Non-perishable foods, such as canned goods and dried fruit, have a long shelf life and don't require refrigeration to keep them from spoiling. Instead, they can be stored at room temperature, such as in a pantry or cabinet.
They're not only standard kitchen items but also favored by backpackers and campers who can't bring perishable foods like fresh meats, dairy, and vegetables on the trail.
What's more, non-perishable goods are essential in emergency situations and favored by charitable organizations that feed or give groceries to people facing homelessness or food insecurity.
Although some items like boxed macaroni and cheese are packed with preservatives and other unhealthy ingredients, quite a few nutritious non-perishable foods are available.
Here are 12 of the healthiest non-perishable foods.
1. Dried and Canned Beans
With a long shelf life and high nutrient content, dried and canned beans are smart non-perishable food choices. Canned beans can be kept at room temperature for 2–5 years while dried beans can last 10 or more years, depending on the packaging.
In fact, one study found that pinto beans stored up to 30 years were considered edible by 80% of people on an emergency food use panel.
Beans are an excellent source of fiber, plant-based protein, magnesium, B vitamins, manganese, iron, phosphorus, zinc, and copper. What's more, they pair well with most foods and make hearty additions to soups, grain dishes, and salads.
2. Nut Butters
Nut butters are creamy, nutrient-dense, and delicious.
Although storage temperatures can affect shelf life, commercial peanut butter keeps for up to 9 months at room temperature. Natural peanut butter, which does not contain preservatives, lasts up to 3 months at 50℉ (10℃) and only 1 month at 77℉ (25℃).
Nut butters are a rich source of healthy fats, protein, vitamins, minerals, and powerful plant compounds, including phenolic antioxidants, which are compounds that protect your body against oxidative stress and damage by unstable molecules called free radicals.
Jars of nut butter can be stored in your pantry while smaller packets can be taken backpacking or camping for an on-the-go snack.
3. Dried Fruits and Vegetables
Although most fresh fruits and vegetables have a short shelf life, dried produce is considered non-perishable. When properly stored, most dried fruit can be safely kept at room temperature for up to 1 year, and dried vegetables can be kept about half that time.
You can choose from a variety of dried fruits and vegetables, including dried berries, apples, tomatoes, and carrots. You can also use a dehydrator or oven to make your own dried fruits and vegetables. Vacuum-sealed packaging can help prevent spoilage.
Dried fruits and veggies can be enjoyed as a snack or added to trail mix. Plus, dried veggies can be rehydrated by adding them to soups or stews if fresh produce isn't available.
4. Canned Fish and Poultry
Although fresh fish and poultry are packed with nutrients, they're highly perishable. All the same, canned varieties can be safely kept without refrigeration for long periods — up to 5 years at room temperature.
Tuna and other seafood products are also sold in lightweight packages known as retort pouches, which are perfect for smaller pantries and backpacking. Seafood in retort pouches has a shelf life of up to 18 months.
Chicken and other meats can be found in retort pouches as well, though you should refer to the packaging for shelf life information.
5. Nuts and Seeds
Nuts and seeds are portable, nutrient-dense, and shelf-stable, making them non-perishable food staples. Favored by backpackers and hikers for high calorie snacking, they're also great to have on hand in any situation.
On average, nuts last about 4 months when kept at or near room temperature (68℉ or 20℃), though shelf life varies greatly between nut varieties.
For example, cashews can be kept for 6 months at 68℉ (20℃) while pistachios only last 1 month at the same temperature.
Seeds have comparable shelf lives. According to the USDA, pumpkin seeds stay fresh for 6 months at room temperature.
Whole grains like oats, rice, and barley have a much longer shelf life than other popular but perishable carb sources like bread, making them a smart choice for long-term food storage.
For example, brown rice can be kept at 50–70℉ (10–21℃) for up to 3 months while farro lasts up to 6 months at room temperature.
Grains can be added to soups, salads, and casseroles, making them a versatile non-perishable ingredient. Plus, eating whole grains may reduce your risk of type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and certain cancers.
7. Canned Vegetables and Fruits
Canning has long been used to lengthen the shelf life of perishable foods, including fruits and vegetables.
The heat used during canning kills potentially harmful microorganisms, and the characteristic seal of canned foods keeps new bacteria from spoiling the contents.
The shelf life of canned fruits and vegetables depends on the type of produce.
On the other hand, high-acid fruits like grapefruit, apples, peaches, berries, and pineapple last just 12–18 months. The same goes for vegetables packed in vinegar, such as sauerkraut, German potato salad, and other pickled vegetables.
When shopping, choose canned fruits packed in water or 100% fruit juice rather than heavy syrup, and opt for low sodium canned veggies whenever possible.
If you're crafty in the kitchen, consider canning at home using store-bought or garden-grown vegetables and fruits. If you don't know how, you can consult numerous books or online tutorials.
Meat preservation is a practice used since ancient times to keep protein sources from spoiling. Specifically, jerky is made by curing meat in a salt solution, then dehydrating it. Preservatives, flavorings, and other additives are sometimes used during processing.
Many types of jerky are available, including beef, salmon, chicken, and buffalo. There are even plant-based jerky alternatives made from coconut, banana, and jackfruit. That said, note that these alternatives are not nutritionally equivalent to meat-based jerkies.
Any kind of jerky can be enjoyed in moderation, but the healthiest options are those that don't contain added sugar, artificial flavors, or preservatives.
9. Granola and Protein Bars
Granola and protein bars are a go-to food for backpackers and hikers thanks to their long shelf life and nutrient composition.
Many granola bars stay fresh for up to 1 year at room temperature. Likewise, most protein bars have a shelf life of at least 1 year, though it's best to check the label on individual products for expiration information.
What's more, granola and protein bars can be highly nutritious as long as you choose the right kinds. Look for brands that are full of hearty ingredients, such as oats, nuts, and dried fruit, and contain minimal added sugars and artificial ingredients.
Canned and dried soups are an excellent choice when stocking your pantry. They're also preferred by food donation organizations.
Most canned soups are low in acid and can last up to 5 years at room temperature. The exception is tomato-based varieties, which have a shelf life of about 18 months.
Although most dried soup mixes should last up to 1 year in storage, it's best to check labels for expiration dates.
Choose soups that are rich in healthy ingredients like vegetables and beans, and select low sodium products whenever possible, as consuming too much added salt may harm your health.
11. Freeze Dried Meals
Freeze drying uses sublimation, a process in which ice is converted directly into vapor, to remove water from food so that it lasts longer at room temperature. Freeze dried meals are popular among backpackers because of their light weight and portability.
12. Shelf-Stable Milk and Nondairy Milk
While fresh milk and some nondairy alternatives like almond and coconut milks have to be refrigerated, shelf-stable milk and many nondairy milks are made to keep at room temperature.
Shelf-stable or aseptic milk is processed and packaged differently than regular milk because it's heated to higher temperatures and packed in sterile containers.
One study found that shelf-stable milk had a shelf life of up to 9 months when kept at 40–68℉ (4–20℃).
Plant-based drinks like soy milk packaged in flexible materials, including plastic, paper, and aluminum, similarly last up to 10 months, while canned coconut milk keeps up to 5 years at room temperature.
Shelf-stable and plant-based milks can be used when refrigeration isn't available. Powdered milk is a good alternative, with an estimated shelf life of 3–5 years when kept in a cool, dark place. It can be reconstituted with clean water in small portions as needed.
The Bottom Line
Non-perishable foods last a long time without spoiling and are necessary for numerous situations.
Whether you want to donate items to charitable organizations, prepare for potential emergencies, purchase backpacking-friendly products, or merely stock your pantry, you can choose from an abundance of healthy foods that don't require refrigeration.
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By Jacob L. Steenwyk and Antonis Rokas
From the mythical minotaur to the mule, creatures created from merging two or more distinct organisms – hybrids – have played defining roles in human history and culture. However, not all hybrids are as fantastic as the minotaur or as dependable as the mule; in fact, some of them cause human diseases.
When Looking Through a Microscope Isn’t Close Enough.<p>For the last few years, <a href="http://www.rokaslab.org/" target="_blank">our team at Vanderbilt University</a>, <a href="https://www.researchgate.net/lab/Gustavo-Goldman-Lab" target="_blank">Gustavo Goldman's team at São Paulo University in Brazil</a> and many other collaborators around the world have been collecting samples of fungi from patients infected with different species of <em>Aspergillus</em> molds. One of the species we are particularly interested in is <a href="https://doi.org/10.1006/rwgn.2001.0082" target="_blank"><em>Aspergillus nidulans</em>, a relatively common and generally harmless fungus</a>. Clinical laboratories typically identify the species of <em>Aspergillus</em> causing the infection by examining cultures of the fungi under the microscope. The problem with this approach is that very closely related species of <em>Aspergillus</em> tend to look very similar in their broad morphology or physical appearance when viewing them through a microscope.</p><p>Interested in examining the varying abilities of different <em>A. nidulans</em> strains to cause disease, we decided to analyze their total genetic content, or genomes. What we saw came as a total surprise. We had not collected <em>A. nidulans</em> but <em>Aspergillus latus</em>, a close relative of <em>A. nidulans</em> and, as we were to soon find out, <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2020.04.071" target="_blank">a hybrid species that evolved through the fusion of the genomes</a> of two other <em>Aspergillus</em> species: <em>Aspergillus spinulosporus</em> and an unknown close relative of <em>Aspergillus quadrilineatus</em>. Thus, we realized not only that these patients harbored infections from an entirely different species than we thought they were, but also that this species was the first ever <em>Aspergillus</em> hybrid known to cause human infections.</p>
Several Different Fungal Hybrids Cause Human Disease.<p>Hybrid fungi that can cause infections in humans are well known to occur in several different lineages of single-celled fungi known as yeasts. Notable examples include multiple different species of <a href="https://doi.org/10.1002/yea.3242" target="_blank">yeast hybrids</a> that cause the human diseases <a href="https://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/diseases/6218/cryptococcosis" target="_blank">cryptococcosis</a> and <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/fungal/diseases/candidiasis/index.html" target="_blank">candidiasis</a>. Although pathogenic yeast hybrids are well known, our discovery that the <em>A. latus</em> pathogen is a hybrid is a first for molds that cause disease in humans.</p>
(Left) Candida yeasts live on parts of the human body. Imbalance of microbes on the body can allow these yeasts, some of which are hybrids, to grow and cause infection. (Right) Cryptococcus yeasts, including ones that are hybrids, can cause life-threatening infections in primarily immunocompromised people. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention<p><a href="https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1008315" target="_blank">Why certain <em>Aspergillus</em> species are so deadly</a> while others are harmless remains unknown. This may in part be because <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fbr.2007.02.007" target="_blank">combinations of traits, rather than individual traits</a>, underlie organisms' ability to cause disease. So why then are hybrids frequently associated with human disease? Hybrids inherit genetic material from both parents, which may result in new combinations of traits. This may make them more similar to one parent in some of their characteristics, reflect both parents in others or may differ from both in the rest. It is precisely this mix and match of traits that hybrids have inherited from their parental species that <a href="https://www.nytimes.com/2010/09/14/science/14creatures.html" target="_blank">facilitates their evolutionary success</a>, including their ability to cause disease.</p>
The Evolutionary Origin of an Aspergillus Hybrid.<p>Multiple evolutionary paths can lead to the emergence of hybrids. One path is through mating, just as the horse and donkey mate to create a mule. Another path is through the merging or fusion of genetic material from cells of different species.</p><p>It is this second path that appears to have been taken by our fungus. <em>A. latus</em> appears to have two of almost everything compared to its parental species: twice the genome size, twice the total number of genes and so on. But unlike other hybrids, which are often sterile like the mule, we found that <em>A. latus</em> is capable of reproducing both asexually and sexually.</p><p>But how distinct were the parents of <em>A. latus</em>? By comparing the parts contributed by each parent in the <em>A. latus</em> genome, we estimate that its parents are approximately 93% genetically similar, which is about as related as we humans are with lemurs. In other words, <em>A. latus</em>, an agent of infectious disease, is the fungal equivalent of a human-lemur hybrid.</p>
How A. Latus Differs From its Parents.<p>Elucidating the identity of closely related fungal pathogens and how they differ from each other in infection-relevant characteristics is a key step toward reducing the burden of fungal disease. For example, we found that <em>A. latus</em> was three times more resistant than <em>A. nidulans</em>, the species it was originally identified as using microscopy-based methods, to one of the most common antifungal drugs, <a href="https://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB00520" target="_blank">caspofungin</a>. This result provides a clear example of the potential importance of accurate identification of the <em>Aspergillus</em> pathogen causing an infection.</p><p>We also examined how <em>A. latus</em> and <em>A. nidulans</em> interact with cells from our immune system. We found that immune cells were less efficient at combating <em>A. latus</em> compared to <em>A. nidulans</em>, suggesting the hybrid fungus may be trickier for our immune systems to identify and destroy.</p><p>In the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic, our quest to understand <em>Aspergillus</em> pathogens is becoming more urgent. Growing evidence suggests that <a href="https://doi.org/10.1111/myc.13096" target="_blank">a fraction of COVID-19 patients are also infected with <em>Aspergillus</em>.</a> More worrying is that these <a href="https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2607.201603" target="_blank">secondary <em>Aspergillus</em> infections</a> can worsen the clinical outcomes for those infected with the novel coronavirus. That being said, we stress that little is known about <em>Aspergillus</em> infections in COVID-19 patients due to a lack of systematic testing, and none of the infections identified so far appear to have been caused by hybrids.</p><p>So, when it comes to hybrids, some are fantastic (the minotaur), some are helpful (the mule) and some are dangerous (<em>Aspergillus latus</em>). Understanding more about the biology of <em>Aspergillus latus</em> may help in our understanding of how microbial pathogens arise and how to best prevent and combat their infections.</p>
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