Bill Nye's Solar Sail Could Revolutionize Space Travel
The Planetary Society's solar sail is another step closer to spending its days in the sun. The world's largest space-interest nonprofit has unveiled the LightSail-2, the successor to the original LightSail CubeSat (or cube satellite used for space research) that successfully deployed its solar sails in space eight months ago.
The LightSail's mylar solar sails span 32-square-meters and are designed to capture sunlight and convert its pressure to propel the spacecraft forward. Photo credit: Josh Spradling / The Planetary Society
In June 2015, the Planetary Society proved that flight by light could be possible when it unfurled a solar sail in low-Earth orbit, paving the way for a full-fledged solar sail flight in 2016.
Once this technology is perfected, the LightSail could revolutionize and significantly lower the costs of space travel. Instead of rocket fuel, future spacecraft can be propelled by a sail that captures and converts the sun's photons into pressure that propels the spacecraft forward, thus making it an "inexpensive, inexhaustible means of propulsion," as the project's successful Kickstarter campaign pointed out.
As Vox wrote, what makes this project even more interesting is that it's not funded by NASA or a private enterprise. If successful, the LightSail project will essentially democratize space travel, as it's being built by the citizen-funded Planetary Society and the 23,331 backers who collectively pledged $1,241,615 to bring this crowd-funded project to life.
“Our mission at the Planetary Society is to advance space science and exploration. That’s what we do. That’s the elevator speech,” Bill Nye, CEO of the Planetary Society, told Motherboard. “Empower the world’s citizens to advance space science and exploration to know the cosmos and our place within it.”
The latest mission is expected to launch sometime this Fall. The LightSail-2 will travel on Georgia Tech’s Prox-1 satellite on Elon Musk's SpaceX Falcon Heavy rocket.
Here's what will happen to the LightSail once it's in orbit, as Gizmodo reported:
The new light sail features four triangular sails, made of mylar, which combine to form a rectangular-shaped surface. Once the [three unit] cubesat reaches an orbital altitude of 500 miles (800 km), the sails will deploy, extending across a total area measuring 32 square meters. The main test goal will be to assess whether the solar sails are a viable form of spacecraft propulsion.
This animation shows how the LightSail-2 will deploy from the Prox-1 satellite:
The idea of solar sailing came decades ago from Planetary Society founders Louis Friedman, Bruce Murray and Carl Sagan, who even stopped by Johnny Carson’s The Tonight Show to explain the technology.
“[It] travels on the radiation and particles that come out of the sun, the wind from the sun," Sagan said. "Because it has a constant acceleration, it can get you around the inner part of the solar system a lot faster ... than the usual sorts of rocket propulsion.”
Nye told Motherboard that besides interstellar space travel, the solar sail can be used in various other ways, from monitoring solar weather to helping a satellite de-orbit:
You’re required to have your satellite deorbit in 25 years. That’s an international rule being informally embraced, and people are working on treaties to formalize it. Getting a spacecraft to come down when you want it takes either fuel or dumb luck. With a sail, you can create all this drag. For example, where the ISS is, there are still a few air molecules. So when you deploy a sail, the thing comes down a thousand times faster than otherwise. Satellite manufacturers could very reasonably meet the requirements by including a little drag sail.
This video shows a test deployment of the LightSail 2's sails at California Polytechnic State University in January:
The Planetary Society's digital editor Jason Davis explains what happened in the video:
Unsurprisingly, [the] deployment tests revealed minor issues that engineers...have spent the past few weeks working to resolve. The deployment motor hesitated several times, not unlike the way it did during LightSail 1 testing. There was a glitch with the spacecraft’s onboard cameras, which capture staggered images during the sail deployment sequence. And additional refinements are still being applied to the spacecraft’s communications and attitude control systems.
A second round of system testing is planned at Cal Poly. This will pave the way for a full, day-in-the-life test as soon as March, when the spacecraft demonstrates its core mission functions one final time on the ground.
You can read the history of the LightSail here and learn more about the project in this video below:
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EcoWatch Daily Newsletter
Jean-Marc Neveu and Olivier Civil never expected to find themselves battling against disposable mask pollution.
When they founded their recycling start-up Plaxtil in 2017, it was textile waste they set their sights on. The project developed a process that turned fabrics into a new recyclable material they describe as "ecological plastic."
Mounting Piles of Waste<p>It is not only the streets of Chatellerault where pandemic pollution is piling-up, but also the world's beaches and oceans. Once there, they can take up to 450 years to degrade and disappear.</p><p>Esther Röling, co-organizer of the annual Adventure Clean Up Challenge held on Hong Kong Island, has seen this waste firsthand. In October the sports challenge pitted teams against one another in a competition to remove trash from 13 hard-to-reach coastal areas around the city.</p><p>They find tons of both disposable and reusable masks, said Röling. "You wonder how it ended up there. Was it just thrown on the ground? Or was it in a garbage bag that broke open?"</p><p>Almost 10,000 kilometers away in Antibes on the sunny French Riviera, it's a similar picture. For the past few months, divers and clean-up volunteers working with an ocean clean-up non-profit called Operation Mer Propre have been collecting an increasing number of masks found on land and in the sea.</p><p>"Since the beginning of the lockdown when we started to count, we've reached 800, 900, [and now in total] 1000 masks," said co-founder Joko Peltier. </p><p>According to <a href="https://unctad.org/news/growing-plastic-pollution-wake-covid-19-how-trade-policy-can-help" target="_blank">UN estimates</a>, up to 75% of all coronavirus-related plastic could end up as waste in oceans and landfills.</p>
The Limits of Recycling<p>Yet not all are convinced the recycling of this waste is possible on a global scale. </p><p>"What those citizen groups are doing is really beneficial but once they collect it, it should just go to a landfill or an incinerator. They shouldn't necessarily expect it to get recycled," said Jonathan Krones, an industrial ecologist and visiting assistant professor of environmental studies at Boston College.</p><p>That's because mask recycling programs like Plaxtil are few and far between and most don't have the benefit of a readily adaptable production process. </p><p>Even in countries with solid recycling infrastructure, he says, the system is designed to separate out specific types of waste like bottles or cardboard.</p><p>"I imagine that it would be technically feasible to develop a separation process to filter out masks, but there simply aren't enough of them to make that economical," he said.</p><p>Collection is a big hurdle, he adds. Since each mask only weighs a fraction of a gram and they're scattered on roads or mixed with other trash, it is difficult and costly. </p><p>"You need a lot of raw material of the right quality to make investing in the recycling technology and the recycling system worthwhile," he said.<span></span><br></p>
Hemp, Sugar Cane and Sustainable Alternatives<p>Some projects are instead addressing the material used to make masks.</p><p>French company Geochanvre have created a mask made primarily from hemp, while in Australia, researchers at the Queensland University of Technology are experimenting with a disposable product made from agricultural waste. </p><p>Biodegradable options are exciting alternatives to reduce the fossil fuels needed for the creation of plastic-based masks, said Krones, but they don't absolve the wearer from the responsibility of what happens afterwards. </p><p>Bio-based masks often need their own composing solutions, he explains, because in landfill they can produce high amounts of the greenhouse gas methane when anaerobic bacteria feeds on the organic material. Methane is known to be significantly more potent than carbon dioxide.</p><p>"I think as long as we have in our mind that we want to have disposability, we're going to have to wrestle with a variety of different sorts of environmental tradeoffs," he said, adding that reusable, fabric masks are the best option available to most people.</p><p>Precimask is developing a clear face covering with an optional visor made from hard plastic, designed to be long-lasting.<br></p><p>Air enters either side of the cheeks through a technology normally found in pool filters and car exhaust systems, said company spokeswoman Juliette Chambet.</p><p>"We wanted to make ceramic-based filters that would be washable and cleanable, which would allow them to be reused as many times as desired without having to buy a new consumable or produce waste," she said. </p><p>Ultimately, encouraging mask wearers to think about the entire lifecycle of a mask is key, explains Neveu. </p><p>"We want people who put on the masks to realize that they are also responsible for the waste, he said. "It's not inevitable that this [pandemic] will become an environmental catastrophe.</p><p><em>Reposted with permission from </em><em><a href="https://www.dw.com/en/covid-19-recycling-pollution-trash-pandemic/a-55707817" target="_blank">Deutsche Welle</a>.</em><a href="https://www.ecowatch.com/r/entryeditor/2649032193#/" target="_self"></a></p>
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