By Ryan Raman
Belly fat is extremely unhealthy. In fact, it increases the risk of heart disease, type 2 diabetes and other health conditions (1).
But interestingly, it seems that this includes only one type of fiber—soluble fiber. This article explains how soluble fiber can help you lose belly fat.
Soluble Fiber Can Help You Lose Belly Fat
There are two types of fiber—insoluble and soluble fiber. They differ in how they interact with water in your body.
Insoluble fiber does not mix with water and acts mostly as a bulking agent to help form stool and pass it through the gut. This can help with constipation (3).
This gives nutrients and water more contact time with the walls of the gut, leading to better absorption.
Eating more soluble fiber can also help you lose belly fat and prevent belly fat gain. One study linked a 10-gram increase in daily soluble fiber intake to a 3.7 percent lower risk of gaining belly fat (2).
In fact, soluble fiber may help reduce belly fat in several ways.
Summary: Soluble fiber differs from insoluble fiber in how it interacts with water and other areas of the body. Soluble fiber may help reduce belly fat.
Soluble Fiber Encourages Gut Bacteria Diversity, Which Is Linked to Less Belly Fat
There are more than 100 trillion helpful bacteria living in your lower gut.
Unlike other bacteria, these bacteria are harmless and share a mutually beneficial relationship with humans.
Humans provide the bacteria with a home and nutrients, while the bacteria help take care of processes like producing vitamins and processing waste (7).
There are many different types of bacteria, and having a greater variety of gut bacteria is linked to a lower risk of conditions like type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance and heart disease, to name a few (8).
What's more, a recent study showed that people with a greater variety of gut bacteria have a lower risk of belly fat (14).
While initial research on bacterial diversity's effect on belly fat is promising, more studies are needed before a clear link can be made.
Summary: A greater variety of helpful gut bacteria may be linked to a lower risk of belly fat, but more research is needed to confirm this.
How Helpful Gut Bacteria May Reduce Belly Fat
Because your body cannot digest fiber itself, it reaches the gut largely unchanged.
Once there, specific enzymes in gut bacteria can digest soluble fiber. This is one important way in which gut bacteria promote optimal health. Meanwhile, soluble fiber acts as a prebiotic, providing the bacteria with nutrients.
This process of digesting and processing soluble fiber is called fermentation. It produces short-chain fatty acids, a type of fat that can help reduce belly fat.
One way short-chain fatty acids may help regulate your fat metabolism is by increasing the rate of fat burning or decreasing the rate of fat storage, although exactly how this works is not completely understood (15).
Furthermore, animal and lab studies have shown that short-chain fatty acids have reduced the risk of colon cancer (20).
Summary: Your gut bacteria can digest soluble fiber. The process produces short-chain fatty acids, which are linked to a lower risk of belly fat.
Soluble Fiber Helps Reduce Appetite
One way to lose belly fat is to lose weight.
And given that soluble fiber is a powerful natural appetite suppressant, it can help you do that.
There are several theories about how soluble fiber can help reduce your appetite.
First, soluble fiber helps regulate hormones involved in appetite control.
Second, fiber can reduce appetite by slowing the movement of food through the gut.
When nutrients like glucose are released slowly into the gut, your body releases insulin at a slower rate. This is linked to a reduced sense of hunger (4).
Summary: Losing weight can help you lose belly fat. Soluble fiber can help you lose weight by curbing your appetite, which reduces calorie intake.
Sources of Soluble Fiber
Soluble fiber is easy to add to your diet and found in a variety of plant-based foods.
However, although soluble fiber may help you lose belly fat, it's not a great idea to eat lots of soluble fiber right away.
This can cause side effects, such as stomach cramps, diarrhea and bloating. It's best to increase your intake slowly, over time, to help improve your body's tolerance.
Summary: Great sources of soluble fiber include flaxseeds, legumes, grains, fruits and vegetables. Aim to increase your intake slowly over time.
Can Fiber Supplements Help Reduce Belly Fat?
Whole foods are the best way to increase your soluble fiber intake.
But if this isn't realistic for you, taking a soluble fiber supplement could be an option.
Various types are available, including psyllium husk, glucomannan and inulin, and some evidence shows they can help you lose belly fat.
For example, one six-week study in teenage boys showed that taking a psyllium husk supplement reduced belly fat (28).
Also, the viscous fiber glucomannan has shown mixed results for belly fat loss. One study in mice found that glucomannan supplements reduced belly fat, while a human study showed the same effect, but only in men (29, 30).
Yet despite these mixed results, glucomannan can also promote belly fat loss by slowing down digestion and reducing appetite (31).
Inulin is another type of soluble fiber. Even though it's not very viscous, it has been linked to belly fat loss.
One 18-week weight loss study in people at risk of type 2 diabetics gave participants either inulin or cellulose (insoluble fiber) supplements. Both groups received nutrition advice for the first nine weeks and followed a fat-loss diet.
While both groups lost weight, the inulin group lost significantly more belly fat, total body fat and total weight. They also ate less food than the cellulose group (32).
Overall, fiber supplements seem like a promising area for future research in belly fat loss. Yet, more research is needed before making a stronger recommendation.
Summary: Psyllium, glucomannan and inulin show promise for belly fat loss, though more research is needed to make supplement recommendations.
The Bottom Line
Eating foods rich in soluble fiber may help you lose belly fat.
Soluble fiber helps keep your gut bacteria healthy and promotes overall fat loss by reducing your appetite.
To further promote belly fat loss, combine your soluble fiber intake with other lifestyle changes, such as making healthier food choices and exercising more.
Reposted with permission from our media associate Authority Nutrition.
Sweden's reindeer have a problem. In winter, they feed on lichens buried beneath the snow. But the climate crisis is making this difficult. Warmer temperatures mean moisture sometimes falls as rain instead of snow. When the air refreezes, a layer of ice forms between the reindeer and their meal, forcing them to wander further in search of ideal conditions. And sometimes, this means crossing busy roads.
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By Aaron W Hunter
A chance discovery of a beautifully preserved fossil in the desert landscape of Morocco has solved one of the great mysteries of biology and paleontology: how starfish evolved their arms.
The Pompeii of palaeontology. Aaron Hunter, Author provided<h2></h2><p>Although starfish might appear very robust animals, they are typically made up of lots of hard parts attached by ligaments and soft tissue which, upon death, quickly degrade. This means we rely on places like the Fezouata formations to provide snapshots of their evolution.</p><p>The starfish fossil record is patchy, especially at the critical time when many of these animal groups first appeared. Sorting out how each of the various types of ancient starfish relate to each other is like putting a puzzle together when many of the parts are missing.</p><h2>The Oldest Starfish</h2><p><em><a href="https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/216101v1.full.pdf" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Cantabrigiaster</a></em> is the most primitive starfish-like animal to be discovered in the fossil record. It was discovered in 2003, but it has taken over 17 years to work out its true significance.</p><p>What makes <em>Cantabrigiaster</em> unique is that it lacks almost all the characteristics we find in brittle stars and starfish.</p><p>Starfish and brittle stars belong to the family Asterozoa. Their ancestors, the Somasteroids were especially fragile - before <em>Cantabrigiaster</em> we only had a handful of specimens. The celebrated Moroccan paleontologist Mohamed <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2016.06.041" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Ben Moula</a> and his local team was instrumental in discovering <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0031018216302334?via%3Dihub" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">these amazing fossils</a> near the town of Zagora, in Morocco.</p><h2>The Breakthrough</h2><p>Our breakthrough moment came when I compared the arms of <em>Cantabrigiaster</em> with those of modern sea lilles, filter feeders with long feathery arms that tend to be attached to the sea floor by a stem or stalk.</p><p>The striking similarity between these modern filter feeders and the ancient starfish led our team from the University of Cambridge and Harvard University to create a new analysis. We applied a biological model to the features of all the current early Asterozoa fossils in existence, along with a sample of their closest relatives.</p>
Cantabrigiaster is the most primitive starfish-like animal to be discovered in the fossil record. Aaron Hunter, Author provided<p>Our results demonstrate <em>Cantabrigiaster</em> is the most primitive of all the Asterozoa, and most likely evolved from ancient animals called crinoids that lived 250 million years before dinosaurs. The five arms of starfish are a relic left over from these ancestors. In the case of <em>Cantabrigiaster</em>, and its starfish descendants, it evolved by flipping upside-down so its arms are face down on the sediment to feed.</p><p>Although we sampled a relatively small numbers of those ancestors, one of the unexpected outcomes was it provided an idea of how they could be related to each other. Paleontologists studying echinoderms are often lost in detail as all the different groups are so radically different from each other, so it is hard to tell which evolved first.</p>
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