Call me lazy, but one of my favorite things about electric bikes is that you don't have to work very hard to get very far. For throttle operated e-bikes—where you twist the grip like a motorcycle or continually push a button for some juice—you can cruise as long as you hold onto the throttle. Of course, for lazy people like me, the throttle can be too tempting to not use.
For that reason, I've really been enjoying Espin's pedal-assisted e-bike that's designed specifically for commuter biking. The San Francisco-based startup sent me their "Flow" model to test-ride for two weeks, and what I like best is how it not only looks like a regular bike, it also gives you a bit of a workout like a regular bike.
Espin's Flow is an e-bike that does not look like an e-bike.
Don't get me wrong—the Espin is fast, powerful and you're unlikely to break a sweat even as you reach speeds of up to 25 miles per hour. The more I pedaled, the faster I zoomed along, making it an addictive and exhilarating ride. Most people couldn't even tell it was electric.
The Espin has assist levels from 0-5, with the higher numbers giving more oomph. A zero rides like a traditional two-wheeler while a 5 lets you zoom around and even tackle hills. The assist lasts for about 2 seconds after you stop pedaling.
An easy-to-read control hub displays distance, speed and battery life. By holding down the central power button on the left handlebar, you can switch on a powerful LED light allowing for night-time rides.
I was very impressed by the bike's 418 Watt-hour lithium ion battery which can be entirely removed with a key and plugged into a wall. So if the battery dies while you're on the road you can just remove the battery and maybe plug it into, say, a coffee shop outlet and wait while it charges. The battery is hidden in the middle of the bike's aluminum alloy frame, making it look more like a regular bike. It takes about about 4.5 hours to fully charge, but in the two weeks that I've intermittently ridden the bike, I haven't had to recharge it a single time. The company says the Espin has a range of 25-50 miles on a single charge. The battery is expected to last about 2-4 years or around 500 charge cycles.
Here's another cool thing—and it came via fluke. My boyfriend, on a ride home on the bike from the bar, took a jump on a ramp and caused the chain to slip off. Much to his amazement, the assist still worked without a functioning chain and he zipped all the way home without any pedaling.
"That's a feature I would pay for any day," he said.
At $1,888 the Espin, is an affordable e-bike option. And, at 48 pounds it's also a lighter ride, when others can weigh more than 60 pounds.
This Wheel Turned My $50 Bicycle Into an Electric Bike https://t.co/IBvBurA9zF @evelobikes #OmniWheel #ebikes— EcoWatch (@EcoWatch)1473355479.0
"Espin was created out of necessity. When we first came up with this idea, we were struggling to find a performance eBike for ourselves that would be great for getting to work, but also looked stylish and didn't break the bank," said
Josh Lam, co-founder of Espin, in a statement. "Many eBikes have a bulky battery and have high price tags. We knew there was a better way to create something that people could afford and really consider as their daily ride. We put form and function together to make a cool, stylish, affordable bike that happens to be electric. No more sweating on rides to work!"
My one criticism is the assembly process. While the company touts that the bike can be put together in less than 15 minutes, it took a friend and me several hours to assemble. That being said, the company was helpful with my questions and linked me to an online tutorial.
Some other specs include a rear-mounted luggage rack, 350 watt motor output and 45 Nm torque. The Espin also comes in a sleek "Sport" model. Both the Flow and Sport are available in black and white. A $300 discount is also going on right now.
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Where Does the Deficiency Begin?<p>Nobody knows exactly how much vitamin D a person actually needs. The question of when a deficiency starts is correspondingly controversial. However, vitamin D is becoming increasingly popular.Not only is the pseudo-scientific literature on the "sun vitamin" experiencing an upswing, but the number of published studies has also increased enormously in recent years. For example, in 2019 <a href="https://academic.oup.com/edrv/article/40/4/1109/5126915" target="_blank">a study found that</a> Vitamin D is responsible for keeping the skeleton functional and is associated with cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes and various types of cancer. <br></p>
An All-Rounder<p>Vitamin D levels in the body rise and fall according to sun exposure. If sufficient UV rays reach the skin, the body is able to produce the vitamin itself. However, the human body only derives an estimated 10 to 20 percent of its daily requirement from food.</p><p>The vitamin D that we synthesize from sunlight or food is not biologically active at first. Before the kidneys can produce the biologically active form of the vitamin, known as calcitriol, and release it into the blood, some metabolic processes must take place beforehand.</p><p>In addition, many organs have receptors to which the precursor of calcitriol binds. Further, this substance is also present in blood.</p><p>From this precursor, the organs then produce calcitriol themselves, which the body then uses for countless other processes in the body. This form of vitamin D thus regulates insulin secretion, inhibits tumor growth, and promotes the formation of red blood cells as well as the survival and activity of macrophages, which are important for the <a href="https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/5/7/2502/htm" target="_blank">immune system.</a></p>
Low Vitamin D, Severe COVID-19 Disease?<p>A research study carried out <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352364620300067?via%3Dihub" target="_blank">at the University of Hohenheim</a> has now established a link between vitamin D deficiency, certain previous diseases, and severe cases of COVID-19.</p><p>According to the study, "there is a lot of evidence that several non-communicable diseases (high blood pressure, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, metabolic syndrome) are associated with low vitamin D plasma levels. These comorbidities, together with the often accompanying vitamin D deficiency, increase the risk of severe COVID-19 events."</p><p>"This statement is completely correct," said Martin Fassnacht, head of endocrinology at the University Hospital of Würzburg. However, he qualifies that it is a pure association, "i.e. a mere observation that these events occur together.</p><p>Dr. Fassnacht is very critical of the hype surrounding vitamin D, but not because he denies the vitamin serves important functions. However, studies on humans have not been able to show that vitamin D has the healing powers many often propagate.</p><p>Fassnacht says, "If you take a closer look, the hopes that the administration of vitamin D has a healing effect have not been confirmed so far."</p>
Association Versus Intervention Studies<p>Many studies on the vitamin are association or observational studies. "By definition, these studies cannot prove the causal relationship, but only point to mere correlations," said Fassnacht. The physician tries to illustrate this with an example:</p><p>"Imagine two groups of 80-year-olds. One group is spry, active and does sports. If you compare them with another group living in nursing homes, the difference in vitamin D levels will be dramatic. Life expectancy would also be extremely different."</p><p>But to try to explain the difference in fitness by vitamin D status alone is far too simplistic. "Vitamin D levels are a good measure of how sick someone is. But not more," says Fassnacht. </p><p>According to Fassnacht, none of the intervention studies carried out to date -- that specifically examined the effect of vitamin D on various diseases -- has been able to confirm the previous association and laboratory studies or the presumed positive effect of vitamin D.</p>
Further Research Is Needed<p>"If a coronavirus infection is suspected, it is therefore absolutely necessary to check the vitamin D status and quickly correct any possible deficit," said the recommendation of the paper published by the University of Hohenheim.</p><p>"Studies are underway to see whether vitamin D helps in COVID-19 infection, but I personally do not believe that this is really the case," says endocrinologist Fassnacht. Nevertheless, he says it is of course useful to carry out these studies.<br></p><p>"I don't want to rule out that there are actually subgroups of people who benefit from an additional vitamin D dose," he says. After all, this has been proven to be the case with a severe deficit.</p><p>In view of the study situation, Fassnacht does not think much of preventive, nationwide vitamin D substitutes. "My belief that the vitamin helps somewhere is very low. But, of course, I can be wrong."</p>
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