In recent years, more and more people are using CBD oil for pain management. What is CBD? Cannabidiol, or CBD, is a compound derived from the Cannabis sativa plant. CBD is different from another well-known cannabinoid in cannabis, THC, in that it can help ease pain and relax the mind without any psychoactive effects. This makes oils that contain CBD a popular natural remedy.
Read below to learn more about the best CBD oils for pain management, how CBD helps relieve aches and inflammation, and how to use CBD oil to treat pain. We'll also talk a bit about the differences between oils, topicals, and oral capsules, so you can shop smarter in a confusing online market.
Our Top CBD Oils for Pain Management
Each product featured here has been independently selected by the writer. If you make a purchase using the links included, we may earn a commission.
- Medterra (THC free)
- Cornbread Hemp (USDA Organic)
- Plant People (B Corp)
- NuLeaf Naturals
- Green Roads
- Prima (capsule)
- Spruce (cream)
How We Picked the Best CBD Oil for Pain Relief
When looking for a CBD product, it's important to choose a high-quality product you can trust. This is because some CBD products, since they are not regulated by the FDA, may not contain the potency the label states and/or they may contain other ingredients that could cause harmful side effects.
We use the same six criteria to determine whether a CBD oil product is high-quality:
Value: You can divide the price of the bottle by the milligrams of CBD in the bottle to get a measure of value. The cost per milligram is the only true way to separate products by price.
Strength: It's important to consider the type of hemp extract used in the CBD product you choose. First, there is full spectrum CBD, which contains all the natural compounds of the cannabis plant, including CBD, trace cannabinoids, aromatic oils known as terpenes, and other essential oils. Each of the compounds from this type of extract may enhance the benefits of the next. This is called the entourage effect. Full spectrum oils must contain less than 0.3% THC. Broad spectrum CBD extracts contain everything full spectrum does minus the THC. And finally, CBD isolate is about 99-percent pure CBD with no other cannabis plant compounds.
Source: Not only is the type of extract important when it comes to CBD, but it's also important to consider where the hemp plant used to extract the CBD oil was sourced. We prefer hemp from Colorado, Kentucky, and North Carolina, states with robust industrial hemp programs. We always try to support American-grown hemp.
Flavor: The best CBD products should be effective and offer a clean, natural taste. We look for products that are vegan, non-GMO, gluten-free, and contain no artificial sweeteners or preservatives.
Transparency: It's vital to choose a CBD product that has been lab-tested by a third-party to ensure that what you see on the label is what you get in your product. It can also help to choose products that have certification by ISO 9001: 2015 or by places that ensure trusted testing practices:
- American Herbal Pharmacopoeia (AHP)
- U.S. Pharmacopeia (USP)
- U.S. Hemp Authority
- American Herbal Products Association (AHPA)
- Association of Official Agricultural Chemists (AOAC)
Customer Experience: When buying a product to feel better, buy from a brand that supports its customers with good service, easy checkout, and simple returns.
All of these factors went into our list below. We also tried each of these oils and spoke with the leaders of the brand to better understand their quality control practices. We feel confident recommending these products.
Potency: Contains 80 milligrams of CBD per dropper
What we like: Comes in a hemp seed oil or coconut MCT oil base; 100% natural; free of pesticides and preservatives; only 0.3% THC; made in U.S.A; vegan; gluten-free.
Why buy: We like this product because it's free of artificial flavors or sweeteners and contains a dropper to ensure accurate dosing. The high concentration may be best for people who have been using CBD for a while or require a higher daily dosage. Be sure to check out the in-depth customer reviews on the website to learn what real people have to say about Spruce. This brand supports its customers.
Potency: Comes in a 30 mL bottle that contains either 500, 1000, 2500, or 5000 milligrams CBD per bottle which equates to about 17, 33, 83, or 167 milligrams CBD per 1 mL dropper, respectively.
What we like: Has a fractionated MCT coconut oil base; uses U.S. Hemp Authority-certified non-GMO industrial hemp grown in the U.S.A.; supports natural farming practices.
Why buy: We like this product because it uses hemp that has been certified by the U.S. Hemp Authority and contains low levels of THC for pain relief without the high.
Potency: Comes in a 30 mL bottle containing either 500, 1000, or 3000 milligrams CBD which equates to about 17, 33, or 100 milligrams of CBD per 1 mL dropper
What we like: Made with organically-grown hemp from Kentucky, these products are all THC-free. The brand also offers immune boosting blends and products with other helpful cannabinoids, like CBG.
Why buy: This is the most trusted THC-free option on the market. Many people want to experience the benefits of CBD without the chance of failing a drug test. These are the products for those shoppers.
Potency: Comes in 25 or 50 mg of CBD per mL. There is also a half-size bottle available, if you want to start with a smaller purchase to see if you like the oil.
What we like: These are whole flower hemp extracts, meaning they are very full spectrum oils with a CBD-to-THC ratio of 22:1. Made from certified-organic hemp, they also contain organic MCT coconut oil.Why buy: For strength, and a full plant experience—these oils contain the highest amount of THC allowed by Federal law.
Potency: Comes in a 30 mL bottle containing either 315, 630, or 1500 milligrams CBD which equates to about 11, 21, or 50 milligrams of CBD per 1 mL dropper
What we like: Vegan; Gluten-free; Non-GMO; USDA Organic; cGMP Standard; Keto approved.
Why buy: These all natural-tasting products are full of a variety of therapeutic cannabinoids, including CBG and CBL. The full spectrum CBD is carried by coconut MCT and hempseed oil, making for a natural flavor.
Potency: Comes in a 30 mL bottle containing either 300, 900, 1800, 3000, or 6000 mg of CBD which equates to about 10, 30, 60, 100, or 200mg of CBD per 1 mL dropper
What we like: Full spectrum hemp extract, made with organic hemp, processed with a method known as CO2 extraction that helps obtain a complete range of cannabinoids, terpenes, essential oils, and other beneficial phytonutrients.Why buy: We like this product because it contains a variety of concentrations of CBD oil so anyone from beginner to long-term user of CBD oil can enjoy such products.
Potency: Comes in a 30 mL bottle containing either 600, 1200, or 2400 milligrams CBD which equates to about 20, 40, or 80 milligrams of CBD per 1 mL dropper
What we like: Naternal is made with ethanol extraction. They then do residual solvent testing to ensure a clean product after processing. These products are dramatically less expensive due to the relationships the brand has in place with local farmers in North Carolina.Why buy: Value, value, value. To get a high-quality full-spectrum oil at a great price, Naternal is a perfect brand for anyone who is new to CBD and is looking to try the products without breaking the bank. Note that this indica blend is a top pick for anxiety and best for mindful relaxation and the calming needed for condition management.
Potency: Contains 1000 milligrams CBD per 1-ounce stick or 3000 milligrams CBD per 2.5-ounce stick
What we like: Contains an Organic Golden Jojoba oil base along with essential oils like rosemary, ginger, lavender, eucalyptus, and tree oil. It also contains a cooling component in menthol crystals and a heating component in Cinnamomum camphora oil.Why buy: We like this product because it provides a convenient and portable form of CBD oil that can be applied just about anywhere on your body externally where you need pain relief.
Potency: Comes in a 30 mL bottle containing either 300, 750, or 1500 milligrams CBD which equates to about 10, 25, or 50 milligrams of CBD per 1 mL dropper
What we like: Soy-free; Gluten-free; Vegan-friendly; Developed by a team of pharmacists and produced in a cGMP and FDA-registered facility.
Why buy: These broad spectrum oils contain all the beneficial compounds in a full spectrum oil, minus the THC. They also come in a variety of flavors, like Original, Mint Breeze, and Apple Kiwi Bliss.
Potency: 15mg of broad spectrum hemp CBD per vegan softgel
What we like: Vegan; Made with organically-grown hemp; Includes other plant material, like terpenes and flavonoids.
Why buy: These capsules make a great option for people who don't enjoy the taste of CBD oils. They allow you to get the benefits of a CBD oil for pain in an easy-to-take and portable form.
Potency: 300mg of full spectrum CBD in a 2 fl oz. jar
What we like 100% natural; No pesticides; Made in the USA; Low THC.
Why buy: Spruce is a product we support because of the quality of their products and the thousands of customer reviews on their website. Real people believe this topical cream has helped them with joint and muscle pain, including arthritis pain.
CBD Oil for Pain FAQs
Does CBD oil really work for pain?
There are many different types of pain that someone can experience. Common forms of pain include:
- Nociceptive pain: Occurs after exposure to certain stimuli like heat, cold, chemical irritants, or force. Chronic back pain may be a form of this type of pain, depending on the cause.
- Inflammatory pain: Occurs because of activation of the immune system by an injury or infection.
- Pathological pain: Includes neuropathic pain, or damage to the nervous system, as well as dysfunctional pain, which is pain occurring with no damage or inflammation. Examples of dysfunctional pain are the types of pain people experience with fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome, and tension type headaches.
CBD works in reducing pain through the endocannabinoid system, or ECS, which involves CBD binding to certain receptors. In particular, the receptor CB1, found in the central nervous system, helps mediate pain regulation and activation of it can result in inflammation and oxidative stress. On the other hand, the CB2 receptor, found mostly in the tissues and cells outside of the nervous system, can help slow down chronic inflammatory processes in the body.
When CBD binds to these receptors it acts as an anti-inflammatory compound; this reduction in inflammation can help to reduce pain.
For example, a 2018 study shows that people with multiple sclerosis (MS) may benefit from CBD use since it may help reduce fatigue, spasticity, and pain that in turn can improve mobility.
A 2017 study also states that cannabis-based medicines like CBD can benefit those with chronic pain, especially those with neuropathic pain like people with MS.
CBD oil can also be helpful to those with arthritis pain. A 2020 study review reports that in animal studies cannabinoids show potential to lessen the pain associated with rheumatic diseases like rheumatoid arthritis. More clinical trials are needed to confirm such positive findings in humans.
What type of CBD oil for pain should I take?
The type of CBD oil product you take will depend not only your preferences, but also on the type of pain you have. For example, if you have isolated muscle or joint pain, it may help to use a topical CBD product like lotions. On the other hand, if you have systemic pain, then a capsule or oil that you would ingest orally may be more effective.
Other factors to consider include side effects of each type of CBD oil product. Overall, the most common side effects linked with the use of CBD oil include:
- Dry mouth
- Reduced appetite
CBD can also interact with certain prescription medicines like blood thinners and sedatives like benzodiazepines and opioids. Be sure to talk with your healthcare provider and pharmacist before starting to take any CBD product.
How much CBD oil for pain should I take?
If you are considering using CBD oil for pain, then it's important to determine which dose is most effective for relieving your pain without causing side effects. This can differ from person to person depending on factors such as metabolism, age, weight, as well as the intensity of pain.
There is limited research on the most effective dosage of CBD for pain. However, a 2019 study shows that a dose of 2.4 milligrams of CBD per kilogram of body weight per day may be too low to provide a significant benefit to pain relief.
If you're not sure where to start when it comes to dosing and you're new to using CBD, then it's best to start with low doses. This lower dose could range anywhere from >1 to 5 mg per kilogram of body weight each day depending on the aforementioned dosage factors.
Then you can double the dose each week or so until you find a dose that works best for reducing pain and not producing side effects. It's best to talk to a pharmacist for more specific advice on what dosage to start with.
Should I try CBD oil for pain?
If you live with pain in any form, it can limit what you can do daily and impact your quality of life. And with concerns of the addictive properties of certain pain medications like opioids and benzodiazepines, a natural pain reliever may help treat chronic pain without serious adverse effects.
However, since most CBD oil products are not FDA-approved, you may still want to talk with your healthcare provider before starting CBD oil for pain. You also want to use guides like this one to thoroughly research brands and CBD products.
Josh Hurst is a journalist, critic, copywriter, and essayist. He lives in Knoxville, TN, with his wife and three sons. As a writer an independent reviewer of CBD products, Josh covers the relationship between cannabis-based products and the human body. His writing has appeared in Health, Shape, and Remedy Review.
* These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. These products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.
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Thousands of Superfund sites exist around the U.S., with toxic substances left open, mismanaged and dumped. Despite the high levels of toxicity at these sites, nearly 21 million people live within a mile of one of them, according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
Currently, more than 1,300 Superfund sites pose a serious health risk to nearby communities. Based on a new study, residents living close to these sites could also have a shorter life expectancy.
Published in Nature Communications, the study, led by Hanadi S. Rifai, a professor of civil and environmental engineering at the University of Houston, and a team of researchers, found that living in nearby zip codes to Superfund sites resulted in a decreased life expectancy of more than two months, the University of Houston reported.
"We have ample evidence that contaminant releases from anthropogenic sources (e.g., petrochemicals or hazardous waste sites) could increase the mortality rate in fence-line communities," Rifai told the University of Houston. "Results showed a significant difference in life expectancy among census tracts with at least one Superfund site and their neighboring tracts with no sites."
The study pulled data from 65,000 census tracts – defined geographical regions – within the contiguous U.S., The Guardian reported. With this data, researchers found that for communities that are socioeconomically challenged, this life expectancy could decrease by up to a year.
"It was a bit surprising and concerning," Rifai told The Guardian. "We weren't sure [when we started] if the fact that you are socioeconomically challenged would make [the Superfund's effects] worse."
The research team, for example, found that the presence of a Superfund site in a census tract with a median income of less than $52,580 could reduce life expectancy by seven months, the University of Houston reported.
Many of these toxic sites were once used as manufacturing sites during the Second World War. Common toxic substances that are released from the sites into the air and surface water include lead, trichlorethylene, chromium, benzene and arsenic – all of which can lead to health impacts, such as neurological damage among children, The Union of Concerned Scientists wrote in a blog.
"The EPA has claimed substantial recent progress in Superfund site cleanups, but, contrary to EPA leadership's grandiose declarations, the backlog of unfunded Superfund cleanups is the largest it has been in the last 15 years," the Union wrote.
Delayed cleanup could become increasingly dangerous as climate change welcomes more natural hazards, like wildfires and flooding. According to a Government Accountability Office report, for example, climate change could threaten at least 60 percent of Superfund sites in the U.S., AP News reported.
During the summer of 2018, a major wildfire took over the Iron Mountain Superfund site near Redding, CA, ruining wastewater treatment infrastructure that is responsible for capturing 168 million gallons of acid mine drainage every month, NBC News reported.
"There was this feeling of 'My God. We ought to have better tracking of wildfires at Superfund locations,'" Stephen Hoffman, a former senior environmental scientist at the EPA, told NBC News. "Before that, there wasn't a lot of thought about climate change and fire. That has changed."
In the study, researchers also looked at the impacts of floodings on Superfund sites, which could send toxins flowing into communities and waterways.
"When you add in flooding, there will be ancillary or secondary impacts that can potentially be exacerbated by a changing future climate," Rifai told the University of Houston. "The long-term effect of the flooding and repetitive exposure has an effect that can transcend generations."
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A weather research station on a bluff overlooking the sea is closing down because of the climate crisis.
The National Weather Service (NWS) station in Chatham, Massachusetts was evacuated March 31 over concerns the entire operation would topple into the ocean.
"We had to say goodbye to the site because of where we are located at the Monomoy Wildlife Refuge, we're adjacent to a bluff that overlooks the ocean," Boston NWS meteorologist Andy Nash told WHDH at the time. "We had to close and cease operations there because that bluff has significantly eroded."
Chatham is located on the elbow of Cape Cod, a land mass extending out into the Atlantic Ocean that has been reshaped and eroded by waves and tides over tens of thousands of years, The Guardian explained. However, sea level rise and extreme weather caused by the climate crisis have sped that change along.
"It's an extremely dynamic environment, which is obviously a problem if you are building permanent infrastructure here," Andrew Ashton, an associate scientist at Cape-Cod based Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, told The Guardian. "We are putting our foot on the accelerator to make the environment even more dynamic."
This was the case with the Chatham weather station. It used to be protected from the drop into the ocean by about 100 feet of land. However, storm action in 2020 alone washed away as much as six feet of land a day.
"We'd know[n] for a long time there was erosion but the pace of it caught everyone by surprise," Nash told The Guardian. "We felt we had maybe another 10 years but then we started losing a foot of a bluff a week and realized we didn't have years, we had just a few months. We were a couple of storms from a very big problem."
The Chatham station was part of a network of 92 NWS stations that monitor temperature, pressure, humidity, wind speed and direction and other data in the upper atmosphere, The Cape Cod Chronicle explained. The stations send up radiosondes attached to weather balloons twice a day to help with weather research and prediction. The Chatham station, which had been observing this ritual for the past half a century, sent up its last balloon the morning of March 31.
"We're going to miss the observations," Nash told The Cape Cod Chronicle. "It gives us a snapshot, a profile of the atmosphere when the balloons go up."
The station was officially decommissioned April 1, and the two buildings on the site will be demolished sometime this month. The NWS is looking for a new location in southeastern New England. In the meantime, forecasters will rely on data from stations in New York and Maine.
Nash said the leavetaking was bittersweet, but inevitable.
"[M]other nature is evicting us," he told The Cape Cod Chronicle.
By Douglas Broom
- If online deliveries continue with fossil-fuel trucks, emissions will increase by a third.
- So cities in the Netherlands will allow only emission-free delivery vehicles after 2025.
- The government is giving delivery firms cash help to buy or lease electric vehicles.
- The bans will save 1 megaton of CO2 every year by 2030.
Cities in the Netherlands want to make their air cleaner by banning fossil fuel delivery vehicles from urban areas from 2025.
"Now that we are spending more time at home, we are noticing the large number of delivery vans and lorries driving through cities," said Netherlands environment minister Stientje van Veldhoven, announcing plans to ban all but zero-emission deliveries in 14 cities.
"The agreements we are setting down will ensure that it will be a matter of course that within a few years, supermarket shelves will be stocked, waste will be collected, and packages will arrive on time, yet without any exhaust fumes and CO2 emissions," she added.
She expects 30 cities to announce zero emission urban logistics by this summer. City councils must give four years' notice before imposing bans as part of government plans for emission-free road traffic by 2050. The city bans aim to save 1 megaton of CO2 each year by 2030.
Help to Change
To encourage transport organizations to go carbon-free, the government is offering grants of more than US$5,900 to help businesses buy or lease electric vehicles. There will be additional measures to help small businesses make the change.
The Netherlands claims it is the first country in the world to give its cities the freedom to implement zero-emission zones. Amsterdam, Rotterdam and Utrecht already have "milieuzones" where some types of vehicles are banned.
Tilburg, one of the first wave of cities imposing the Dutch ban, will not allow fossil-fuelled vehicles on streets within its outer ring road and plans to roll out a network of city-wide electric vehicle charging stations before the ban comes into effect in 2025.
"Such initiatives are imperative to improve air quality. The transport of the future must be emission-free, sustainable, and clean," said Tilburg city alderman Oscar Dusschooten.
Europe Takes Action
Research by Renault shows that many other European cities are heading in the same direction as the Netherlands, starting with Low Emission Zones of which Germany's "Umweltzone" were pioneers. More than 100 communes in Italy have introduced "Zonas a traffico limitato."
Madrid's "zona de baja emisión" bans diesel vehicles built before 2006 and petrol vehicles from before 2000 from central areas of the city. Barcelona has similar restrictions and the law will require all towns of more than 50,000 inhabitants to follow suit.
Perhaps the most stringent restrictions apply in London's Ultra Low Emission Zone (ULEZ), which charges trucks and large vehicles up to US$137 a day to enter the central area if they do not comply with Euro 6 emissions standards. From October, the ULEZ is being expanded.
Cities are responsible for around 75% of CO2 emissions from global final energy use, according to the green thinktank REN21 - and much of these come from transport. Globally, transport accounts for 24% of world CO2 emissions.
The Rise of Online Shopping
Part of the reason for traffic in urban areas is the increase in delivery vehicles, as online shopping continues to grow. Retailer ecommerce sales are expected to pass $5billion in 2022, according to eMarketer.
The World Economic Forum's report The Future of the Last-Mile Ecosystem, published in January 2020, estimates that e-commerce will increase the number of delivery vehicles on the roads of the world's 100 largest cities by 36% by 2030.
If all those vehicles burn fossil fuels, the report says emissions will increase by 32%. But switching to all-electric delivery vehicles would cut emissions by 30% from current levels as well as reducing costs by 25%, the report says.
Other solutions explored in the report include introducing goods trams to handle deliveries alongside their passenger-carrying counterparts and increased use of parcel lockers to reduce the number of doorstep deliveries.
Reposted with permission from the World Economic Forum.
The bill, SB467, would have prohibited fracking and other controversial forms of oil extraction. It would also have banned oil and gas production within 2,500 feet of a home, school, hospital or other residential facility. The bill originally set the fracking ban for 2027, but amended it to 2035, The AP reported.
"Obviously I'm very disappointed," State Sen. Scott Wiener (D-San Francisco), one of the bill's two introducers, told the Los Angeles Times. "California really has not done what it needs to do in terms of addressing the oil problem. We have communities that are suffering right now, and the Legislature has repeatedly failed to act."
The bill was introduced after California Gov. Gavin Newsom said he would sign a fracking ban if it passed the legislature, though his administration has continued to issue permits in the meantime, Forbes reported. Newsom has also spoken in favor of a buffer zone between oil and gas extraction and places where people live and learn, according to the Los Angeles Times. The latter is a major environmental justice issue, as fossil fuel production is more likely to be located near Black and Latinx communities.
Urban lawmakers who want California to lead on the climate crisis supported the bill, while inland lawmakers in oil-rich areas concerned about jobs opposed it. The oil and gas industry and trade unions also opposed the bill.
This opposition meant the bill failed to get the five votes it needed to move beyond the Senate's Natural Resources and Water Committee. Only four senators approved it, while Democrat Sen. Susan Eggman of Stockton joined two Republicans to oppose it, and two other Democrats abstained.
Eggman argued that the bill would have forced California to rely on oil extracted in other states.
"We're still going to use it, but we're going to use it from places that produce it less safely," Eggman told The AP. She also said that she supported the transition away from fossil fuels, but thought the bill jumped the gun. "I don't think we're quite there yet, and this bill assumes that we are," she added.
Historically, California has been a major U.S. oil producer. Its output peaked in 1986 at 1.1 million barrels a day, just below Texas and Alaska, according to Forbes. However, production has declined since then making it the seventh-most oil-producing state.
Still, California's fossil fuel industry is at odds with state attempts to position itself as a climate leader.
"There is a large stain on California's climate record, and that is oil," Wiener said Tuesday, according to The AP.
Wiener and Democrat co-introducer Sen. Monique Limón from Santa Barbara vowed to keep fighting.
"While we saw this effort defeated today, this issue isn't going away," they wrote in a joint statement. "We'll continue to fight for aggressive climate action, against harmful drilling, and for the health of our communities."
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By Brett Wilkins
As world leaders prepare for this November's United Nations Climate Conference in Scotland, a new report from the Cambridge Sustainability Commission reveals that the world's wealthiest 5% were responsible for well over a third of all global emissions growth between 1990 and 2015.
The report, Changing Our Ways: Behavior Change and the Climate Crisis, found that nearly half the growth in absolute global emissions was caused by the world's richest 10%, with the most affluent 5% alone contributing 37%.
"In the year when the UK hosts COP26, and while the government continues to reward some of Britain's biggest polluters through tax credits, the commission report shows why this is precisely the wrong way to meet the UK's climate targets," the report's introduction states.
The authors of the report urge United Kingdom policymakers to focus on this so-called "polluter elite" in an effort to persuade wealthy people to adopt more sustainable behavior, while providing "affordable, available low-carbon alternatives to poorer households."
The report found that the "polluter elite" must make "dramatic" lifestyle changes in order to meet the UK's goal — based on the Paris climate agreement's preferential objective — of limiting global heating to 1.5°C, compared with pre-industrial levels.
In addition to highlighting previous recommendations — including reducing meat consumption, reducing food waste, and switching to electric vehicles and solar power — the report recommends that policymakers take the following steps:
- Implement frequent flyer levies;
- Enact bans on selling and promoting SUVs and other high polluting vehicles;
- Reverse the UK's recent move to cut green grants for homes and electric cars; and
- Build just transitions by supporting electric public transport and community energy schemes.
"We have got to cut over-consumption and the best place to start is over-consumption among the polluting elites who contribute by far more than their share of carbon emissions," Peter Newell, a Sussex University professor and lead author of the report, told the BBC.
"These are people who fly most, drive the biggest cars most, and live in the biggest homes which they can easily afford to heat, so they tend not to worry if they're well insulated or not," said Newell. "They're also the sort of people who could really afford good insulation and solar panels if they wanted to."
Newell said that wealthy people "simply must fly less and drive less. Even if they own an electric SUV, that's still a drain on the energy system and all the emissions created making the vehicle in the first place."
"Rich people who fly a lot may think they can offset their emissions by tree-planting schemes or projects to capture carbon from the air," Newell added. "But these schemes are highly contentious and they're not proven over time."
The report concludes that "we are all on a journey and the final destination is as yet unclear. There are many contradictory road maps about where we might want to get to and how, based on different theories of value and premised on diverse values."
"Promisingly, we have brought about positive change before, and there are at least some positive signs that there is an appetite to do what is necessary to live differently but well on the planet we call home," it states.
The new report follows a September 2020 Oxfam International study that revealed the wealthiest 1% of the world's population is responsible for emitting more than twice as much carbon dioxide as the poorest 50% of humanity combined.
Reposted with permission from Common Dreams.
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