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By Sam Schipani
It may seem strange to burn the area around the wetland as a habitat restoration technique, and even more oxymoronic to do so in order to save an aquatic creature in the desert. But for a nearly extinct species of fish in the arid Owens Valley, a prescribed burn is exactly what the doctor ordered.
After years of planning, the Eastern Sierra Land Trust, the California Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Cal Fire executed a prescribed burn this past December in order to create a sustainable habitat for the Owens speckled dace, a small fish that is listed as "threatened" under the Endangered Species Act.
Fish in the desert might sound impossible, but there are several species of desert fish in California. During geographically transformative events that occurred thousand of years ago, these fish found their way to tiny pools and streams that punctuate the dry landscapes during wet periods. As landscapes changed over time, the desert fish have adapted into unique species specialized for their environs. According to Peter Moyle, a biologist at University of California, Davis, genomic testing suggests that the Owen speckled dace's prehistoric ancestors came from around the Mono Lake basin, where volcanic activity blew out the waters and dropped the common ancestor of the Owens speckled dace and other dace species into surrounding areas.
"These fish have been going their own way for a very long time and adapted to very difficult conditions," Moyle says. "If we can restore the speckled dace, you'll have brought back a significant part of the fish fauna in that region. It just belongs there."
Over the past 80 years, the Owens speckled dace has been in steep decline due to water mismanagement, pressures from agriculture, and encroachment by non-native species. Streams and seasonal ponds in the Owens Valley are expected to decline further with climate change-related temperature increases and less snowpack, and what has not evaporated will continue to be diverted for agricultural use. Thirsty cattle, a linchpin of the valley's ranching history, are especially hard on area streams. The little water that does remain is often overrun with invasive plants and non-native fish species. According to Moyle, in the 1920s and 30s, any body of water without catchable fish was considered barren. Fish and Wildlife agencies felt it incumbent to remedy the "problem" by relocating catchable fish to these areas, where they are now incredibly difficult to eradicate. The Owens speckled dace is outcompeted and eaten by species like the Sacramento perch, which can grow over five times as large and makes a quick snack of the little dace.
"[The Owens speckled dace] is a native fish, and it's about to be extinct," says Kay Ogden, executive director of the Eastern Sierra Land Trust. "They're desperate for a place to live right now."
In order to save the desperate dace, the Eastern Sierra Land Trust started seeking suitable locations to reintroduce the species. With the help of U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service scientists, the group found the perfect candidate: the Benton Hot Springs Ranch. The spring-fed ponds on the property once contained the Owens speckled dace; with a little help to raise the water level and remove the non-native plants and fish, they could again. The ponds were located on private property owned by fourth-generation rancher Bill Bramlette. Luckily, Bramlette was happy to join the dace restoration efforts. The ranch has been in his family for four generations, and Bramlette is invested in continuing a legacy of responsible habitat management. In 2008, Bramlette signed a conservation easement with the Eastern Sierra Land Trust and agreed to preserve the habitats and prohibit future development in the area.
"I saw an opportunity to do meaningful conservation by working with partners who had access to resources and experts," Bramlette said in an Eastern Sierra Land Trust press release.
With Bramlette on board, the Eastern Sierra Land Trust's staff and volunteers began meticulously removing the invasive hardstem bulrush and cattails choking out the fish habitat in the water. They spent years trying to remove the plants by hand, but the aquatic plants were too aggressive and fast-growing. The only option was to take the plants down in a literal blaze of glory. In 2013, Cal Fire joined the cause to help organize and execute a prescribed burn at the Benton Hot Springs Ranch.
According to Henry Herrera, a unit forester for Cal Fire who worked on the project, properly planning a prescribed burn is a lengthy process, but "the benefits outweigh all the work that goes into it." Besides going through a standard environmental review, the local air quality board must determine whether the wind conditions will impair air quality or cause the flames to stray beyond the prescribed area. Cal Fire also conducts various fire behavior calculations to determine what the ideal environment would be to keep the fire under control. The agency had to check the moisture of the targeted vegetation—too little and it would burn too hot, too much and it wouldn't burn at all. To avoid disturbing nesting birds, most burns can only take place between November and January. Plus, everyone—the Cal Fire crew, the Eastern Sierra Land Trust staff, and Bramlette himself—had to be available. With all the variables at play, it took three years for the stars to align.
"We came really close two years ago and a snow storm came in," says Eastern Sierra Land Trust executive director Ogden. "I cannot even tell you how frustrating that was. But we take fire seriously"
Finally, the Goldilocks conditions emerged. The crews removed heavy fuels like logs, snags, and brush piles away from the site and then started the burn, systematically lighting the perimeter in accordance with the wind. The scene looked apocalyptic as the fire lapped up the brushy plants, but thanks to the careful planning, it went off without a hitch. When the fires subsided, the ponds emerged from clearer and more open to the new possibilities that lie ahead.
Hopefully the Owens speckled dace will have its own phoenix moment soon, but the burn was only the first step in the process to restore the habitat. Next, the water level in the ponds will be raised to drown out any remaining burned and cut plants (all of the plants must be removed—even one aggressive and fast-growing bulrush would start taking over the habitat again). Then, the California Department of Fish and Wildlife will remove and relocate the Benton Pond's non-native aquatic residents. Once the vegetation and non-native predators have been removed from the ponds, the Owens speckled dace will be brought back to its historic home.
The coalition that is working to restore these fish relishes the little victories. According to Ogden, a greater expanse the pond's water surface is already more visible, and birds like ducks, grebes, and herons have returned to the wetland habitats. The Eastern Sierra Land Trust has partnered with Bramlette to host events at the ponds, giving the community the opportunity to view birds and other wildlife in the habitat until the fish arrive.
"It's really fun to see," Ogden says. "Any time that humans can step in and try to collaborate and help save a species, I think it is incumbent upon us to try and do that."
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Global Banks, Led by JPMorgan Chase, Invested $1.9 Trillion in Fossil Fuels Since Paris Climate Pact
By Sharon Kelly
A report published Wednesday names the banks that have played the biggest recent role in funding fossil fuel projects, finding that since 2016, immediately following the Paris agreement's adoption, 33 global banks have poured $1.9 trillion into financing climate-changing projects worldwide.
By Patti Lynn
2018 was a groundbreaking year in the public conversation about climate change. Last February, The New York Times reported that a record percentage of Americans now believe that climate change is caused by humans, and there was a 20 percentage point rise in "the number of Americans who say they worry 'a great deal' about climate change."
England faces an "existential threat" if it does not change how it manages its water, the head of the country's Environment Agency warned Tuesday.
By Jessica Corbett
A new analysis revealed Tuesday that over the past two decades heat records across the U.S. have been broken twice as often as cold ones—underscoring experts' warnings about the increasingly dangerous consequences of failing to dramatically curb planet-warming emissions.
By Madison Dapcevich
Ask any resident of San Francisco about the waterfront parrots, and they will surely tell you a story of red-faced conures squawking or dive-bombing between building peaks. Ask a team of researchers from the University of Georgia, however, and they will tell you of a mysterious string of neurological poisonings impacting the naturalized flock for decades.
The initial cause of the fire was not yet known, but it has been driven by the strong wind and jumped the North Santiam River, The Salem Statesman Journal reported. As of Tuesday night, it threatened around 35 homes and 30 buildings, and was 20 percent contained.
The unanimous verdict was announced Tuesday in San Francisco in the first federal case to be brought against Monsanto, now owned by Bayer, alleging that repeated use of the company's glyphosate-containing weedkiller caused the plaintiff's cancer. Seventy-year-old Edwin Hardeman of Santa Rosa, California said he used Roundup for almost 30 years on his properties before developing non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
"Today's verdict reinforces what another jury found last year, and what scientists with the state of California and the World Health Organization have concluded: Glyphosate causes cancer in people," Environmental Working Group President Ken Cook said in a statement. "As similar lawsuits mount, the evidence will grow that Roundup is not safe, and that the company has tried to cover it up."
Judge Vince Chhabria has split Hardeman's trial into two phases. The first, decided Tuesday, focused exclusively on whether or not Roundup use caused the plaintiff's cancer. The second, to begin Wednesday, will assess if Bayer is liable for damages.
"We are disappointed with the jury's initial decision, but we continue to believe firmly that the science confirms glyphosate-based herbicides do not cause cancer," Bayer spokesman Dan Childs said in a statement reported by The Guardian. "We are confident the evidence in phase two will show that Monsanto's conduct has been appropriate and the company should not be liable for Mr. Hardeman's cancer."
Some legal experts said that Chhabria's decision to split the trial was beneficial to Bayer, Reuters reported. The company had complained that the jury in Johnson's case had been distracted by the lawyers' claims that Monsanto had sought to mislead scientists and the public about Roundup's safety.
However, a remark made by Chhabria during the trial and reported by The Guardian was blatantly critical of the company.
"Although the evidence that Roundup causes cancer is quite equivocal, there is strong evidence from which a jury could conclude that Monsanto does not particularly care whether its product is in fact giving people cancer, focusing instead on manipulating public opinion and undermining anyone who raises genuine and legitimate concerns about the issue," he said.
Many regulatory bodies, including the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, have ruled that glyphosate is safe for humans, but the World Health Organization's International Agency for Research on Cancer found it was "probably carcinogenic to humans" in 2015. A university study earlier this year found that glyphosate use increased cancer risk by as much as 41 percent.
Hardeman's lawyers Jennifer Moore and Aimee Wagstaff said they would now reveal Monsanto's efforts to mislead the public about the safety of its product.
"Now we can focus on the evidence that Monsanto has not taken a responsible, objective approach to the safety of Roundup," they wrote in a statement reported by The Guardian.
Hardeman's case is considered a "bellwether" trial for the more than 760 glyphosate cases Chhabria is hearing. In total, there are around 11,200 such lawsuits pending in the U.S., according to Reuters.
University of Richmond law professor Carl Tobias told Reuters that Tuesday's decision showed that the verdict in Johnson's case was not "an aberration," and could possibly predict how future juries in the thousands of pending cases would respond.