Quantcast
Environmental News for a Healthier Planet and Life

Help Support EcoWatch

Can Geoengineering Tame Devastating Hurricanes?

Climate
Can Geoengineering Tame Devastating Hurricanes?

Scientists think they know, in principle, how to tame hurricanes and reduce storm surge risks.

A huge ash plume rises from the Mount Pinatubo volcanic eruption in 1991. Photo credit: Ed Wolfe / U.S. Geological Survey

All it would take would be a stratosphere full of sulphate aerosols sufficient to dim the sun, lower tropic ocean temperatures and reduce the hazard of the kind of windstorm that hit New York in 2012 and New Orleans in 2005 with devastating consequences.

Hurricanes are likely to impose increasing costs as the planet’s climate changes. However, there is a little more to the solution than a simple darkening of the upper skies.

The quantities of sulphate discharge needed to make a difference would be the equivalent of the catastrophic Mount Pinatubo volcanic eruption that scorched the Philippines in 1991. And there could also be other unwelcome consequences.

Test of Hypothesis

Polar scientist John Moore and colleagues reported in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences that their exercise was a test of a hypothesis: a “qualitative indication” that geoengineering could help reduce hurricanes.

Co-author Ben Kravitz, a climate scientist at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in the U.S., said: “We’re looking at possibilities now, in case the world needs these options down the road.”

As humans continue to burn fossil fuels, levels of greenhouse gases will build up in the lower atmosphere, global average temperatures will rise and heatwaves, floods and windstorms could become more frequent, more intense or both.

So the hurricane-suppressing scientists worked entirely from climate simulations to see if eruptions could in fact calm some of the weather extremes predicted under climate change.

New Orleans devastated by floods after Hurricane Katrina struck in 2005. Photo credit: NOAA Aviation Weather Center / Wikimedia Commons

Although climate scientists have repeatedly said that only a sharp reduction in carbon dioxide emissions will have any impact in the long run, a number of groups have tested the other possible answer: the considered and wilful alteration of the planet’s climate through geoengineering.

The results so far have been either mixed or downright unpromising. Scientists have looked at the idea of “whitening” the Arctic to prevent the loss of ice; they have explored the idea of tapping energy from the oceans to reduce global temperatures; and they have confirmed that sulphate aerosol discharges could severely disrupt world rainfall patterns and make things worse for millions.

There is evidence that the technique could offer temporary relief for coral reefs—also at risk from warming oceans—but overall, researchers have repeatedly pronounced geoengineering to be unworkable.

The limited case of hurricane control, however, suggests that it might be effective—if expensive.

To mimic the effect of a Pinatubo-type eruption, researchers would have to lift to airliner altitudes roughly a quarter of all the sulphates produced by human industry in any one year.

In the lower atmosphere, these cause respiratory illnesses. At altitude, these could lower the global temperature by about half a degree Celsius for a year or two.

But they could also affect the monsoon rain system that nourishes hundreds of millions in Asia, and they could damage the ozone layer that screens most humans from harmful ultraviolet radiation.

Over time, it would reduce sea surface temperatures and reduce the probability of Katrina-scale hurricanes and devastating storm surges of the kind that swept through New York and New Orleans in the company of the hurricane-force winds.

Benefits and Risks

But that wouldn’t mean it was a safe option. “This is a narrow study,” Kravitz says. “Geoengineering researchers have to very carefully categorize the other benefits and risks, and hand off that information to the decision makers.”

Coincidentally, another study in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences journal confirms that real volcanic eruptions, if they happened in the summertime, could not only cool the northern hemisphere, but also possibly generate an El Niño pattern in the Pacific and even have an impact on ocean currents in the Atlantic.

Since El Niño is linked to devastating floods on the west coast of the Americas and drought and fires in the Indonesian rainforests, and since the Atlantic currents are an integral part of the European climate machinery, the consequences might go far beyond hurricane control.

YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE

Breathtaking NASA Video Shows the Sun Like You’ve Never Seen It Before

Stunning Drone Footage Shows Greenland Literally Melting Away

Why Climate Change Is Responsible for Record-Breaking Hurricanes Like Patricia

10 Stunning Photos of Rare Northern Lights (And How to Take Your Own)

EcoWatch Daily Newsletter

A "vessel of opportunity" skims oil spilled after the Deepwater Horizon well blowout in the Gulf of Mexico in April 2010. NOAA / Flickr / CC by 2.0

By Loveday Wright and Stuart Braun

After a Japanese-owned oil tanker struck a reef off Mauritius on July 25, a prolonged period of inaction is threatening to become an ecological disaster.

Read More Show Less
The Mountain Valley Pipeline proposes to carry natural gas for hundreds of miles over dozens of water sources, through protected areas and crossing the Appalachian Trail. Appalachian Trail Conservancy / YouTube

It's been a bad summer for fracked natural gas pipelines in North Carolina.

Read More Show Less
Atlantic puffins courting at Maine Coastal Island National Wildlife Refuge in 2009. USFWS / Flickr

When Europeans first arrived in North America, Atlantic puffins were common on islands in the Gulf of Maine. But hunters killed many of the birds for food or for feathers to adorn ladies' hats. By the 1800s, the population in Maine had plummeted.

Read More Show Less
Rescue workers dig through the rubble following a gas explosion in Baltimore, Maryland on Aug. 10, 2020. J. Countess / Getty Images

A "major" natural gas explosion killed two people and seriously injured at least seven in Baltimore, Maryland Monday morning.

Read More Show Less
The recalled list includes red, yellow, white and sweet yellow onions, which may be tainted with salmonella. Pxhere

Nearly 900 people across the U.S. and Canada have been sickened by salmonella linked to onions distributed by Thomson International, the The New York Times reported.

Read More Show Less
Methane flares at a fracking site near a home in Colorado on Oct. 25, 2014. WildEarth Guardians / Flickr

In the coming days, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is expected to use its power to roll back yet another Obama-era environmental protection meant to curb air pollution and slow the climate crisis.

Read More Show Less

Trending

Researchers on the ICESCAPE mission, funded by NASA, examine melt ponds and their surrounding ice in 2011 to see how changing conditions in the Arctic affect the biological and chemical makeup of the ocean. NASA / Flickr

By Alex Kirby

The temperature of the Arctic matters to the entire world: it helps to keep the global climate fairly cool. Scientists now say that by 2035 there could be an end to Arctic sea ice.

Read More Show Less