‘Single-Use’ Is Collins Dictionary’s Word of the Year
2018 saw the fight against plastic pollution amp up in a big way. Britain's Queen Elizabeth II led the charge by banning plastic bottles and straws from royal estates in February, and everyone from airlines like Alaska to cities like Seattle have followed her into the fray.
Much of the plastic backlash has focused specifically on "single-use" plastics like straws and shopping bags that are designed to be used once and then discarded, so it makes a lot of sense that Collins Dictionary chose "single-use" as its 2018 word of the year.
BREAKING! The Collins Word of the Year 2018 is... single-use ♻️ Discover the full shortlist & find out more:… https://t.co/8Us6rY1Egb— Collins Dictionary (@Collins Dictionary)1541574023.0
Collins was clear about the environmental implications of its choice when it announced the winner on its website:
'Single-use,' a term that describes items whose unchecked proliferation are blamed for damaging the environment and affecting the food chain, has been named Collins' Word of the Year 2018.
Single-use refers to products—often plastic—that are 'made to be used once only' before disposal. Images of plastic adrift in the most distant oceans, such as straws, bottles, and bags have led to a global campaign to reduce their use.
The word has seen a four-fold increase since 2013, with news stories and images such as those seen in the BBC's Blue Planet II steeply raising public awareness of the issue.
Collins' staff of lexicographers monitors 4.5 billion words in order to select its yearly choice. This year, the adjective beat out a variety of topical choices that ranged from light-hearted to serious.
Other contenders included MeToo, Floss (a victory dance associated with the game Fortnite, gaslight, and other environmental words vegan and plogging, "a recreational activity, originating in Sweden, that combines jogging with picking up litter."
When did you last go #plogging? @CollinsDict #WordOfTheYear #CollinsWOTY https://t.co/CVjFnlgDgV— Scriberia Ltd (@Scriberia Ltd)1541601031.0
"This year, environmental issues rise to the top with words such as 'single-use' and 'plogging,' accompanied by political movements, dance trends and technology," the dictionary wrote in a blog post.
2016's word was Brexit and 2017's was "fake news," The Guardian pointed out, so 2018's choice does suggest that the environment is starting to get the public recognition it needs as a political issue, given the fact that humans only have 12 years to take unprecedented action on climate change.
"This has been a year where awareness and often anger over a variety of issues has led to the rise of new words and the revitalisation and adaptation of old ones," head of language content Helen Newstead told The Guardian regarding 2018's choices. "It's clear from this year's words of the year list that changes to our language are dictated as much by public concern as they are by sport, politics, and playground fads. The words in this year's list perhaps highlight a world at extremes—at one end, serious social and political concerns, and at the other, more light-hearted activities."In honor of Collins' choice, why not bridge that divide by going plogging for single-use litter, then reward yourself with a yummy vegan meal?
The Link Between Fossil Fuels, Single-Use Plastics and Climate Change https://t.co/dNvbx9e4r9 @PlasticPollutes @GreenNewsDaily— EcoWatch (@EcoWatch)1525383607.0
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Association Versus Intervention Studies<p>Many studies on the vitamin are association or observational studies. "By definition, these studies cannot prove the causal relationship, but only point to mere correlations," said Fassnacht. The physician tries to illustrate this with an example:</p><p>"Imagine two groups of 80-year-olds. One group is spry, active and does sports. If you compare them with another group living in nursing homes, the difference in vitamin D levels will be dramatic. Life expectancy would also be extremely different."</p><p>But to try to explain the difference in fitness by vitamin D status alone is far too simplistic. "Vitamin D levels are a good measure of how sick someone is. But not more," says Fassnacht. </p><p>According to Fassnacht, none of the intervention studies carried out to date -- that specifically examined the effect of vitamin D on various diseases -- has been able to confirm the previous association and laboratory studies or the presumed positive effect of vitamin D.</p>
Further Research Is Needed<p>"If a coronavirus infection is suspected, it is therefore absolutely necessary to check the vitamin D status and quickly correct any possible deficit," said the recommendation of the paper published by the University of Hohenheim.</p><p>"Studies are underway to see whether vitamin D helps in COVID-19 infection, but I personally do not believe that this is really the case," says endocrinologist Fassnacht. Nevertheless, he says it is of course useful to carry out these studies.<br></p><p>"I don't want to rule out that there are actually subgroups of people who benefit from an additional vitamin D dose," he says. After all, this has been proven to be the case with a severe deficit.</p><p>In view of the study situation, Fassnacht does not think much of preventive, nationwide vitamin D substitutes. "My belief that the vitamin helps somewhere is very low. But, of course, I can be wrong."</p>
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