Best CBD Vape Juice & Oil: Top 3 Brands of 2021
By Annamarie Meli
CBD has taken the world by storm thanks to its keen therapeutic properties and potential medical benefits. CBD has been praised for many things: its therapeutic uses, potential medical benefits, and anti-anxiety and relaxation properties. As CBD becomes more popular and standard, you are perhaps wondering if you can benefit from CBD.
There is a lot of misinformation about CBD out there, from claims that it can cure any disease to claims that it is actually harmful. We care about factual information here so we put together this comprehensive guide on the best CBD vape juice and oils for consumer use. All of our reviews are backed by peer-reviewed science and we take the time to vet each company that we recommend thoroughly.
Today we are going to discuss CBD vape juices and oils. Without a doubt, one of the most popular ways to consume CBD, vaping or smoking has become the top choice for consumers. What makes these products so unique is that they provide a near instant-acting dose. This can be incredibly practical for those who do not want to fuss with drops, creams or edibles. So if you are interested in learning more about the wild and wonderful world of CBD vape juice and oil, then read on.
Top CBD Vape Juice & Oil: Summary
Our peer-reviewed, non-biased system involves concise and formulated testing. To skip ahead of our in-depth discussion here are our top favorite picks:
This transparent approach has provided our readers with a clear resource to make informed and educated buying decisions.
The Formula: How We Put It All Together
We take our CBD research seriously. That is why we thoroughly vet every product and brand that we recommend. Here is a list of factors we consider when choosing and ranking our brand selection.
Hemp source - Hemp source is one of the most important parts of the CBD manufacturing process. If you have poorly grown and poorly cultivated hemp, then you will have a bad product. To that end, we make sure to only pick companies that grow organic hemp according to the most up-to-date botanical and cultivation methods. We also make sure to choose companies that use organically grown, locally-sourced hemp.
Extraction process - Another important factor we consider is extraction process; i.e. how the product is made. There are 3 major types of extraction for CBD products. The first is the simplest and involves crushing the leaves and stems and removing the residual mixture. This process is simple and can be performed in your kitchen but is highly inefficient.
Solvent extraction involves running the hemp plant through a solvent mixture (most of the time it's ethanol) then boiling away the solvent to leave the oil residue. The last common method is called supercritical CO2 extraction. With this process, supercooled liquid CO2 acts as the solvent. The CO2 is then evaporated off leaving behind the pure oil residue. Supercritical CO2 extraction is considered the gold standard when it comes to CBD production. As such, we try to find companies that use supercritical methods for their products.
Manufacturing standards - CBD is neither regulated nor approved by the FDA for medical use. As such, there are no universal federal standards for the manufacture of CBD. That being said, there are several third-party organizations that vet companies based on manufacturing standards and the quality/accuracy of their products. These agencies test company products to make sure that they are made properly and actually contain what they are advertised to contain. As such, we only choose products and companies that have readily accessible third-party lab reports ascertaining the quality of ingredients and production. Any company that does not provide this information for consumers is automatically excluded from consideration.
Type of products - CBD is a diverse molecule and can be made into many products. Some companies may specialize in a specific type of CBD product while others may make many kinds. We always make sure that companies we pick have a suitable level of diversity among their product offerings.
Extra ingredients - CBD products rarely contain just CBD and nothing else. Many contain a full spectrum of cannabinoids and other molecules such as terpenes. We make sure that any companies we choose use all-natural ingredients and do not rely on any synthetic or artificial chemicals. We also look at the type and quality of alternative ingredients
Potency - Potency refers to the overall strength of the mixture. Potency is normally measured in milligrams per milliliter (mg/ml). Most of the time a product will list the potency on the label along with the quantity and volume of the product. Potency is very important because it determines the recommended dose that you should take. More potent CBD can produce stronger effects quicker.
Brand transparency - It is important when dealing with CBD companies that the brand is transparent about their products, methods, and supply chains. So, when looking for companies, we make sure only to pick those that have reliable and transparent business practices, product labelings, and company information/policies.
Website and buying experience - Another important factor we consider is the overall experience shopping and buying on the website. It is very frustrating when you have to deal with an arduous buying or shipping process. So we take website experience and the buying process seriously when considering recommendations.
Customer reviews and testimonials - The last major factor we consider is customer reviews and testimonials. Customer reviews encompass more than just the quality of products. They also talk about how it is to interact with the company and the overall company experience. Customer reviews can also give insights in specific matters that general product descriptions cannot give. They also give a good indication of the public reputation of a company.
CBD Vape Juice & Oil: Product Info
1. CBDfx - Best Variety & Top Choice
First up on our roundup is CBDfx, which has won our admiration for their high-quality products and diverse lineup. This San Francisco-based company was founded in 2014 and has quickly become one of the best and most well-known suppliers of CBD products. Founders Ali Esmalli and Jameson Rogers were inspired to create CBDfx with the goal of providing pure, high-quality products at an affordable price.
The most distinctive feature of CBDfx is their large product lineup. Browsing through their pages, you will find oils, tinctures, vape products, edibles, gummies, creams, salves, and more. Most product types include full spectrum, broad spectrum, and isolate variants. You can pretty much find any kind of CBD product you need from CBDfx. They also have special product lines designed for specific ailments such as their Sleep and Relaxation lines. They also offer CBD products and treats for pets.
All of CBD products are made using locally sourced, organically grown hemp from California and are made using a state-of the art supercritical CO2 extraction method. This extraction method ensures a high-degree of purity and potency. As far as vaping products go, CBDfx offers vape kits complete with cartridges and vaporizer elements, as well as refills. They also offer several different flavors including watermelon, strawberry kiwi, blue raspberry, and natural flavorings. Additionally, all products are 100% vegan and do not contain artificial preservatives or flavorings.
CBDfx has made waves in the CBD community and has generally very positive customer reviews. In particular, customers appreciate the high quality products and excellent customer service. CBDfx offers free shipping on all orders above $35 but also the option to upgrade to priority mail, first class, or FedEx shipping for a small fee. As far as returns go, CBDfx offers a 30 day money-back guarantee for unused and unopened products.
Overall, CBDfx is one of the best CBD companies out there right now. They offer an extremely wide range of products and are vetted by third-party lab tests.
- Large variety of products including tinctures, edibles, capsules, vaping kits and more
- 100% vegan products made with supercritical CO2 extraction methods
- Several flavor profiles including common and unconventional flavorings
- Excellent customer reviews and testimonials
- Free shipping on orders above $35 with options for upgraded shipping
Lab Results - All lab results for each product are included in a link on the product description page. CBDfx charters CCTL for all of their testing requirements. Their vaping product all test positive for quality and lack or impurities.
Shipping & Returns - CBDfx offers free shipping on orders above $35 to all 50 states in the US and also offers a 30-day money back guarantee for unused and unopened products. Customers must pay shipping for returns though.
- Divers array of products
- High quality production methods
- Generous shipping and return policies
- Locally source organic hemp
- 100% vegan products
- Slightly more expensive
- Free shipping takes 5-8 days
2. Diamond CBD - Best Value
Next up on our list is Diamond CBD. This Colorado-based CBD company is one of several owned by Potnetwork Holdings which owns several other cannabis companies nationwide.
Diamond CBD, like CBDfx, has a very large product selection, including tinctures, oils, Balms, vape products, edibles, and more. Their product listing for tinctures alone is over 4 pages long. Moreover, every product has an associated lab report so you can check each product's purity, potency, and quality.
Diamond CBD uses multiple extraction methods for their products, including solvent-based extraction, supercritical CO2 extraction, and olive oil extraction. The exact method they use for different products is different. However, the majority of products are made with supercritical CO2 extraction.
In addition to their large product lineup, Diamond CBD also has special lines for specific ailments. They have a Relax line of gummies and tinctures to promote health and combat insomnia, as well as products specifically for pain. They have products ranging in size from 500mg to 1500mg, which, while not as potent as other brands, still has good variety. All of Diamond CBD vape products are full spectrum and contain a wide blend of cannabinoids and other molecules such as terpenes.
As far as shipping goes, Diamond CBD offers free shipping on all purchases over $100. They offer a $10 flat shipping rate otherwise. One of the best aspects of Diamond CBD is how affordable their products are. Their products range between $0.05-$0.12 per mg of CBD which is on the more affordable side of the scale. They also offer a 30-day money back guarantee on all unopened and unused products.
With respect to vaping oils, CBD Diamond offers a wide selection. They offer both vape kits and vape juice refills. Their listing includes several flavorings, including strawberry, watermelon, honey, and natural flavorings.
- Huge range of products available
- Supercritical CO2 extraction method for the majority of its products
- Locally sourced hemp out of Colorado and Kentucky
- Small potency blends available for purchase
- Extremely generous return policies
Lab results - Diamond CBD has their lab reports furnished by Green Science Labs. Their lab reports can be found at the bottom of the main page in one of the links. Each product has an associated lab report and you can search based on product name.
Shipping & Returns - Diamond CBD offers free shipping to all 50 states for purchases over $100. Otherwise, they charge a flat $10 shipping rate. They have a 30-day return policy on all unused and unopened products.
- Wide selection of products
- Detailed lab reports for all products
- Very affordable prices
- Multiple speciality lines of products
- Large selection of flavors
- Website design could use some work
- Shipping rate of $10 is fairly high
3. Empe USA - Great Taste
Last on our roundup is Empe USA. This US-based CBD company offers 100% organic CBD products and includes a decent range of product types. Empe USA makes all of their products using locally sourced hemp and does not include any synthetic or artificial ingredients.
Empe offers a decent range of products, including oils, tinctures, gummies, creams, salves, and more. Their vape products are all isolate blends and contain no other molecules. Empe USA also features lab reports for all of their products. You can find lab reports at the bottom of the page and search for specific products listings.
Empe USA offers CBD vape juice concentrations of 350mg. Their products are on the more expensive side of the spectrum with $0.12 per mg of CBD. However, the company frequently offers discounts so you can usually get something for a lower price than what is listed.
The vast majority of reviewers claim that Empe USA's products helped them achieve relaxation and reduced pain. There were also several reviews claiming that their skin products helped manage conditions like dry and cracked skin.
AS far as their vaping products go, Empe USA offers a wide selection of vaping juice refills, entire vaping kits, and solo disposable cartridges. Most of their flavors are modeled after the taste of famous cannabis strains such as Blue Dream or Gorilla OG.
Empe offers free shipping on all orders over $100. Otherwise, they charge a flat $5.95 rate, which is fairly low, all things considered. They also offer a standard 30-day return policy for all unused and unopened items. Customers must handle shipping costs for returns though.
- Excellent quality products
- Wide selection of CBD products
- Good natural flavors
- Wide selection of vaping products
- Free shipping for orders over $100
Lab Results - All Empe US lab reports are furnished by Steep Hill labs. You can browse lab reports by clicking on the link at the bottom of the page.
Shipping & Returns - Empe US offers free shipping on all orders over $100 to all 50 states. They charge a flat $5.95 shipping rate for all orders under $100. They also offer a standard 30-day return policy which, while not amazing, is fairly standard for CBD companies.
- Good selection of products
- Large selection of vaping products
- Free shipping on orders over $100
- Great flavors modeled after traditional cannabis strains
- Lab reports for all products
- Website is slightly confusing to navigate
- Extraction method is not specified on official website
- Return policy is not amazing
Where Does CBD Come From?
CBD comes from the cannabis plant, however, there is a bit more nuance to it than just that. Cannabis can be divided into two main types of plants called marijuana and hemp. Marijuana typically refers to cannabis plants that contain more than 0.3% THC per mass while hemp refers to cannabis plants that have less than 0.3% THC by mass. Most CBD oils are made from hemp and so contain a very low if not negligible amount of THC.
CBD oil can also be divided into types based on the ingredients. Isolates are the most pure form and only contain CBD suspended in some matrix, normally vegetable glycerin or glycol. Broad spectrum blends include a larger variety of cannabinoids such as CBG, CBC, and CBN. Full spectrum blends contain a diverse cannabinoid profile including THC, as well as other molecules such as terpenes, vitamins, and fatty acids.
What Are CBD Vape Products?
CBD can be vaporized and inhaled. To that end, many companies offer CBD vaping products. These products normally involve a vape with disposable or refillable cartridges. The vape apparatus vaporizes the CBD contained in the cartridge, which is then inhaled. It is the same principle behind e-cigarettes and THC vape products.
CBD vape products can be found in isolate, broad spectrum, or full spectrum varieties. Each kind of variety is suited for a specific purpose. Most CBD vaping products are normally broad or full spectrum and usually contain THC, however some do not. Full spectrum vaping products also contain other molecules such as terpenes.
Vaporization is normally considered a potent way to ingest CBD and so it is not for everyone. Because the vapor is inhaled, the molecule enters the bloodstream much quicker, so vaping produces a fast and relatively intense feeling.
How Does CBD Work?
CBD has become an interesting object of study by scientists because of its potential therapeutic and medicinal properties. CBD has been shown to:
- Reduce anxiety
- Reduce inflammation
- Reduce nociceptive and neuropathic pain
- Manage neuropathy
- Has neuroprotective properties
- Anti-tumor benefits
Out of all these effects, the pain reducing and anti-inflammatory properties of CBD are the most well-established. CBD has been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties and has also been shown to be as effective as several traditional methods of pain management. There is also some evidence that CBD might have anti-tumor properties, although there is still no consensus on that matter. CBD has been noted as particularly effective in managing cancer and cancer-treatment related symptoms such as pain, loss of appetite, and anxiety.
To be clear, CBD is not medicine and is not generally approved by the FDA for medical use. CBD is not intended to serve as a substitute or replacement for any approved medical treatment and CBD is not known to cure any diseases.
In fact, there are only 2 FDA-approved medicines that contain CBD as their active ingredient, both of which are meant to treat certain forms of epilepsy. Since CBD is not approved for medical use, you should always talk to your doctor first before using a CBD product.
The exact mechanism of action of CBD is still a matter of scientific investigation, though there is a growing consensus that CBD works on the body's endocannabinoid system. The endocannabinoid is a large network of cannabinoid receptors throughout the body's brain and nervous tissue. Research has shown that the endocannabinoid system is involved in mediating several homeostatic processes in the body.
As such, there is a growing belief in the medical community that several seemingly disparate chronic conditions might be explained by an imbalance in the body's endocannabinoid system. Conditions such as fibromyalgia, IBS, and some auto-immune conditions might be related to the endocannabinoid system. CBD has become a target of interest to medical researchers in virtue of its effects on the system.
The endocannabinoid system contains two types of receptors, dubbed CB1 and CB2. CB1 receptors are located primarily in the brain while CB2 receptors are located primarily in the central and peripheral nervous system. CBD is a partial agonist of both receptors, so while it does interact with the receptors, it does not fully fit into the "lock-and-key" mechanism. The exact nature of CBD's interaction with CB1 and CB2 receptors is still a matter of investigation.
THC also interacts with the endocannabinoid receptors but in a different way. Thus CBD is not associated with the psychoactive effects of THC. You will not get "high" from CBD, although many report a sense of general relaxation and calm after taking CBD.
Dosage and Side Effects
CBD is not regulated or approved by the FDA so there are no accepted standards as to what the acceptable dosage of CBD is. Experiments involving CBD range from very small doses to fairly high doses, though few experiments focus specifically on finding the proper dosage per unit of dobby weight.
However, most experts recommend that you start with a dosage of 1 mg of CBD per 10 lbs. Of body weight. So for example, if you weigh 150 lbs, then a good recommended dose to start with would be 15mg. You should always start with a smaller does and slowly increase the dosage by 1-2mg per week until you achieve the desired effects. It is generally not recommended to exceed more than 100mg of CBD per day, although this depends on your specific situation.
CBD has been shown to be non-toxic, even in extremely high doses. The LD50 of CBD in humans has not been determined but animal studies show that it is likely extremely high and CBD does not produce lasting negative effects even at very high doses. As such, it is virtually impossible that you could overdose on CBD. It is also not associated with a "hangover" or withdrawal effects as it is non-addictive and non-habit forming.
CBD does have a handful of side effects, though most of them are mild and tend to go away once you get used to taking the product. The most common reported side effects of CBD are:
- Dry mouth
- Changes in appetite
- Upset stomach
The most commonly reported side effect is fatigue and tiredness. The other side effects tend to decrease as you body acclimates to taking the supplement. However, the specific side effects you experience may be heavily dependent on your individual bodily constitution. Some people just react differently to the molecule.
CBD has quickly become one of the most popular therapeutic methods for managing a diverse range of conditions. CBD used to be fairly expensive but increased customer demand and competition between businesses has resulted in a large amount of affordable CBD products for the average consumer. As CBD becomes more popular, we can expect even more company and a wider range of CBD products. This is good news for you as you will have more choices than ever.
Based on our round up, CBDfx is the top CBD provider. They offer a wide range of high-quality products with a solid range of concentrations/potencies. CBDfs also uses high-quality organic CBD for its products and uses a sophisticated supercritical CO2 extraction method. In that sense, CBDfx is one of the best CBD providers on the market right now and any enthusiast can find something to love from them.
Thousands of Superfund sites exist around the U.S., with toxic substances left open, mismanaged and dumped. Despite the high levels of toxicity at these sites, nearly 21 million people live within a mile of one of them, according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
Currently, more than 1,300 Superfund sites pose a serious health risk to nearby communities. Based on a new study, residents living close to these sites could also have a shorter life expectancy.
Published in Nature Communications, the study, led by Hanadi S. Rifai, a professor of civil and environmental engineering at the University of Houston, and a team of researchers, found that living in nearby zip codes to Superfund sites resulted in a decreased life expectancy of more than two months, the University of Houston reported.
"We have ample evidence that contaminant releases from anthropogenic sources (e.g., petrochemicals or hazardous waste sites) could increase the mortality rate in fence-line communities," Rifai told the University of Houston. "Results showed a significant difference in life expectancy among census tracts with at least one Superfund site and their neighboring tracts with no sites."
The study pulled data from 65,000 census tracts – defined geographical regions – within the contiguous U.S., The Guardian reported. With this data, researchers found that for communities that are socioeconomically challenged, this life expectancy could decrease by up to a year.
"It was a bit surprising and concerning," Rifai told The Guardian. "We weren't sure [when we started] if the fact that you are socioeconomically challenged would make [the Superfund's effects] worse."
The research team, for example, found that the presence of a Superfund site in a census tract with a median income of less than $52,580 could reduce life expectancy by seven months, the University of Houston reported.
Many of these toxic sites were once used as manufacturing sites during the Second World War. Common toxic substances that are released from the sites into the air and surface water include lead, trichlorethylene, chromium, benzene and arsenic – all of which can lead to health impacts, such as neurological damage among children, The Union of Concerned Scientists wrote in a blog.
"The EPA has claimed substantial recent progress in Superfund site cleanups, but, contrary to EPA leadership's grandiose declarations, the backlog of unfunded Superfund cleanups is the largest it has been in the last 15 years," the Union wrote.
Delayed cleanup could become increasingly dangerous as climate change welcomes more natural hazards, like wildfires and flooding. According to a Government Accountability Office report, for example, climate change could threaten at least 60 percent of Superfund sites in the U.S., AP News reported.
During the summer of 2018, a major wildfire took over the Iron Mountain Superfund site near Redding, CA, ruining wastewater treatment infrastructure that is responsible for capturing 168 million gallons of acid mine drainage every month, NBC News reported.
"There was this feeling of 'My God. We ought to have better tracking of wildfires at Superfund locations,'" Stephen Hoffman, a former senior environmental scientist at the EPA, told NBC News. "Before that, there wasn't a lot of thought about climate change and fire. That has changed."
In the study, researchers also looked at the impacts of floodings on Superfund sites, which could send toxins flowing into communities and waterways.
"When you add in flooding, there will be ancillary or secondary impacts that can potentially be exacerbated by a changing future climate," Rifai told the University of Houston. "The long-term effect of the flooding and repetitive exposure has an effect that can transcend generations."
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A weather research station on a bluff overlooking the sea is closing down because of the climate crisis.
The National Weather Service (NWS) station in Chatham, Massachusetts was evacuated March 31 over concerns the entire operation would topple into the ocean.
"We had to say goodbye to the site because of where we are located at the Monomoy Wildlife Refuge, we're adjacent to a bluff that overlooks the ocean," Boston NWS meteorologist Andy Nash told WHDH at the time. "We had to close and cease operations there because that bluff has significantly eroded."
Chatham is located on the elbow of Cape Cod, a land mass extending out into the Atlantic Ocean that has been reshaped and eroded by waves and tides over tens of thousands of years, The Guardian explained. However, sea level rise and extreme weather caused by the climate crisis have sped that change along.
"It's an extremely dynamic environment, which is obviously a problem if you are building permanent infrastructure here," Andrew Ashton, an associate scientist at Cape-Cod based Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, told The Guardian. "We are putting our foot on the accelerator to make the environment even more dynamic."
This was the case with the Chatham weather station. It used to be protected from the drop into the ocean by about 100 feet of land. However, storm action in 2020 alone washed away as much as six feet of land a day.
"We'd know[n] for a long time there was erosion but the pace of it caught everyone by surprise," Nash told The Guardian. "We felt we had maybe another 10 years but then we started losing a foot of a bluff a week and realized we didn't have years, we had just a few months. We were a couple of storms from a very big problem."
The Chatham station was part of a network of 92 NWS stations that monitor temperature, pressure, humidity, wind speed and direction and other data in the upper atmosphere, The Cape Cod Chronicle explained. The stations send up radiosondes attached to weather balloons twice a day to help with weather research and prediction. The Chatham station, which had been observing this ritual for the past half a century, sent up its last balloon the morning of March 31.
"We're going to miss the observations," Nash told The Cape Cod Chronicle. "It gives us a snapshot, a profile of the atmosphere when the balloons go up."
The station was officially decommissioned April 1, and the two buildings on the site will be demolished sometime this month. The NWS is looking for a new location in southeastern New England. In the meantime, forecasters will rely on data from stations in New York and Maine.
Nash said the leavetaking was bittersweet, but inevitable.
"[M]other nature is evicting us," he told The Cape Cod Chronicle.
By Douglas Broom
- If online deliveries continue with fossil-fuel trucks, emissions will increase by a third.
- So cities in the Netherlands will allow only emission-free delivery vehicles after 2025.
- The government is giving delivery firms cash help to buy or lease electric vehicles.
- The bans will save 1 megaton of CO2 every year by 2030.
Cities in the Netherlands want to make their air cleaner by banning fossil fuel delivery vehicles from urban areas from 2025.
"Now that we are spending more time at home, we are noticing the large number of delivery vans and lorries driving through cities," said Netherlands environment minister Stientje van Veldhoven, announcing plans to ban all but zero-emission deliveries in 14 cities.
"The agreements we are setting down will ensure that it will be a matter of course that within a few years, supermarket shelves will be stocked, waste will be collected, and packages will arrive on time, yet without any exhaust fumes and CO2 emissions," she added.
She expects 30 cities to announce zero emission urban logistics by this summer. City councils must give four years' notice before imposing bans as part of government plans for emission-free road traffic by 2050. The city bans aim to save 1 megaton of CO2 each year by 2030.
Help to Change
To encourage transport organizations to go carbon-free, the government is offering grants of more than US$5,900 to help businesses buy or lease electric vehicles. There will be additional measures to help small businesses make the change.
The Netherlands claims it is the first country in the world to give its cities the freedom to implement zero-emission zones. Amsterdam, Rotterdam and Utrecht already have "milieuzones" where some types of vehicles are banned.
Tilburg, one of the first wave of cities imposing the Dutch ban, will not allow fossil-fuelled vehicles on streets within its outer ring road and plans to roll out a network of city-wide electric vehicle charging stations before the ban comes into effect in 2025.
"Such initiatives are imperative to improve air quality. The transport of the future must be emission-free, sustainable, and clean," said Tilburg city alderman Oscar Dusschooten.
Europe Takes Action
Research by Renault shows that many other European cities are heading in the same direction as the Netherlands, starting with Low Emission Zones of which Germany's "Umweltzone" were pioneers. More than 100 communes in Italy have introduced "Zonas a traffico limitato."
Madrid's "zona de baja emisión" bans diesel vehicles built before 2006 and petrol vehicles from before 2000 from central areas of the city. Barcelona has similar restrictions and the law will require all towns of more than 50,000 inhabitants to follow suit.
Perhaps the most stringent restrictions apply in London's Ultra Low Emission Zone (ULEZ), which charges trucks and large vehicles up to US$137 a day to enter the central area if they do not comply with Euro 6 emissions standards. From October, the ULEZ is being expanded.
Cities are responsible for around 75% of CO2 emissions from global final energy use, according to the green thinktank REN21 - and much of these come from transport. Globally, transport accounts for 24% of world CO2 emissions.
The Rise of Online Shopping
Part of the reason for traffic in urban areas is the increase in delivery vehicles, as online shopping continues to grow. Retailer ecommerce sales are expected to pass $5billion in 2022, according to eMarketer.
The World Economic Forum's report The Future of the Last-Mile Ecosystem, published in January 2020, estimates that e-commerce will increase the number of delivery vehicles on the roads of the world's 100 largest cities by 36% by 2030.
If all those vehicles burn fossil fuels, the report says emissions will increase by 32%. But switching to all-electric delivery vehicles would cut emissions by 30% from current levels as well as reducing costs by 25%, the report says.
Other solutions explored in the report include introducing goods trams to handle deliveries alongside their passenger-carrying counterparts and increased use of parcel lockers to reduce the number of doorstep deliveries.
Reposted with permission from the World Economic Forum.
The bill, SB467, would have prohibited fracking and other controversial forms of oil extraction. It would also have banned oil and gas production within 2,500 feet of a home, school, hospital or other residential facility. The bill originally set the fracking ban for 2027, but amended it to 2035, The AP reported.
"Obviously I'm very disappointed," State Sen. Scott Wiener (D-San Francisco), one of the bill's two introducers, told the Los Angeles Times. "California really has not done what it needs to do in terms of addressing the oil problem. We have communities that are suffering right now, and the Legislature has repeatedly failed to act."
The bill was introduced after California Gov. Gavin Newsom said he would sign a fracking ban if it passed the legislature, though his administration has continued to issue permits in the meantime, Forbes reported. Newsom has also spoken in favor of a buffer zone between oil and gas extraction and places where people live and learn, according to the Los Angeles Times. The latter is a major environmental justice issue, as fossil fuel production is more likely to be located near Black and Latinx communities.
Urban lawmakers who want California to lead on the climate crisis supported the bill, while inland lawmakers in oil-rich areas concerned about jobs opposed it. The oil and gas industry and trade unions also opposed the bill.
This opposition meant the bill failed to get the five votes it needed to move beyond the Senate's Natural Resources and Water Committee. Only four senators approved it, while Democrat Sen. Susan Eggman of Stockton joined two Republicans to oppose it, and two other Democrats abstained.
Eggman argued that the bill would have forced California to rely on oil extracted in other states.
"We're still going to use it, but we're going to use it from places that produce it less safely," Eggman told The AP. She also said that she supported the transition away from fossil fuels, but thought the bill jumped the gun. "I don't think we're quite there yet, and this bill assumes that we are," she added.
Historically, California has been a major U.S. oil producer. Its output peaked in 1986 at 1.1 million barrels a day, just below Texas and Alaska, according to Forbes. However, production has declined since then making it the seventh-most oil-producing state.
Still, California's fossil fuel industry is at odds with state attempts to position itself as a climate leader.
"There is a large stain on California's climate record, and that is oil," Wiener said Tuesday, according to The AP.
Wiener and Democrat co-introducer Sen. Monique Limón from Santa Barbara vowed to keep fighting.
"While we saw this effort defeated today, this issue isn't going away," they wrote in a joint statement. "We'll continue to fight for aggressive climate action, against harmful drilling, and for the health of our communities."
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By Brett Wilkins
As world leaders prepare for this November's United Nations Climate Conference in Scotland, a new report from the Cambridge Sustainability Commission reveals that the world's wealthiest 5% were responsible for well over a third of all global emissions growth between 1990 and 2015.
The report, Changing Our Ways: Behavior Change and the Climate Crisis, found that nearly half the growth in absolute global emissions was caused by the world's richest 10%, with the most affluent 5% alone contributing 37%.
"In the year when the UK hosts COP26, and while the government continues to reward some of Britain's biggest polluters through tax credits, the commission report shows why this is precisely the wrong way to meet the UK's climate targets," the report's introduction states.
The authors of the report urge United Kingdom policymakers to focus on this so-called "polluter elite" in an effort to persuade wealthy people to adopt more sustainable behavior, while providing "affordable, available low-carbon alternatives to poorer households."
The report found that the "polluter elite" must make "dramatic" lifestyle changes in order to meet the UK's goal — based on the Paris climate agreement's preferential objective — of limiting global heating to 1.5°C, compared with pre-industrial levels.
In addition to highlighting previous recommendations — including reducing meat consumption, reducing food waste, and switching to electric vehicles and solar power — the report recommends that policymakers take the following steps:
- Implement frequent flyer levies;
- Enact bans on selling and promoting SUVs and other high polluting vehicles;
- Reverse the UK's recent move to cut green grants for homes and electric cars; and
- Build just transitions by supporting electric public transport and community energy schemes.
"We have got to cut over-consumption and the best place to start is over-consumption among the polluting elites who contribute by far more than their share of carbon emissions," Peter Newell, a Sussex University professor and lead author of the report, told the BBC.
"These are people who fly most, drive the biggest cars most, and live in the biggest homes which they can easily afford to heat, so they tend not to worry if they're well insulated or not," said Newell. "They're also the sort of people who could really afford good insulation and solar panels if they wanted to."
Newell said that wealthy people "simply must fly less and drive less. Even if they own an electric SUV, that's still a drain on the energy system and all the emissions created making the vehicle in the first place."
"Rich people who fly a lot may think they can offset their emissions by tree-planting schemes or projects to capture carbon from the air," Newell added. "But these schemes are highly contentious and they're not proven over time."
The report concludes that "we are all on a journey and the final destination is as yet unclear. There are many contradictory road maps about where we might want to get to and how, based on different theories of value and premised on diverse values."
"Promisingly, we have brought about positive change before, and there are at least some positive signs that there is an appetite to do what is necessary to live differently but well on the planet we call home," it states.
The new report follows a September 2020 Oxfam International study that revealed the wealthiest 1% of the world's population is responsible for emitting more than twice as much carbon dioxide as the poorest 50% of humanity combined.
Reposted with permission from Common Dreams.
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