However, it's not always clear which foods are vegan, particularly baked products that may contain ingredients that are not immediately recognizable.
Bagels are popular, doughnut-shaped breads that come in a variety of flavors, ranging from plain to sweet to savory. Plus, they can be filled with an almost endless array of toppings.
This article explains how to determine whether a bagel is vegan.
Vegan vs. Non-Vegan Bagels
Depending on its ingredients and fillings, a bagel may or may not be vegan.
Regular Bagels Are Vegan
A basic bagel contains the following vegan ingredients (1):
- Flour. Wheat flour is commonly used, resulting in a strong, glutinous dough and dense, chewy texture.
- Yeast. This ingredient ferments the sugar in the dough, releasing carbon dioxide and causing the dough to rise.
- Salt. This mineral helps toughen gluten strands, regulate the yeast, and add flavor.
- Liquid. Traditionally, only water is used to create moisture and bind ingredients together.
- Sweetener. This can be from plain sugar, barley malt syrup, molasses, corn syrup, or malt extract.
- Fat. Some recipes call for vegetable oil or shortening to enhance the crumb of the finished bagel.
Vegan bagel recipes may call for additional ingredients to add flavor, color, and texture, such as fruits, seeds, grains, nuts, vegetables, berries, herbs, and spices (1).
What Makes a Bagel Non-Vegan?
Some bagel recipes or store-bought products may include non-vegan ingredients, including:
- Honey. Certain recipes use honey or honey powder in place of sugar or malt. While some vegans eat honey, most don't (3).
- Eggs. These are sometimes added to the dough for flavor and color and may be used to glaze a bagel to give it some shine.
- Milk. In some recipes, milk is used in place of water.
- L-cysteine. This amino acid and dough softener is sometimes used in commercial bagel products. It's usually derived from human hair or poultry feathers. However, there are also vegan production methods (4, 5Trusted Source).
Additionally, many bagel fillings or toppings are not considered vegan, including:
- Dairy products: cream cheese, hard cheese, whipped cream, etc.
- Meats: beef, ham, turkey, chicken, etc.
- Fish: smoked salmon, canned tuna, caviar, etc.
- Eggs: including in sauces like hollandaise or mayonnaise.
Essentially, any ingredient that's derived from an animal will make a bagel unsuitable for vegans.
Regular bagels are vegan, but some types may include extra flavors, additives, or fillings that are animal-derived and thus not vegan. These include honey, eggs, or dairy in the dough, as well as cheese, meats, or fish in the fillings.
How to Ensure Your Bagel Is Vegan
There are a few ways to ensure your bagels are vegan-friendly, including making them yourself, checking ingredient label, and looking for a vegan certification.
Make Your Own Bagels
Most recipes for bagels are vegan-friendly, and by making them yourself, you can control exactly what goes into them.
Plus, innumerable vegan ingredients can add flavor and variety to your bagels.
A basic dough recipe can be improved by adding seeds, nuts, onions, garlic, spices, fresh or dried herbs, and grains, such as rye and oats.
Vegan toppings include vegan cream cheese, nut butters, vegan patties, meat substitutes, tofu, avocado, hummus, leafy greens, vegetables, berries, and other fruits.
Read the Label
If you're buying bagels from the store, check the ingredient list for any non-vegan items.
The most important ones to look out for are eggs, honey, honey powder, L-cysteine, milk, and milk products like casein, lactose, and whey.
If you're in doubt about a particular brand, contact the manufacturer to verify the product's vegan status.
Check for Vegan Certification
Most countries don't regulate the labeling of vegan products by law.
Still, many independent organizations, such as Certified Vegan, offer vegan certification of products.
If you find a bagel with such a certification, it's a good idea to check out the requirements of that organization to see whether they meet your expectations.
Keep in mind that a product may be vegan, despite not being labeled as such. Thus, it's still a good idea to check the ingredient list when deciding whether the product is right for you.
You can ensure your bagels are vegan by making them at home or checking the label for vegan certification and the ingredient list for non-vegan items. When in doubt, contact the manufacturer to ask whether the product is suitable for you.
The Bottom Line
Basic bagels are vegan and made from flour, water, yeast, sugar, salt, and sometimes vegetable shortening.
Still, some include non-vegan ingredients, such as eggs, milk, honey, or L-cysteine.
To ensure your bagels are vegan, make them yourself or check the package for vegan certification or the ingredient list for non-vegan items.
Overall, with a little attention to detail, you can continue to enjoy your favorite morning or lunchtime bagel on a vegan diet.
Reposted with permission from our media associate Healthline.
The ghoulishly named ogre-faced spider can "hear" with its legs and use that ability to catch insects flying behind it, the study published in Current Biology Thursday concluded.
"Spiders are sensitive to airborne sound," Cornell professor emeritus Dr. Charles Walcott, who was not involved with the study, told the Cornell Chronicle. "That's the big message really."
The net-casting, ogre-faced spider (Deinopis spinosa) has a unique hunting strategy, as study coauthor Cornell University postdoctoral researcher Jay Stafstrom explained in a video.
They hunt only at night using a special kind of web: an A-shaped frame made from non-sticky silk that supports a fuzzy rectangle that they hold with their front forelegs and use to trap prey.
They do this in two ways. In a maneuver called a "forward strike," they pounce down on prey moving beneath them on the ground. This is enabled by their large eyes — the biggest of any spider. These eyes give them 2,000 times the night vision that we have, Science explained.
But the spiders can also perform a move called the "backward strike," Stafstrom explained, in which they reach their legs behind them and catch insects flying through the air.
"So here comes a flying bug and somehow the spider gets information on the sound direction and its distance. The spiders time the 200-millisecond leap if the fly is within its capture zone – much like an over-the-shoulder catch. The spider gets its prey. They're accurate," coauthor Ronald Hoy, the D & D Joslovitz Merksamer Professor in the Department of Neurobiology and Behavior in the College of Arts and Sciences, told the Cornell Chronicle.
What the researchers wanted to understand was how the spiders could tell what was moving behind them when they have no ears.
It isn't a question of peripheral vision. In a 2016 study, the same team blindfolded the spiders and sent them out to hunt, Science explained. This prevented the spiders from making their forward strikes, but they were still able to catch prey using the backwards strike. The researchers thought the spiders were "hearing" their prey with the sensors on the tips of their legs. All spiders have these sensors, but scientists had previously thought they were only able to detect vibrations through surfaces, not sounds in the air.
To test how well the ogre-faced spiders could actually hear, the researchers conducted a two-part experiment.
First, they inserted electrodes into removed spider legs and into the brains of intact spiders. They put the spiders and the legs into a vibration-proof booth and played sounds from two meters (approximately 6.5 feet) away. The spiders and the legs responded to sounds from 100 hertz to 10,000 hertz.
Next, they played the five sounds that had triggered the biggest response to 25 spiders in the wild and 51 spiders in the lab. More than half the spiders did the "backward strike" move when they heard sounds that have a lower frequency similar to insect wing beats. When the higher frequency sounds were played, the spiders did not move. This suggests the higher frequencies may mimic the sounds of predators like birds.
University of Cincinnati spider behavioral ecologist George Uetz told Science that the results were a "surprise" that indicated science has much to learn about spiders as a whole. Because all spiders have these receptors on their legs, it is possible that all spiders can hear. This theory was first put forward by Walcott 60 years ago, but was dismissed at the time, according to the Cornell Chronicle. But studies of other spiders have turned up further evidence since. A 2016 study found that a kind of jumping spider can pick up sonic vibrations in the air.
"We don't know diddly about spiders," Uetz told Science. "They are much more complex than people ever thought they were."
Learning more provides scientists with an opportunity to study their sensory abilities in order to improve technology like bio-sensors, directional microphones and visual processing algorithms, Stafstrom told CNN.
"The point is any understudied, underappreciated group has fascinating lives, even a yucky spider, and we can learn something from it," he told CNN.
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