Electricity Sources by State: How Does Your State Generate Power?

Electricity Sources by State: How Does Your State Generate Power?

Here’s what we’ll cover in this guide:

  • How each state generates its electricity
  • States with the most sustainable electricity sources
  • States with the least sustainable electricity sources
  • How you can support clean electricity in your state
Find Local Providers
Get Estimate
Get Connected With Local Energy Providers
Advertising Disclosure

Each product and or company featured here has been independently selected by the writer. You can learn more about our review methodology here. If you make a purchase using the links included, we may earn commission.

Electricity is the engine of our economy. It allows us to live, work and communicate in unprecedented ways, reaching nearly every aspect of modern life. In fact, most of our daily lives have become so dependent on electricity, we hardly even think about it anymore.

But change begins with awareness — and although something as intangible as electricity is difficult to comprehend, it’s important to consider where yours comes from. Let’s take a look at electricity sources by state.

How Every State is Powered

The U.S. has a goal to create a carbon pollution-free power sector by 2035 and a net-zero emissions economy by no later than 2050.1

To achieve this swift reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, states will have to drastically shift the way they generate electricity in a short amount of time. It will require divesting from fossil fuel-based power generation in favor of more clean energy production like wind, solar power and hydroelectric power, especially as electricity demand continues to increase nationwide. 

With 12 years left to reach a carbon pollution-free electric power sector, here’s where the average state stood as of January of 2022 when it comes to the shares of total electricity generated by source.2

  • 57.1% of electricity from fossil fuels
  • 27.9% of electricity from clean energy sources
  • 14.7% of electricity from nuclear energy

So, how is your state doing on its path to net-zero? Let’s take a look.

#cta-widget-panel-widget-multi-providers-54387 .header-text{ color: #333333 ; } #cta-widget-panel-widget-multi-providers-54387 .subheader-text{ color: #333333 ; } #cta-widget-panel-widget-multi-providers-54387 .widget-col{ border: 1px solid #BCBCBC; } #cta-widget-panel-widget-multi-providers-54387 .superlative{ color: #333333 ; } #cta-widget-panel-widget-multi-providers-54387 .primary-cta{ color: #ffffff; background: #ff9900; } #cta-widget-panel-widget-multi-providers-54387 .secondary-cta{ color: ; border: 1px solid ; } #cta-widget-panel-widget-multi-providers-54387 .secondary-cta:hover{ color: #ff9900; border: 1px solid #ff9900; } #cta-widget-panel-widget-multi-providers-54387 .secondary-cta.phone{ border: none; color: ; } #cta-widget-panel-widget-multi-providers-54387 .points{ color: #9B9B9B ; } #cta-widget-panel-widget-multi-providers-54387 .product-promo-text{ border: 1px dashed #CCCCCC } @media (max-width: 766px) { #cta-widget-panel-widget-multi-providers-54387 .widget-panel .widget-col:first-child .sprltv-text { display: none; } }

U.S. Electricity Sources by State

We scoured the most recent data from the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), compiling the total percentages of net electricity generated within the borders of each state in 2022. Where does your state land? 

State Coal Nuclear Natural Gas Hydroelectric Other Renewables Petroleum Total % of U.S.
Alabama 18.5% 28.9% 41.1% 9.3% 2.3% 0.0% 3.5%
Alaska 12.8% 0.0% 36.6% 34.1% 2.9% 13.5% 0.2%
Arizona 15.9% 35.5% 34.8% 7.1% 6.9% 0.0% 2.1%
Arkansas 36.5% 21.9% 33.6% 5.8% 2.1% 0.1% 1.7%
California 0.1% 11.4% 48.8% 6.9% 32.8% 0.0% 3.9%
Colorado 40.8% 0.0% 23.6% 3.6% 32% 0.0% 1.3%
Connecticut 0.0% 40.5% 56.4% 0.8% 2.3% 0.0% 0.9%
Delaware 24.5% 0.0% 71.8% 0.0% 3.7% 0.0% 0.1%
D.C. 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 100% 0.0% >0.0%
Florida 5.9% 12.7% 75.7% 0.1% 5.4% 0.2% 5.1%
Georgia 0.0% 26.1% 44.1% 3.3% 7.7% 0.0% 3.0%
Hawaii 8.7% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 14.6% 76.7% 0.2%
Idaho 0.0% 0.0% 23.7% 57.4% 18.9% 0.0% 0.5%
Illinois 25.6% 49.5% 11.6% 0.1% 13.3% 0.0% 4.6%
Indiana 54.8% 0.0% 33.0% 0.2% 12.0% 0.0% 2.4%
Iowa 25.1% 0.0% 7.2% 1.9% 65.6% 0.2% 1.8%
Kansas 31.8% 16.7% 3.8% 0.0% 47.5% 0.2% 1.5%
Kentucky 65.5% 0.0% 27.5% 6.1% 0.5% 0.4% 1.8%
Louisiana 8.3% 18.2% 70.2% 1.1% 2.2% 0.0% 2.4%
Maine 0.4% 0.0% 25.6% 21.3% 39.8% 12.9% 0.3%
Maryland 32.5% 37.9% 21.8% 4.2% 3.6% 0.0% 0.9%
Massachusetts 0.0% 0.0% 66.2% 3.2% 10.3% 20.2% 0.6%
Michigan 30.6% 25.8% 31.2% 1.8% 10.5% 0.1% 2.8%
Minnesota 34.1% 19.6% 16.8% 1.8% 27.7% 0.0% 1.7%
Mississippi 6.9% 15.9% 74.8% 0.0% 2.3% 0.0% 1.8%
Missouri 69.2% 10.0% 8.4% 1.9% 10.0% 0.4% 2.1%
Montana 41.0% 0.0% 1.1% 44.3% 13.6% 0.0% 0.7%
Nebraska 47.8% 16.2% 1.6% 4.3% 30.0% 0.1% 1.0%
Nevada 6.8% 0.0% 61.7% 2.5% 28.9% 0.0% 0.8%
New Hampshire 8.2% 51.4% 11.8% 5.5% 7.0% 16.0% 0.5%
New Jersey 4.2% 56.5% 35.4% 0.0% 3.3% 0.6% 1.2%
New Mexico 39.6% 0.0% 19.5% 0.0% 40.9% 0.1% 1.0%
New York 0.0% 22.2% 40.1% 21.3% 6.3% 10.1% 3.0%
North Carolina 21.8% 29.6% 36.8% 5.1% 6.7% 0.0% 3.5%
North Dakota 55.8% 0.0% 2.5% 6.3% 35.3% 0.0% 1.2%
Ohio 37.6% 12.0% 47.0% 0.2% 3.1% 0.0% 3.5%
Oklahoma 14.6% 0.0% 37.9% 3.4% 44.1% 0.0% 1.8%
Oregon 0.0% 0.0% 28.8% 58.3% 12.8% 0.0% 1.7%
Pennsylvania 17.0% 30.0% 49.5% 1.0% 2.3% 0.3% 6.2%
Rhode Island 0.0% 0.0% 90.3% 0.0% 9.7% 0.0% 0.2%
South Carolina 16.6% 54.9% 21.1% 3.5% 3.7% 0.2% 2.4%
South Dakota 9.7% 0.0% 5.0% 35.0% 50.3% 0.0% 0.5%
Tennessee 21.6% 42.7% 20.7% 13.7% 1.0% 0.3% 2.2%
Texas 18.4% 9.1% 47.7% 0.2% 24.7% 0.0% 11.1%
Utah 57.0% 0.0% 30.7% 2.6% 9.6% 0.1% 0.9%
Vermont 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 47.9% 52.1% 0.0% 0.1%
Virginia 10.1% 32.9% 47.8% 1.8% 6.4% 1.0% 2.2%
Washington 2.5% 7.5% 10.9% 71.4% 7.7% 0.0% 3.1%
West Virginia 92.6% 0.0% 2.8% 1.9% 2.5% 0.1% 1.8%
Wisconsin 39.9% 14.4% 35.3% 5.1% 5.3% 0.0% 1.7%
Wyoming 65.4% 0.0% 2.5% 2.9% 29.0% 0.1% 1.1%
Average 23.1% 14.7% 30.9% 10.0% 17.9% 3.0%

*Data comes from the Energy Information Administration and was last updated in January 2022.

Badge icon

Constellation Energy

Best National Company

Nationwide Service

EcoWatch rating

Average cost

Pros

  • Many years of experience
  • Great industry reputation
  • Award-winning company
  • No.1 producer of carbon-free energy in the U.S.
  • Makes charitable contributions

Cons

  • Charges contract cancellation fees
  • No prepaid or no-deposit plans
Badge icon

Green Mountain Energy

Best Green Energy Options

Nationwide Service

EcoWatch rating

Average cost

Pros

  • Green-e certified plans
  • Wide variety of contract term options
  • Low number of customer complaints
  • Many years of experience
  • Makes charitable contributions

Cons

  • Charges contract cancellation fees
  • No prepaid or no-deposit plans
  • No satisfaction guarantee
Badge icon

Clearview Energy

Great Renewable Energy Choice

Nationwide Service

EcoWatch rating

Average cost

Pros

  • Many years of experience
  • Makes charitable contributions
  • Values transparency
  • All plans use clean energy
  • Low rates

Cons

  • Charges contract cancellation fees
  • Some reports of misleading door-to-door sales

States With the Most Sustainable Electricity Sources

Let’s take a look at the states with the highest shares of electricity generation coming from sustainable electricity sources. Those sources will include solar energy, wind power, hydropower, biomass and geothermal. States with ample wind and sunshine typically have the most sustainable energy resources.

Vermont has the most sustainable electricity sources of any state, with 100% of the electricity generated within it coming from renewables. Vermont consumes more than three times as much electricity as it produces, however, so that figure of 100% is a little deceiving.3 The state supplements its electricity with imports from other states that could be from non-renewable sources.
solar and wind farm with tip about renewable energy sources

  • Vermont (100.0%)
  • South Dakota (85.3%)
  • Washington (79.1%)
  • Idaho (76.3%)
  • Oregon (71.1%)
  • Iowa (67.5%)
  • Maine (61.1%)
  • Montana (57.9%)
  • Oklahoma (47.5%)
  • Kansas (47.5%)

If you’d like to get more specific about the renewable electricity sources by state, visit our breakdown of states leading in solar energy.

States With the Least Sustainable Electricity Sources

Electricity designated as unsustainable comes from non-renewable sources including coal, natural gas and petroleum. We chose to only include electricity production from fossil fuels, including coal, natural gas and petroleum-fired power plants in this category. Nuclear power was not included. 

Delaware is the state with the least sustainable generating facilities, with 96.3% of the electricity produced within the state coming from dirty sources (mostly natural gas). 

But before we get too hard on Delaware, let’s point out that it produces less energy than any other state (around 0.1% of total U.S. electricity) and imports most of its electricity. The state has a renewable portfolio standard requiring that renewable energy sources account for 40% of electricity use within the state by 2035. 

power plant with tip about energy sources

  • Delaware (96.3%)
  • West Virginia (95.5%)
  • Kentucky (93.4%)
  • Rhode Island (90.3%)
  • Indiana (87.8%)
  • Utah (87.8%)
  • Massachusetts (86.4%)
  • Hawaii (85.4%)
  • Ohio (84.6%)
  • Florida (81.8%)

How to Support Clean Electricity Sources in Your State

In most states, the average consumer doesn’t really have a say in where its public utilities source their electricity. 

But if you live in a state with a deregulated energy market, you may have the power to choose a company that provides energy from 100% renewable sources including utility-scale wind energy and solar photovoltaic farms. 

Below are the 15 states in which some form of deregulated energy is available. Having a deregulated energy market also means that consumers have more power to choose the best electricity rates and plans for their specific needs.

If you live in one of these 15 states, you may be eligible to switch energy suppliers in order to support clean electricity sources. Switching electricity providers can seem intimidating, but we have you covered. 

To find the best electricity rates in your area, we recommend comparing prices from a few providers. As a trusted energy information source, EcoWatch is often able to secure discounted rates for our readers. You can use this tool or the buttons below to be connected with local energy providers near you.

Blog author image
Article author
Karsten is an editor and energy specialist focused on environmental, social and cultural development. His work has been shared by sources including NPR, the World Economic Forum, Marketwatch and the SEIA, and he is certified in ESG with the CFA Institute. Before joining EcoWatch, Karsten worked in the solar energy sector, studying energy policy, climate tech and environmental education. A lover of music and the outdoors, Karsten might be found rock climbing, canoeing or writing songs when away from the workplace.
Reviewer image
Expert reviewer
Melissa is an avid writer, scuba diver, backpacker and all-around outdoor enthusiast. She graduated from the University of Florida with degrees in journalism and sustainability studies. Before joining EcoWatch, Melissa worked as the managing editor of Scuba Diving magazine and the communications manager of The Ocean Agency, a nonprofit that’s featured in the Emmy award-winning documentary Chasing Coral.