Climate Change Is Causing Us ‘Eco-Anxiety’
Do the daily climate change headlines make you feel stressed, afraid or powerless? If so, you're certainly not alone.
A growing number of people report feelings of loss, grief, worry and despair amid news that climate change is making natural disasters like hurricanes and wildfires worse and more common, that polar ice is melting faster than we thought and that we only have 12 years to prevent the most catastrophic effects of climate change.
Eco-Anxiety, which the APA describes as a "chronic fear of environmental doom," isn't listed anywhere in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the handbook for diagnosing mental illnesses — but it has found its way into pop culture.
In an interview with The Sunday Times promoting his new solo album, Radiohead frontman Thom Yorke said that uncertainty stemming from societal issues like climate change is contributing to a rise in people's anxiety and depression around the world. And a recent episode of the popular HBO drama Big Little Lies showed that children can be just as vulnerable to eco-anxiety as adults, as the 9-year-old daughter of one of the main characters has a panic attack at school and faints in a closet following a lesson about climate change.
"Her class is evidently talking about climate change, and she's gotten the message that we're doomed," a school psychiatrist tells the main character afterward. A teacher adds that it's important for the children to "deconstruct" climate change "so they can process it."
Pop culture's absorption of eco-anxiety shouldn't come as a surprise — it's capturing the zeitgeist of a U.S. under an administration that actively denies climate science despite widespread public belief.
In December 2018, a Yale University survey found that nearly 70 percent of Americans are at least "somewhat worried" about climate change, 49 percent feel "afraid" and 51 percent said they feel "helpless." And a recent Harvard Public Opinion Project report found that 45 percent of young Americans believe climate change is a "crisis and demands urgent action." One 2018 poll found that three quarters of millennials report that consuming negative media about climate change has had an impact on their mental health.
Even climate scientists and writers are feeling the effects of confronting the existential threat of climate change every day.
Peter Kalmus, a climate scientist at NASA's Jet Propulsion Lab, says that climate grief strikes unexpectedly, even on the job.
"In a millisecond, without warning, I'll feel my throat clench, my eyes sting, and my stomach drop as though the Earth below me is falling away," Kalmus wrote in Yes! Magazine. "During these moments, I feel with excruciating clarity everything that we're losing — but also connection and love for those things."
Meteorologist and climate journalist Eric Holthaus said he often finds himself "alternating between soul-crushing despair and headstrong hope" and that his "climate change blues" have affected his personal relationships and led him to seek therapy.
Unfortunately, studies have shown that fear is not always a good motivator and, especially in the case of an issue as large as climate change, it does not inspire genuine personal engagement on an individual level.
So what can you do to combat the symptoms of eco-anxiety?
In its 69-page report on the mental health effects of climate change, the APA recommends that its practitioners support individuals' efforts to build resiliency, find personal meaning, and maintain connections to place and one's culture, among other things. Climate-centric publication Grist recommends turning apathy into action by doing what you can on a personal level within your community.
University of Bath teaching fellow and member of the Climate Psychology Alliance Caroline Hickman says that our fear and anger are natural, appropriate reactions, but we can't get stuck there.
"In cases of people suffering from eco-anxiety and similar issues, the hope is to find paths towards a new world shaped by a deepening understanding of our relationship with the planet and how our future is ultimately entwined with the survival of other creatures," Hickman wrote in an article for The Conversation.
The Miraculous Hope of Climate Realists https://t.co/NrxG1s1Qfe— The YEARS Project (@YEARSofLIVING) January 6, 2019
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Home gardening is having a boom year across the U.S. Whether they're growing their own food in response to pandemic shortages or just looking for a diversion, numerous aspiring gardeners have constructed their first raised beds, and seeds are flying off suppliers' shelves. Now that gardens are largely planted, much of the work for the next several months revolves around keeping them healthy.
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Using weed barrier landscape cloth for planting rows and mulching between rows is an effective way to suppress weeds. Matt Kasson, CC BY-ND
Diagnosing Problems<p>Common plant pathogens include <a href="https://www.apsnet.org/edcenter/disandpath/viral/introduction/Pages/PlantViruses.aspx" target="_blank">viruses</a>, <a href="https://www.apsnet.org/edcenter/disandpath/prokaryote/intro/Pages/Bacteria.aspx" target="_blank">bacteria</a>, <a href="https://www.apsnet.org/edcenter/disandpath/nematode/intro/Pages/IntroNematodes.aspx" target="_blank">nematodes</a>, <a href="https://www.apsnet.org/edcenter/disandpath/oomycete/introduction/Pages/IntroOomycetes.aspx#:%7E:text=The%20oomycetes%2C%20also%20known%20as,foliar%20blights%20and%20downy%20mildews." target="_blank">oomycetes</a> and <a href="https://www.apsnet.org/edcenter/disandpath/fungalasco/intro/Pages/IntroFungi.aspx" target="_blank">fungi</a>. All of these microorganisms, especially at an early stage of infection, are too small to see. But when they proliferate, they cause changes in plants that we can recognize.</p><p>Unlike insects, which move around on six legs or on wings through the air, pathogens can move unseen and unchecked from leaf to leaf on the wind, through the soil or in droplets of water. Some microbes have even formed intimate relationships with insects and use them as vehicles to move from plant to plant, which makes these pathogens even more challenging to manage. Unfortunately, by the time some pathogens make their presence known, the damage is already done.</p><p>We recently conducted a <a href="https://twitter.com/kasson_wvu/status/1265989041725624323" target="_blank">Twitter poll</a> of gardeners nationwide to find out which culprits plagued their gardens. People named <a href="https://ento.psu.edu/extension/factsheets/aphids" target="_blank">aphids</a>, <a href="https://ento.psu.edu/extension/factsheets/squash-vine-borer" target="_blank">squash vine borers</a>, <a href="https://ento.psu.edu/extension/factsheets/squash-bug" target="_blank">squash bugs</a> and <a href="https://ento.psu.edu/extension/factsheets/flea-beetle" target="_blank">flea beetles</a> as the most problematic insect pests. Their most troublesome pathogens included <a href="https://extension.wvu.edu/lawn-gardening-pests/plant-disease/fruit-vegetable-diseases/powdery-mildew" target="_blank">powdery mildew</a>, <a href="https://plantpath.ifas.ufl.edu/rsol/Trainingmodules/BWTomato_Module.html" target="_blank">tomato bacterial wilt</a> and <a href="https://extension.wvu.edu/lawn-gardening-pests/plant-disease/fruit-vegetable-diseases/downy-mildew" target="_blank">cucurbit downy mildew</a>.</p><p>To manage such perennial challenges, the first step is to spend time closely looking at your plants. Do you notice any insects consistently hanging around, or molds colonizing leaves or other plant parts? How about symptoms such as blight, stunting, or leaves that are yellowing, browning or wilting?</p>
This white fungal growth is an early sign of powdery mildew on a leaf of susceptible summer squash. Matt Kasson, CC BY-ND
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Value of air conditioning imports in selected OECD countries. ScienceDirect
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