</a> showed that older adults who exercised with a group improved or maintained their functional health and enjoyed their lives more.</p><p>Enlist the help of a walking buddy with a regimen you aspire to have. If you don't know anyone in your area, apps like <a href="https://www.strava.com/" target="_blank">Strava</a> have social networking features so you can get support from fellow exercisers.</p>
Try Meditation<p>According to the <a href="https://www.nccih.nih.gov/research/statistics/nhis/2017" target="_blank">2017 National Health Interview Survey</a>, published by the National Institutes of Health, meditation is on the rise, and for good reason.</p><p>Researchers <a href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29616846/" target="_blank">found</a> that mind-body relaxation practices can regulate inflammation, <a href="https://www.healthline.com/health/biological-rhythms" target="_blank">circadian rhythms</a>, and <a href="https://www.healthline.com/health/glucose" target="_blank">glucose</a> metabolism, as well as lower <a href="https://www.healthline.com/health/high-blood-pressure-hypertension" target="_blank">blood pressure</a>.</p><p>"Any form of exercise can be turned into a meditation of some type, either by the surroundings you are walking in, like a park or trail, or by blocking out the outside world with music on your headphones," Rue says.</p><p>You can also play a podcast or download an app like <a href="https://www.headspace.com/headspace-meditation-app" target="_blank">Headspace</a> that has a library of guided meditations to practice while you walk.</p>
Do Fartlek Walks<p>Typically used in running, fartlek intervals alternate periods of increased and decreased speed. These are <a href="https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/benefits-of-hiit" target="_blank">high-intensity interval training (HIIT)</a> workouts, which allow exercisers to accomplish more in less time.</p><p><a href="https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0154075" target="_blank">One study</a> showed that 10-minute interval training improved <a href="https://www.healthline.com/health/metabolic-syndrome" target="_blank">cardiometabolic</a> health, or lowered the risk of heart disease, stroke, and diabetes, just as well as working out at a continuous pace for 50 minutes.</p><p><a href="https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0111489" target="_blank">Research</a> also shows that HIIT workouts increase muscle <a href="https://www.healthline.com/health/fast-twitch-muscles" target="_blank">oxidative</a> capacity, or the ability to use oxygen. To do a fartlek walk, try walking at an increased pace for 3 minutes, slow down for 2 minutes, and repeat.</p>
Gradually Increase Pace<p>A faster walking pace is associated with a lower risk of <a href="https://www.healthline.com/health/copd" target="_blank">chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)</a> and respiratory diseases, according to a <a href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30303933/" target="_blank">2019 study</a>.</p><p>Still, it's best not to go from a stroll to an Olympic-worthy power walk in a day. Instead, increase your pace gradually to prevent injury.</p><p>"Start by walking at a brisk pace for about 10 minutes per day, 3 to 5 days per week," Rue says. "Once you've done this for a few weeks, increase your time by 5 to 10 minutes per day until you get to 30 minutes."</p>
Add Stairs<p>You've likely heard that taking the stairs instead of an elevator is a way to add more movement into your daily routine. It's also a way to step up your walking. Stair climbing has been shown to <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2211335519301123?via%3Dihub" target="_blank">decrease the risk of mortality</a> and can easily add a bit more challenge to your walk.</p><p>If you don't have stairs in your home, you can often find them outside a local municipal building, train station, or at a high school stadium.</p>
Is Your Walk a True Cardio Workout?<p>Not all walks are equal. A walk that's too leisurely may not provide enough burn to qualify as cardio. To see if you're getting a good workout, try to <a href="https://www.healthline.com/health/how-to-check-heart-rate" target="_blank">measure your heart rate</a> using a monitor.</p><p>"A target goal for a good walking workout heart rate is about 50 to 70 percent of your maximum heart rate," Rue says, adding that maximum heart rate is <a href="https://www.healthline.com/health/fitness-exercise/fat-burning-heart-rate" target="_blank">typically calculated</a> by 220 beats per minute minus your age.</p><p>You can also monitor how easily you can carry on a conversation while you walk to gauge your heart rate.</p><p>"If you can walk and carry on a normal conversation, that's probably a lower intensity walk," says Rue. "If you are slightly breathless but can still have a conversation, that's probably a moderate workout. If you are out of breath and can't talk normally, that's a vigorous workout."</p>
Takeaway<p>By shaking up your routine, you can add excitement to your workout and reap even more rewards than a basic walk provides. Increasing the pace and intensity of a workout will make it more effective.</p><p>Simply pick your favorite variation to add some spice to your next walk.</p>
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