Going From Pump to Plug: How Much Money Can Electric Vehicles Save Drivers?
What would you do with an extra $770 a year? Buy a new laptop? Pay off debt? The Union of Concerned Scientists analyzed how much money many drivers could save by switching from a gasoline-powered car to an electric vehicle.
We analyzed the cost of refueling electric and gasoline vehicles in each of the 50 largest cities in the U.S. In every city, there is a rate plan that would save the average EV owner on fuel costs, with a median savings of more than $770 per year.
EVs are becoming more affordable to purchase, especially after federal and state incentives are applied. However, barriers remain. The future of the federal income tax credit for EVs is in doubt and policies are needed to ensure that all drivers have the ability to choose an EV. This includes improving charging infrastructure and ensuring access to cost-competitive electric rates for recharging.
We make recommendations for EV drivers to maximize savings; and for policy-makers, electricity providers and automakers to advance policy that promotes EV adoption, and broadens access to charging infrastructure.
- The annual savings range from $440 to over $1,070 per year, depending on the electricity provider, the choice of electricity rate plan, and the local cost of gasoline.
- Many electricity companies offer affordable off-peak, time-of-use plans that benefit EV drivers. EV owners mostly charge their cars parked at home, overnight, which often matches times of lower overall electricity demand. Many utilities offer lower rates during these times. Off-peak, time-of-use rates vary from $.03 per kWh to $0.21 per kWh, resulting in gasoline equivalent costs ranging from $0.25 per gallon to $1.78 per gallon.
- The price of electricity is more stable than oil prices because it can be generated from diverse sources and U.S. electricity markets are regulated. In constant dollars, and when expressed in equivalent gasoline prices, the national average price of electricity as a vehicle fuel has remained around $1 per gallon ($0.88 to $1.17 per gallon) over the last 15 years. Average U.S. gasoline prices between 2002 and 2017 ranged from less than $2.00 to more than $4.50 a gallon.
- Purchase prices of EVs are going down. The cost to produce the battery pack of EVs drives their manufacturing costs, which have been typically higher compared with those for gasoline vehicles. But falling battery costs and rising EV production are expected to bring the purchase prices of EVs down to approach those of gasoline vehicles.
- EVs can be cheaper to maintain than comparable gasoline vehicles. Battery electric vehicles, like the Chevrolet Bolt EV, do not require oil changes and other engine services, while the electric motor and battery systems require little to no scheduled maintenance.
Recommendations for drivers considering an EV
- Evaluate the ability to get electric power where you intend to park an EV.
- Find out about rate options available for charging an EV, especially whether your electric provider offers time-of-use rates.
- Research the availability of state, local and electricity-provider incentives for buying an EV or EV charging equipment.
Recommendations for policymakers and electricity providers
- Access to lower-cost electricity rate plans are key to making EVs a reliable and affordable alternative to gasoline vehicles.
- Access to reliable and public charging, especially fast-charging stations, are needed for those drivers who cannot charge at home and those who must drive long distances.
- Public policies that improve charging options at apartments and multi-unit dwellings will broaden the base of drivers who can choose an EV.
- Making separate rates for EV and household electricity available could lower the cost for EV charging for more consumers.
- Rate plans, pricing mechanisms, and smart-charging technologies that encourage the coordination of EV charging with the availability of renewable electricity sources will decrease charging costs and further reduce heat-trapping emissions.
Recommendations for policymakers and automakers
- Federal and state purchase incentives are vital to making EVs an affordable and competitive option.
- Incentive programs for lower-income households to adopt EVs will bring the economic benefits from lower fuel costs to communities and demographics that need it the most but currently lack the ability to invest in an EV.
- Public policies that require manufacturers to produce higher volumes of EVs and encourage a greater diversity of electric-drive models and sizes will lower purchase prices for EVs.
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Where Does the Deficiency Begin?<p>Nobody knows exactly how much vitamin D a person actually needs. The question of when a deficiency starts is correspondingly controversial. However, vitamin D is becoming increasingly popular.Not only is the pseudo-scientific literature on the "sun vitamin" experiencing an upswing, but the number of published studies has also increased enormously in recent years. For example, in 2019 <a href="https://academic.oup.com/edrv/article/40/4/1109/5126915" target="_blank">a study found that</a> Vitamin D is responsible for keeping the skeleton functional and is associated with cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes and various types of cancer. <br></p>
An All-Rounder<p>Vitamin D levels in the body rise and fall according to sun exposure. If sufficient UV rays reach the skin, the body is able to produce the vitamin itself. However, the human body only derives an estimated 10 to 20 percent of its daily requirement from food.</p><p>The vitamin D that we synthesize from sunlight or food is not biologically active at first. Before the kidneys can produce the biologically active form of the vitamin, known as calcitriol, and release it into the blood, some metabolic processes must take place beforehand.</p><p>In addition, many organs have receptors to which the precursor of calcitriol binds. Further, this substance is also present in blood.</p><p>From this precursor, the organs then produce calcitriol themselves, which the body then uses for countless other processes in the body. This form of vitamin D thus regulates insulin secretion, inhibits tumor growth, and promotes the formation of red blood cells as well as the survival and activity of macrophages, which are important for the <a href="https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/5/7/2502/htm" target="_blank">immune system.</a></p>
Low Vitamin D, Severe COVID-19 Disease?<p>A research study carried out <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352364620300067?via%3Dihub" target="_blank">at the University of Hohenheim</a> has now established a link between vitamin D deficiency, certain previous diseases, and severe cases of COVID-19.</p><p>According to the study, "there is a lot of evidence that several non-communicable diseases (high blood pressure, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, metabolic syndrome) are associated with low vitamin D plasma levels. These comorbidities, together with the often accompanying vitamin D deficiency, increase the risk of severe COVID-19 events."</p><p>"This statement is completely correct," said Martin Fassnacht, head of endocrinology at the University Hospital of Würzburg. However, he qualifies that it is a pure association, "i.e. a mere observation that these events occur together.</p><p>Dr. Fassnacht is very critical of the hype surrounding vitamin D, but not because he denies the vitamin serves important functions. However, studies on humans have not been able to show that vitamin D has the healing powers many often propagate.</p><p>Fassnacht says, "If you take a closer look, the hopes that the administration of vitamin D has a healing effect have not been confirmed so far."</p>
Association Versus Intervention Studies<p>Many studies on the vitamin are association or observational studies. "By definition, these studies cannot prove the causal relationship, but only point to mere correlations," said Fassnacht. The physician tries to illustrate this with an example:</p><p>"Imagine two groups of 80-year-olds. One group is spry, active and does sports. If you compare them with another group living in nursing homes, the difference in vitamin D levels will be dramatic. Life expectancy would also be extremely different."</p><p>But to try to explain the difference in fitness by vitamin D status alone is far too simplistic. "Vitamin D levels are a good measure of how sick someone is. But not more," says Fassnacht. </p><p>According to Fassnacht, none of the intervention studies carried out to date -- that specifically examined the effect of vitamin D on various diseases -- has been able to confirm the previous association and laboratory studies or the presumed positive effect of vitamin D.</p>
Further Research Is Needed<p>"If a coronavirus infection is suspected, it is therefore absolutely necessary to check the vitamin D status and quickly correct any possible deficit," said the recommendation of the paper published by the University of Hohenheim.</p><p>"Studies are underway to see whether vitamin D helps in COVID-19 infection, but I personally do not believe that this is really the case," says endocrinologist Fassnacht. Nevertheless, he says it is of course useful to carry out these studies.<br></p><p>"I don't want to rule out that there are actually subgroups of people who benefit from an additional vitamin D dose," he says. After all, this has been proven to be the case with a severe deficit.</p><p>In view of the study situation, Fassnacht does not think much of preventive, nationwide vitamin D substitutes. "My belief that the vitamin helps somewhere is very low. But, of course, I can be wrong."</p>
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