Coffee vs. Tea: Is One Healthier Than the Other?
Coffee and tea are among the world's most popular beverages, with black tea being the most sought-after variety of the later, accounting for 78% of all tea production and consumption (1Trusted Source).
While the two provide similar health benefits, they have some differences.
This article compares coffee and black tea to help you decide which one to choose.
Present in many common beverages, including coffee and tea, it's known for both its beneficial and adverse effects on human health.
While the caffeine content can vary depending on brewing time, serving size, or preparation method, coffee can easily pack twice the caffeine as an equal serving of tea.
The amount of caffeine considered safe for human consumption is 400 mg per day. One 8-ounce cup (240 ml) of brewed coffee contains an average of 95 mg of caffeine, compared with 47 mg in the same serving of black tea (4Trusted Source, 5, 6).
Though scientists have primarily focused on coffee when researching the positive effects of caffeine, both drinks — despite containing differing amounts of this substance — can provide its associated health benefits.
Caffeine works as a powerful stimulant for your central nervous system, which is why it's considered a performance-enhancing substance in sports (10Trusted Source, 11Trusted Source, 12Trusted Source).
One review of 40 studies determined that caffeine intake improved endurance exercise outcomes by 12%, compared with a placebo (13Trusted Source).
A study in 48 people who were given a drink containing either 75 or 150 mg of caffeine revealed improvements in reaction times, memory, and information processing, compared with the control group (16Trusted Source).
What's more, moderate caffeine intake has been associated with protective effects against dementia, Alzheimer's disease, metabolic syndrome, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (20Trusted Source, 21Trusted Source, 22Trusted Source, 23Trusted Source, 24Trusted Source).
Caffeine is a powerful stimulant that has been associated with protective effects against some chronic diseases. Coffee contains more caffeine per serving than black tea, but both beverages may provide its associated benefits.
Rich in Antioxidants
Antioxidants protect your body against free radical damage, which may help prevent the development of certain chronic diseases (25Trusted Source).
Both tea and coffee are loaded with antioxidants, primarily polyphenols, which contribute to their characteristic flavor and health-promoting properties (26Trusted Source, 27Trusted Source, 28Trusted Source, 29Trusted Source).
Many groups of polyphenols are present in tea and coffee.
A recent test-tube study discovered that theaflavins and thearubigins inhibited the growth of lung and colon cancer cells and ultimately killed them (32Trusted Source).
On the other hand, test-tube studies on coffee's anticancer properties have found that its CGA content acts as a potent inhibitor of cancer cell growth, protecting against gastrointestinal and liver cancer (34Trusted Source, 35Trusted Source).
Long-term studies in humans and further research that has analyzed larger pools of evidence show that coffee and tea may also protect against other kinds of cancers, such as breast, colon, bladder, and rectum cancer (36Trusted Source, 37Trusted Source, 38Trusted Source, 39Trusted Source, 40Trusted Source).
Aside from their antioxidant activities, polyphenols have been linked to a reduced rate of heart disease (41Trusted Source).
- Vasodilating factor. They promote blood vessel relaxation, which helps in cases of high blood pressure.
- Anti-angiogenic effect. They block the formation of new blood vessels that may feed cancer cells.
- Anti-atherogenic effect. They prevent plaque formation in blood vessels, lowering heart attack and stroke risk.
A 10-year study in 74,961 healthy people determined that drinking 4 cups (960 ml) or more of black tea per day was associated with a 21% lower risk of stroke, compared with non-drinkers (45Trusted Source).
Another 10-year study in 34,670 healthy women showed that drinking 5 cups (1.2 liters) or more of coffee per day lowered the risk of stroke by 23%, compared with non-drinkers (46Trusted Source).
Both coffee and tea contain different types of polyphenols, which are powerful antioxidants that protect against heart disease and cancer.
May Increase Energy Levels
Both coffee and tea can give you an energy boost — but in different ways.
Coffee's Energy-Boosting Effect
The caffeine in coffee elevates your energy levels.
Dopamine is the chemical messenger responsible for the jittery effect of coffee, as it increases your heart rate. It also affects your brain's reward system, which adds to coffee's addictive properties.
On the other hand, adenosine has a sleep-promoting effect. Thus, by blocking it, caffeine reduces your feelings of tiredness.
What's more, coffee's effect on your energy levels happens almost immediately.
Once ingested, your body absorbs 99% of its caffeine within 45 minutes, but peak blood concentrations appear as early as 15 minutes after ingestion (48Trusted Source).
This is why many people prefer a cup of coffee when they need an immediate energy boost.
Tea's Effect on Energy
Unlike caffeine, L-theanine may provide anti-stress effects by increasing your brain's alpha waves, which help you calm down and relax (51Trusted Source).
This counteracts the arousing effect of caffeine and gives you a relaxed but alert mental state without feeling drowsy.
This combination may be the reason why tea gives you a soothing and more smooth energy boost than coffee.
Both coffee and tea increase your energy levels. However, coffee gives you an instant kick, while tea offers a smooth boost.
Possible Weight Loss Benefits
Due to its high caffeine concentration, coffee may help you lose weight.
Caffeine may increase the number of calories you burn by 3–13%, and maintain this effect for 3 hours after intake, translating into an extra 79–150 calories burned (54Trusted Source, 55Trusted Source, 56Trusted Source, 57Trusted Source).
Coffee has also been associated with fat-burning properties by inhibiting the production of fat cells. Some studies have attributed this effect to its chlorogenic acid content (58Trusted Source, 59Trusted Source).
A study in 455 people reported that regular coffee intake was linked to lower body fat tissue. Similar results were obtained in a review of 12 studies, suggesting that chlorogenic acid aids weight loss and fat metabolism in mice (60Trusted Source, 61Trusted Source).
On the other hand, tea polyphenols like theaflavin also seem to contribute to weight loss.
Theaflavins reportedly inhibit pancreatic lipase, an enzyme that plays a key role in fat metabolism (62Trusted Source).
Studies in rats show that tea polyphenols may lower blood lipid concentrations and reduce weight gain — even when animals ate a high-fat diet (63Trusted Source).
Black tea polyphenols also seem to alter the diversity of your gut microbiota, or healthy bacteria in your intestines, which may impact weight management.
However, further human research is needed to confirm these results.
The caffeine in coffee and polyphenols in tea may help you lose weight, but more human studies are needed to confirm these effects.
Is One Better Than the Other?
Though coffee has been associated with multiple side effects, such as heart failure, increased heart rate, and high blood pressure, research shows that moderate consumption is safe (66Trusted Source).
Though their antioxidant compositions differ, coffee and black tea are both excellent sources of these important compounds, which may protect against various conditions, including heart disease and some forms of cancers.
Other health claims attributed to coffee include protection against Parkinson's disease and a lowered risk of type 2 diabetes and liver cirrhosis. On the other hand, tea may protect against cavities, kidney stones, and arthritis (1Trusted Source).
Coffee has a higher caffeine content than tea, which may be good for those looking for an instant energy fix. However, it may cause anxiety and impaired sleep in sensitive people (8Trusted Source).
If you're highly sensitive to caffeine, tea may be a better choice. It contains L-theanine, an amino acid with calming properties that may relax you while keeping you alert.
Moreover, you can go for a decaf option of either beverage or choose herbal tea, which is naturally caffeine-free. While they won't provide the same benefits, they may offer benefits of their own (68Trusted Source).
Coffee and tea offer similar health benefits, including weight loss, anticancer, and energy-boosting properties. Still, you may want to choose one over the other depending on your caffeine sensitivity.
The Bottom Line
Coffee and black tea may aid weight loss and protect against certain chronic diseases via various metabolic processes.
Plus, the high caffeine content of coffee may give you a quick energy boost, whereas the combination of caffeine and L-theanine in black tea offers a more gradual increase in energy.
Both beverages are healthy and safe in moderation, so it may come down to personal preference or your sensitivity to caffeine.
Reposted with permission from our media associate Healthline.
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By Dr. Kate Raynes-Goldie
Of all the plastic we've ever produced, only 9% has been recycled. So what happened to all that plastic you've put in the recycling bin over the years?
Triangle of Mistruths<p>The myth created around plastic recycling has been one of simplicity. We look for the familiar triangle arrows, then pop the waste in the recycling bin so it can be reused.</p><p>But the true purpose of those triangles has been misunderstood by the general public ever since their invention in the 1980s.</p><p>These triangles were actually created by the plastics industry and, according to a report provided to them in July 1993, <a href="https://www.npr.org/transcripts/912150085" target="_blank">were creating "unrealistic expectations"</a> about what could be recycled. But they decided to keep using the codes.</p><p>Which is why many people still believe that these triangular symbols (also known as a <a href="https://sustainablepackaging.org/101-resin-identification-codes/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">resin identifier code</a> or RIC) means something is recyclable.</p><p>But according to the American Society for Testing and Materials International (ASTM) – which controls the RIC system – the numbered triangles "<a href="https://www.astm.org/Standards/D7611.htm" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">are not recycle codes</a>." In fact, they weren't created for the general public at all. They were made for the post-consumer plastic industry.</p><p>In other words, the symbols make it easier to sort the different types of plastics, some of which cannot be recycled – <a href="https://www.ecobin.com.au/understand-recycling-codes/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">depending on the recycling facility</a>.</p><p>"Unfortunately, just placing your plastic into the recycling bin doesn't mean it will get recycled," says Lara Camilla Pinho. She is an architect and lecturer at the UWA School of Design who is researching novel uses of plastic waste.</p><p>"The recycling system is complicated and often dictated by market demand. Not all plastic is recyclable. We cannot recycle plastic bags or straws for example."</p>
Behind the Scenes<p>So, what makes recycling plastics so difficult?</p><p>"Essentially, there are two types of plastics – thermoplastics and thermosets. While thermoplastics can be re-melted and re-molded, thermosets contain cross-linked polymers that cannot be separated meaning they cannot be recycled," says Lara.</p><p>"Even thermoplastics have a limit to the amount of times we can recycle them, as each time they are recycled they downgrade in quality."</p><p>Even when plastics are recyclable, it is <a href="https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2019/oct/13/war-on-plastic-waste-faces-setback-as-cost-of-recycled-material-soars" target="_blank">often more costly</a> than simply making new plastics.</p>
Sugar, Seaweed and Mushrooms<p>If the conventional recycling system isn't working, what else can we do with all the plastic we've created?</p><p>Lara is looking for ways to add value to recycled plastics such as using it in the design and development of architectural products. She hopes to use these architectural products to help underserved communities that are disproportionately affected by plastic waste.</p><p>In addition to recycling, we also need to find ways to reduce our use of virgin petroleum-based plastics.</p><p>Bioplastic is one such product that has been getting a lot of hype over the last few years. And although they're better than petroleum-based plastics, bioplastics also come with their own <a href="https://phys.org/news/2017-12-truth-bioplastics.html" target="_blank">set of challenges</a>.</p><p>"There are already a lot of bio-based alternatives to plastic, such as bagasse – a byproduct of sugar cane processing," says Lara.</p><p><a href="https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/observations/the-mycelium-revolution-is-upon-us/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Mycelium</a>, a type of fungi we most often associate with mushrooms, are also providing an interesting plastic alternative.</p><p>"In the field of architecture, mycelium is starting to be used as an alternative to plastic insulation, but also as compostable packaging and bricks," says Lara.</p><p>"The bricks take around five days to make and are strong, durable, water resistant and compostable at the end of their use."</p><p><a href="https://www.arup.com/news-and-events/hyfi-reinvents-the-brick" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Hy-Fi Tower</a>, created by <a href="http://www.thelivingnewyork.com/living_about.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">The Living</a>, is an example of a building made from these bricks.</p><p>And finally, there's seaweed.</p><p>"[Seaweed is] cheap and can reproduce itself quickly without fertilizers. In architecture, there is use for seaweed as an alternative to plastic insulation but also as cladding," says Lara.</p>
More Money, More Problems<p>While all these alternatives are great, the main cause of our plastic dilemma is not scientific or technological, but economic.</p><p>As long as it remains <a href="https://engineering.mit.edu/engage/ask-an-engineer/why-is-it-cheaper-to-make-new-plastic-bottles-than-to-recycle-old-ones/" target="_blank">cheaper to create new plastics</a> from fossil fuels rather than from bioplastics or from recycling, we're going to be stuck with plastic garbage islands floating in our oceans.</p><p>The true cost to our health and our environment has yet to be included in the equation. But once it is, maybe that is when the real shift will happen.</p>
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Towards the end of the final presidential debate of the 2020 election season, the moderator asked both candidates how they would address both the climate crisis and job growth, leading to a nearly 12-minute discussion where Donald Trump did not acknowledge that the climate is changing and Joe Biden called the climate crisis an existential threat.
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By Zheng Chen and Darren H. S. Tan
As concern mounts over the impacts of climate change, many experts are calling for greater use of electricity as a substitute for fossil fuels. Powered by advancements in battery technology, the number of plug-in hybrid and electric vehicles on U.S. roads is increasing. And utilities are generating a growing share of their power from renewable fuels, supported by large-scale battery storage systems.