By Kayla McDonell
Eggs are incredibly healthy and versatile, making them a popular food for many.
They're especially common in baking, where nearly every recipe calls for them.
But for various reasons, some people avoid eggs. Fortunately, there are plenty of replacements you can use instead.
This article explores the various ingredients that can be used as egg alternatives.
Reasons Why You Might Need to Replace Eggs
There are various reasons why you may need to find a substitute for eggs in your diet. Allergies and dietary preferences are two of the most common.
One study indicated that 50 percent of children will outgrow the allergy by the time they are three years old, with 66 percent outgrowing it by the age of five (2).
Other studies suggest it may take until age 16 to outgrow an egg allergy (3).
While most children who are allergic to eggs become tolerant over time, some individuals remain allergic their entire lives.
Some individuals follow a vegan diet and choose not to eat meat, dairy, eggs or any other animal products.
Vegans avoid consuming animal products for various reasons, including health purposes, environmental concerns or ethical reasons regarding animal rights.
Summary: Some people may need to avoid eggs due to egg allergies, while others avoid them for personal health, environmental or ethical reasons.
Why Are Eggs Used in Baking?
Eggs serve several purposes in baking. They contribute to the structure, color, flavor and consistency of baked goods in the following ways:
• Binding: Eggs help combine ingredients and hold them together. This gives food its structure and prevents it from falling apart.
• Leavening: Eggs trap pockets of air in foods, causing them to expand during heating. This helps foods puff up or rise, giving baked goods like soufflés, angel food cake and meringues their volume and light, airy texture.
• Moisture: The liquid from eggs is absorbed into the other ingredients in a recipe, which helps add moisture to the finished product.
• Flavor and appearance: Eggs help carry the flavors of other ingredients and brown when exposed to heat. They help improve the taste of baked goods and contribute to their golden-brown appearance.
Summary: Eggs serve several purposes in baking. Without them, baked goods might be dry, flat or flavorless. Fortunately, there are plenty of egg alternatives.
Applesauce is a purée made from cooked apples.
It's often sweetened or flavored with other spices like nutmeg and cinnamon.
Using one-fourth cup (about 65 grams) of applesauce can replace one egg in most recipes.
It's best to use unsweetened applesauce. If you're using a sweetened variety, you should reduce the amount of sugar or sweetener in the recipe itself.
Summary: Unsweetened applesauce is a great substitute for eggs in most recipes. You can use one-fourth cup (about 65 grams) to replace one egg.
2. Mashed Banana
Mashed banana is another popular replacement for eggs.
The only downside to baking with bananas is that your finished product may have a mild banana flavor.
Other puréed fruits like pumpkin and avocado work too and may not affect the flavor as much.
Whichever fruit you choose to use, you can replace each egg with one-fourth cup (65 grams) of purée.
Baked goods made with puréed fruits may not brown as deeply, but they will be very dense and moist.
This substitution works best in cakes, muffins, brownies and quick breads.
Summary: You can use mashed banana or other fruits like pumpkin and avocado to replace eggs. Use one-fourth cup (65 grams) of fruit purreé for each egg you want to replace.
3. Ground Flaxseeds or Chia Seeds
You can grind the seeds yourself at home or buy ready-made seed meal from the store.
To replace one egg, whisk together 1 tablespoon (7 grams) of ground chia or flaxseeds with 3 tablespoons (45 grams) of water until fully absorbed and thickened.
Doing so may cause baked goods to become heavy and dense. Also, it may result in a nuttier flavor, so it works best in products like pancakes, waffles, muffins, breads and cookies.
Summary: Ground flaxseeds and chia seeds make great egg substitutes. Mixing 1 tablespoon (7 grams) of either with 3 tablespoons (45 grams) of water can replace one egg.
4. Commercial Egg Replacer
There are a variety of commercial egg replacers on the market. These are typically made from potato starch, tapioca starch and leavening agents.
Egg replacers are suitable for all baked goods and should not affect the flavor of the finished product.
Some commercially available brands include Bob's Red Mill, Ener-G and Organ.
Each brand comes with its own instructions, but typically you combine 1.5 teaspoons (10 grams) of powder with 2–3 tablespoons (30–45 grams) of warm water to replace one egg.
Summary: A variety of commercial egg replacers are available. Combine 1.5 teaspoons (10 grams) of powder with 2–3 tablespoons (30–40 grams) of water to replace each egg.
5. Silken Tofu
Tofu is condensed soy milk that has been processed and pressed into solid blocks.
The texture of tofu varies based on its water content. The more water that is pressed out, the firmer the tofu gets.
Silken tofu has a high water content and is, therefore, softer in consistency.
To replace one egg, substitute one-fourth cup (about 60 grams) of puréed, silken tofu.
Silken tofu is relatively flavorless, but it can make baked goods dense and heavy, so it's best used in brownies, cookies, quick breads and cakes.
Summary: Silken tofu is a great substitute for eggs, but may lead to a heavier, denser product. To replace one egg, use one-fourth cup (about 60 grams) of puréed tofu.
6. Vinegar and Baking Soda
Mixing 1 teaspoon (7 grams) of baking soda with 1 tablespoon (15 grams) of vinegar can replace one egg in most recipes.
Apple cider vinegar or white distilled vinegar are the most popular choices.
When mixed together, vinegar and baking soda start a chemical reaction that produces carbon dioxide and water, which makes baked goods light and airy.
This substitution works best for cakes, cupcakes and quick breads.
Summary: Mixing 1 teaspoon (7 grams) of baking soda with 1 tablespoon (15 grams) of vinegar can replace one egg in most recipes. This combination works especially well in baked goods that are meant to be light and airy.
7. Yogurt or Buttermilk
Both yogurt and buttermilk are good substitutes for eggs.
It's best to use plain yogurt, as flavored and sweetened varieties may alter the flavor of your recipe.
You can use one-fourth cup (60 grams) of yogurt or buttermilk for each egg that needs to be replaced.
This substitution works best for muffins, cakes and cupcakes.
Summary: You can use one-fourth cup (60 grams) of plain yogurt or buttermilk to replace one egg. These substitutions work especially well in muffins and cakes.
8. Arrowroot Powder
Arrowroot is a South American tuber plant that is high in starch. The starch is extracted from the roots of the plant and sold as a powder, starch or flour.
It resembles corn starch and is used in cooking, baking and a variety of personal and household products.
A mixture of 2 tablespoons (about 18 grams) of arrowroot powder and 3 tablespoons (45 grams) of water can be used to replace one egg.
Summary: Arrowroot powder is a great replacement for eggs. Mix 2 tablespoons (about 18 grams) of it with 3 tablespoons (45 grams) of water to replace one egg.
Aquafaba is the liquid left over from cooking beans or legumes.
It's the same liquid that is found in canned chickpeas or beans.
The liquid has a very similar consistency to that of raw egg whites, making it an excellent substitution for many recipes.
You can use 3 tablespoons (45 grams) of aquafaba to replace one egg.
Aquafaba works especially well in recipes that call for just egg whites, such as meringues, marshmallows, macaroons or nougat.
Summary: Aquafaba is the liquid found in canned beans. You can use 3 tablespoons (45 grams) of it as a substitute for one whole egg or one egg white.
10. Nut Butter
To replace one egg, use 3 tablespoons (60 grams) of nut butter.
This may affect the flavor of your finished product, and it's best used in brownies, pancakes and cookies.
You should also make sure to use creamy nut butters, rather than chunky varieties, so that everything mixes properly.
Summary: You can use 3 tablespoons (60 grams) of peanut, cashew or almond butter for each egg you want to replace. However, it may result in a nuttier flavor.
11. Carbonated Water
Carbonated water can add moisture to a recipe, but it also acts as a great leavening agent.
The carbonation traps air bubbles, which help make the finished product light and fluffy.
You can replace each egg with one-fourth cup (60 grams) of carbonated water.
This substitution works great for cakes, cupcakes and quick breads.
Summary: Carbonated water makes a great egg replacement in products that are meant to be light and fluffy. Use one-fourth cup (60 grams) of it to replace each egg.
12. Agar-Agar or Gelatin
Gelatin is a gelling agent that makes a great substitute for eggs.
However, it's an animal protein that is typically derived from the collagen of pigs and cows. If you avoid animal products, agar-agar is a vegan alternative obtained from a type of seaweed or algae.
Both can be found as unflavored powders in most supermarkets and health food stores.
To replace one egg, dissolve 1 tablespoon (about 9 grams) of unflavored gelatin in 1 tablespoon (15 grams) of cold water. Then, mix in 2 tablespoons (30 grams) of boiling water until frothy.
Alternatively, you can use 1 tablespoon (9 grams) of agar-agar powder mixed with 1 tablespoon (15 grams) of water to replace one egg.
Neither of these replacements should affect the flavor of your finished product, but they may create a slightly stiffer texture.
Summary: Mixing 1 tablespoon (9 grams) of gelatin with 3 tablespoons (45 grams) of water can replace one egg. You can also mix 1 tablespoon (9 grams) of agar-agar with 1 tablespoon (15 grams) of water.
13. Soy Lecithin
It's frequently added to commercially prepared foods because of its ability to mix and hold ingredients together.
It's also sold in powder form in most health food stores.
Adding 1 tablespoon (14 grams) of soy lecithin powder to your recipe can replace one egg.
Summary: 1 tablespoon (14 grams) of soy lecithin can be used to replace one whole egg or one egg yolk in most recipes.
What If a Recipe Calls for Egg Whites or Yolks?
Here are the best replacements for each:
• Egg whites: Aquafaba is the best option. Use 3 tablespoons (45 grams) for each egg white you want to replace.
• Egg yolks: Soy lecithin is a great substitute. You can replace each large egg yolk with 1 tablespoon (14 grams).
Summary: Aquafaba is a great substitute for egg whites, whereas the best substitute for egg yolks is soy lecithin.
The Bottom Line
Eggs contribute to the overall structure, color, flavor and consistency of baked goods.
Unfortunately, some people cannot eat eggs, or simply choose not to. Luckily, plenty of foods can replace eggs in baking, though not all of them act the same way.
Some egg alternatives are better for heavy, dense products, while others are great for light and fluffy baked goods.
You may need to experiment with various egg alternatives to get the texture and flavor you desire in your recipes.
Reposted with permission from our media associate Authority Nutrition.
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By Eric Tate and Christopher Emrich
Disasters stemming from hazards like floods, wildfires, and disease often garner attention because of their extreme conditions and heavy societal impacts. Although the nature of the damage may vary, major disasters are alike in that socially vulnerable populations often experience the worst repercussions. For example, we saw this following Hurricanes Katrina and Harvey, each of which generated widespread physical damage and outsized impacts to low-income and minority survivors.
Mapping Social Vulnerability<p>Figure 1a is a typical map of social vulnerability across the United States at the census tract level based on the Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) algorithm of <a href="https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/1540-6237.8402002" target="_blank"><em>Cutter et al.</em></a> . Spatial representation of the index depicts high social vulnerability regionally in the Southwest, upper Great Plains, eastern Oklahoma, southern Texas, and southern Appalachia, among other places. With such a map, users can focus attention on select places and identify population characteristics associated with elevated vulnerabilities.</p>
Fig. 1. (a) Social vulnerability across the United States at the census tract scale is mapped here following the Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI). Red and pink hues indicate high social vulnerability. (b) This bivariate map depicts social vulnerability (blue hues) and annualized per capita hazard losses (pink hues) for U.S. counties from 2010 to 2019.<p>Many current indexes in the United States and abroad are direct or conceptual offshoots of SoVI, which has been widely replicated [e.g., <a href="https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13753-016-0090-9" target="_blank"><em>de Loyola Hummell et al.</em></a>, 2016]. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) <a href="https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/placeandhealth/svi/index.html" target="_blank">has also developed</a> a commonly used social vulnerability index intended to help local officials identify communities that may need support before, during, and after disasters.</p><p>The first modeling and mapping efforts, starting around the mid-2000s, largely focused on describing spatial distributions of social vulnerability at varying geographic scales. Over time, research in this area came to emphasize spatial comparisons between social vulnerability and physical hazards [<a href="https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-009-9376-1" target="_blank"><em>Wood et al.</em></a>, 2010], modeling population dynamics following disasters [<a href="https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11111-008-0072-y" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer"><em>Myers et al.</em></a>, 2008], and quantifying the robustness of social vulnerability measures [<a href="https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-012-0152-2" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer"><em>Tate</em></a>, 2012].</p><p>More recent work is beginning to dissolve barriers between social vulnerability and environmental justice scholarship [<a href="https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2018.304846" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer"><em>Chakraborty et al.</em></a>, 2019], which has traditionally focused on root causes of exposure to pollution hazards. Another prominent new research direction involves deeper interrogation of social vulnerability drivers in specific hazard contexts and disaster phases (e.g., before, during, after). Such work has revealed that interactions among drivers are important, but existing case studies are ill suited to guiding development of new indicators [<a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2015.09.013" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer"><em>Rufat et al.</em></a>, 2015].</p><p>Advances in geostatistical analyses have enabled researchers to characterize interactions more accurately among social vulnerability and hazard outcomes. Figure 1b depicts social vulnerability and annualized per capita hazard losses for U.S. counties from 2010 to 2019, facilitating visualization of the spatial coincidence of pre‑event susceptibilities and hazard impacts. Places ranked high in both dimensions may be priority locations for management interventions. Further, such analysis provides invaluable comparisons between places as well as information summarizing state and regional conditions.</p><p>In Figure 2, we take the analysis of interactions a step further, dividing counties into two categories: those experiencing annual per capita losses above or below the national average from 2010 to 2019. The differences among individual race, ethnicity, and poverty variables between the two county groups are small. But expressing race together with poverty (poverty attenuated by race) produces quite different results: Counties with high hazard losses have higher percentages of both impoverished Black populations and impoverished white populations than counties with low hazard losses. These county differences are most pronounced for impoverished Black populations.</p>
Fig. 2. Differences in population percentages between counties experiencing annual per capita losses above or below the national average from 2010 to 2019 for individual and compound social vulnerability indicators (race and poverty).<p>Our current work focuses on social vulnerability to floods using geostatistical modeling and mapping. The research directions are twofold. The first is to develop hazard-specific indicators of social vulnerability to aid in mitigation planning [<a href="https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-020-04470-2" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer"><em>Tate et al.</em></a>, 2021]. Because natural hazards differ in their innate characteristics (e.g., rate of onset, spatial extent), causal processes (e.g., urbanization, meteorology), and programmatic responses by government, manifestations of social vulnerability vary across hazards.</p><p>The second is to assess the degree to which socially vulnerable populations benefit from the leading disaster recovery programs [<a href="https://doi.org/10.1080/17477891.2019.1675578" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer"><em>Emrich et al.</em></a>, 2020], such as the Federal Emergency Management Agency's (FEMA) <a href="https://www.fema.gov/individual-disaster-assistance" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Individual Assistance</a> program and the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development's Community Development Block Grant (CDBG) <a href="https://www.hudexchange.info/programs/cdbg-dr/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Disaster Recovery</a> program. Both research directions posit social vulnerability indicators as potential measures of social equity.</p>
Social Vulnerability as a Measure of Equity<p>Given their focus on social marginalization and economic barriers, social vulnerability indicators are attracting growing scientific interest as measures of inequity resulting from disasters. Indeed, social vulnerability and inequity are related concepts. Social vulnerability research explores the differential susceptibilities and capacities of disaster-affected populations, whereas social equity analyses tend to focus on population disparities in the allocation of resources for hazard mitigation and disaster recovery. Interventions with an equity focus emphasize full and equal resource access for all people with unmet disaster needs.</p><p>Yet newer studies of inequity in disaster programs have documented troubling disparities in income, race, and home ownership among those who <a href="https://eos.org/articles/equity-concerns-raised-in-federal-flood-property-buyouts" target="_blank">participate in flood buyout programs</a>, are <a href="https://www.eenews.net/stories/1063477407" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">eligible for postdisaster loans</a>, receive short-term recovery assistance [<a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2020.102010" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer"><em>Drakes et al.</em></a>, 2021], and have <a href="https://www.texastribune.org/2020/08/25/texas-natural-disasters--mental-health/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">access to mental health services</a>. For example, a recent analysis of federal flood buyouts found racial privilege to be infused at multiple program stages and geographic scales, resulting in resources that disproportionately benefit whiter and more urban counties and neighborhoods [<a href="https://doi.org/10.1177/2378023120905439" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer"><em>Elliott et al.</em></a>, 2020].</p><p>Investments in disaster risk reduction are largely prioritized on the basis of hazard modeling, historical impacts, and economic risk. Social equity, meanwhile, has been far less integrated into the considerations of public agencies for hazard and disaster management. But this situation may be beginning to shift. Following the adage of "what gets measured gets managed," social equity metrics are increasingly being inserted into disaster management.</p><p>At the national level, FEMA has <a href="https://www.fema.gov/news-release/20200220/fema-releases-affordability-framework-national-flood-insurance-program" target="_blank">developed options</a> to increase the affordability of flood insurance [Federal Emergency Management Agency, 2018]. At the subnational scale, Puerto Rico has integrated social vulnerability into its CDBG Mitigation Action Plan, expanding its considerations of risk beyond only economic factors. At the local level, Harris County, Texas, has begun using social vulnerability indicators alongside traditional measures of flood risk to introduce equity into the prioritization of flood mitigation projects [<a href="https://www.hcfcd.org/Portals/62/Resilience/Bond-Program/Prioritization-Framework/final_prioritization-framework-report_20190827.pdf?ver=2019-09-19-092535-743" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer"><em>Harris County Flood Control District</em></a>, 2019].</p><p>Unfortunately, many existing measures of disaster equity fall short. They may be unidimensional, using single indicators such as income in places where underlying vulnerability processes suggest that a multidimensional measure like racialized poverty (Figure 2) would be more valid. And criteria presumed to be objective and neutral for determining resource allocation, such as economic loss and cost-benefit ratios, prioritize asset value over social equity. For example, following the <a href="http://www.cedar-rapids.org/discover_cedar_rapids/flood_of_2008/2008_flood_facts.php" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">2008 flooding</a> in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, cost-benefit criteria supported new flood protections for the city's central business district on the east side of the Cedar River but not for vulnerable populations and workforce housing on the west side.</p><p>Furthermore, many equity measures are aspatial or ahistorical, even though the roots of marginalization may lie in systemic and spatially explicit processes that originated long ago like redlining and urban renewal. More research is thus needed to understand which measures are most suitable for which social equity analyses.</p>
Challenges for Disaster Equity Analysis<p>Across studies that quantify, map, and analyze social vulnerability to natural hazards, modelers have faced recurrent measurement challenges, many of which also apply in measuring disaster equity (Table 1). The first is clearly establishing the purpose of an equity analysis by defining characteristics such as the end user and intended use, the type of hazard, and the disaster stage (i.e., mitigation, response, or recovery). Analyses using generalized indicators like the CDC Social Vulnerability Index may be appropriate for identifying broad areas of concern, whereas more detailed analyses are ideal for high-stakes decisions about budget allocations and project prioritization.</p>
By Jessica Corbett
Sen. Bernie Sanders on Tuesday was the lone progressive to vote against Tom Vilsack reprising his role as secretary of agriculture, citing concerns that progressive advocacy groups have been raising since even before President Joe Biden officially nominated the former Obama administration appointee.