B.C. Protest on May 5 to Stop Warren Buffett's BNSF Coal Trains
By Steve Horn
Warren Buffett, the third wealthiest man on the planet (net worth: $44 billion), often referred to as the "Oracle of Omaha," is the target of a May 5 action called for by Stop Coal B.C. Well, not Buffett directly, but a rail company he owns through his massive holding company, Berkshire Hathaway: Burlington Northern Santa Fe (BNSF) Railway.
BNSF Railway is the second largest freight rail company in the U.S. and the exclusive carrier of thermal coal from coal basins in the northwestern U.S. to docks in British Columbia, where the dirty coal is exported to the global market, primarily to Asia.
The action calls for activists to blockade BNSF's four coal-loaded freight trains from reaching their final destination for the day and in the process, risk arrest. It is part of 350.org's broader "Connect the Dots" event taking place on Saturday, with actions planned throughout the world.
The Stop Coal B.C. call to action reads,
We're doing this because we have to. The science is solid: if we don't get to work, within the decade we are going to run out of time to avoid runaway global warming. It's not enough any more just to go to rallies, write letters, and have dinner in the dark once a year. We're aware of what is at stake, and we have a moral obligation to do our best to stop the things that are destroying the planet.
We really don't want to spend the day on the tracks and risk arrest by stopping coal trains, but we're running out of options. We're forced to take this dramatic step to get government's attention, because in addition to ignoring the scientific warnings, they've refused to respond to our repeated requests for a public discussion on this issue.
We need a province-wide discussion about what is at risk for our families and communities, and how British Columbia can start working towards a healthy and secure future that is fair for all. We hope that discussion starts on May 5th.
The activists are planning to stop all loaded BNSF coal trains traveling in a northwest direction "that approach mile 122 (White Rock pier) on the New Westminster Subdivision, Northwest Division," explains a letter written directly to Warren Buffett from Stop Coal B.C. "From dawn to dusk on May 5th we will also stop all unloaded coal trains traveling [southeast] approaching mile 122."
Stop Coal B.C. also made it clear that they are attempting to stop the coal trains, not passenger rail trains, which they support as a way to remove cars from the road, moving in the direction of a society maximizing the use of public transit. When the Amtrak roles through, they will step off the tracks.
Also included in the call to action's letter to Buffett is a request of him to mandate that BNSF exit the business of coal transport:
Since we know what is at stake we feel a moral obligation to do what we can to help prevent this looming disaster. On Saturday May 5th that means stopping your coal trains from reaching our ports.
What we can't understand is why you allow your railway, Burlington Northern Santa Fe, to continue shipping vast amounts of U.S. coal out of Canadian ports to be burned in Asia. No matter where this coal is burned, it brings us closer to a climatic point of no return.
You are in many ways an important figure of conscience in the world. We appeal to you to seize this opportunity and make a bold decision on coal. With your support we can ensure a healthy future for our children and people around the world.
This is no small fight Stop Coal B.C. is waging, to say the least.
As they explained in a primer emailed to DeSmogBlog:
"Over twelve million tonnes of thermal coal was shipped out of the Port of Vancouver last year. Much of that is now coming from the United States’ Powder River Basin coal bed. Thermal coal from Wyoming and Montana’s Powder River Basin is also being shipped up to Ridley Terminal in Prince Rupert for export. Approximately two coal trains a day, each carrying roughly 13,000 tonnes of coal, cross our Washington State border en route to B.C. ports."
Coal use in the U.S., as Grist's David Roberts explained recently, is on the decline in the U.S.—mostly due to the domestic fracking boom—so coal mining companies need the global export market to keep afloat. DeSmogBlog's Ben Jervey recently tackled the topic, as well.
The ties that bind Buffett to King Coal go far above and beyond B.C., though.
Buffett also owns a major stake in coal-fired power plants, via another corporation held under the auspices of Berkshire Hathaway. Further, BNSF also transports tons of coal throughout the contiguous lower 48 in the U.S.
Buffett, King Coal and Obama
Buffett’s Berkshire Hathaway owns MidAmerican Energy and Burlington Northern Santa Fe. Burlington is a rail road and MidAmerican owns a utility that relies heavily on coal. MidAmerican Energy is the operator of a 1600 megawatt four unit coal-fired power plant in Council Bluffs, Iowa, commonly known as Walter Scott, Jr. Energy Center.
According to Sue Sturgis, “Coal’s ticking timebomb: Could disaster strike a coal ash dump near you?,” Institute for Southern Studies, January 4, 2009, Council Bluffs Energy Center was ranked 35th on the list of most polluting coal plant, with 1,092,320 pounds of coal combustion waste released to surface.
Author and journalist Jeff Biggers took his muckraking a step further in a March 2011 article titled, "All the President's (Coal) Men: Bill Gates, Warren Buffett and Obama's Wyoming Giveaway," unearthing the unholy alliance between Buffett, BNSF, Obama, Bill Gates and King Coal. He wrote,
President Obama needs to be called out for his less than transparent catering to his long-time billionaire and coal-profiteering friends.
Consider this: One month after jointly visiting Arch Coal's mammoth Black Thunder strip mine in Wyoming with a fleet of nine private jets, billionaires Bill Gates and Warren Buffett sat in President Obama's Oval Office on December 14th and discussed ways to improve the economy.
As the CEO of Berkshire Hathaway, Buffett understands the economics of coal better than anyone: He owns the Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railroad that transports most of Wyoming's vast coal supply around the country, along with the utility company, MidAmerican Energy, which operates 11 coal-fired power plants, including four in Wyoming.
The Buffett/Gates trip Biggers covered took place roughly one year after another key Buffett/Gates visit to the Alberta Tar Sands in August 2008, in which the two of them, according to an unidentified source, "took in the oilsands, apparently with awe."
"The Best Democracy Money Can Buy"
As covered in a recent investigation by DeSmogBlog, Buffett stands to make billions of dollars off of Alberta Tar Sands development, via BNSF's transport capacity, with or without the Keystone XL pipeline, a pipeline which has been at the center of the North American climate and energy debate.
Buffett also is a major contributor to Barack Obama, whose campaign is using the Buffett name frequently to raise cash for the 2012 election.
As of October 2011, Buffett has given more than $60,000 to the Democratic National Committee, which the Democratic Party uses to dole out to various Democratic candidates' electoral campaigns, according to the Center for Responsive Politics' Open Secrets database. He has given another $5,000 exclusively to President Barack Obama, also according to Open Secrets.
This is, of course, is the money that can be publicly tracked. Then there's the totally secret Super PAC money flowing into dark money fronts like Priorities USA Action, an after-product of the Citizens United U.S. Supreme Court decision.
For more information, click here.
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If weather is your mood, climate is your personality. That's an analogy some scientists use to help explain the difference between two words people often get mixed up.
Size Matters<p>Climates are a bit like woven tapestries. The big picture is important, no question. But so are all the seemingly minor details found inside the larger whole.</p><p><a href="https://research-information.bris.ac.uk/en/persons/tommaso-jucker" target="_blank">Tommaso Jucker</a> is an environmental scientist at the University of Bristol. In an email, Jucker says he'd define the term microclimate as "the suite of climatic conditions (temperature, rainfall, humidity, solar radiation) measured in localized areas, typically near the ground and at spatial scales that are directly relevant to ecological processes."</p><p>We'll talk about that last bit in a minute. But first, there's another criteria to discuss. According to some researchers, a microclimate — by definition — must differ from the larger area that surrounds it.</p><p><a href="https://www.cfc.umt.edu/research/paleoecologylab/publications/Davis_et_al_2019_Ecography.pdf" target="_blank">Forests</a> provide us with some great examples. "The climate near the ground in a tropical rainforest is dramatically different from the climate in the canopy 50 meters [164 feet] above," says University of Montana ecologist <a href="https://www.cfc.umt.edu/personnel/details.php?ID=1110" target="_blank">Solomon Dobrowski</a> in an email. "This vertical gradient among other factors allows for the staggering biodiversity we see in the tropics."</p><p>Likewise, scientists observed that a 2015 partial <a href="https://animals.howstuffworks.com/insects/bees-stopped-buzzing-during-2017-solar-eclipse.htm" target="_blank">solar eclipse</a> caused the air temperature of an Eastern European meadow to <a href="https://rmets.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/wea.2802" target="_blank">change more dramatically</a> than it did in a nearby forest. That's because trees provide not only shade, but their leaves also reflect solar radiation. At the same time, forests tend to reduce wind speeds.</p><p>All those factors add up. A 2019 review of 98 wooded places — spread out across five continents — found that forests are 7.2 degrees Fahrenheit (4 degrees Celsius) <a href="https://natureecoevocommunity.nature.com/posts/47363-forests-protect-animals-and-plants-against-warming" target="_blank">cooler on average</a> than the areas outside them.</p><p>Now if you hate the cold, don't worry; there's a cozy exception to the rule. According to that same study, forests are usually 1.8 degrees Fahrenheit (1 degree Celsius) warmer than the external environment during the wintertime. Pretty cool.</p>
A Bug's Life<p>When does a microclimate stop being, well, micro? In other words, is there a maximum size we should be aware of when discussing them?</p><p>Depends on who you ask. "In terms of horizontal scale, some have defined 'microclimate' as anything that is less than 100 meters [328 feet] in range," Jucker says. "I'm personally less prescriptive about this."</p><p>Instead, he says the "scale at which we want to measure [a particular] microclimate" ought to be "dictated" by the questions we're trying to answer.</p><p>"If I want to know how temperature affects the photosynthesis of a leaf, I should be measuring temperature at centimeter scale," Jucker explains. "If I want to know if and how temperature affects the habitat preference of a large, mobile mammal, it's probably more relevant to capture temperature variation across [tens to hundreds] of meters."</p><p>For instance, solitary plants have the power to generate itty-bitty microclimates. Just ask <a href="https://www.colorado.edu/geography/peter-blanken-0" target="_blank">Peter Blanken</a>, a geography professor at the University of Colorado, Boulder and the co-author of the 2016 book, "<a href="https://amzn.to/2XN6FT8" target="_blank">Microclimate and Local Climate</a>."</p>
The urban heat island effect is a good example of how microclimates work. NOAA
Microclimates on a Grand Scale<p>It's no secret that our planet is going through some rough times at the macro level. The global temperature is <a href="https://climate.nasa.gov/vital-signs/global-temperature/" target="_blank">climbing</a>; nine out of the <a href="https://www.noaa.gov/news/2019-was-2nd-hottest-year-on-record-for-earth-say-noaa-nasa" target="_blank">10 hottest years on record</a> have occurred since 2005. And by one recent estimate, roughly 1 million species around the world are <a href="https://ipbes.net/sites/default/files/2020-02/ipbes_global_assessment_report_summary_for_policymakers_en.pdf" target="_blank">facing extinction</a> due to human activities.</p><p>"One of the big questions that ecologists and environmental scientists are trying to answer right now is how will individual species and whole ecosystems respond to rapid climate change and habitat loss," says Jucker. "...To me, [microclimates are] a key component of this research — if we don't measure and understand climate at the appropriate scale, then predicting how things will change in the future becomes a lot harder."</p><p>Developers have long understood the impact small-scale climates have on our daily lives. <a href="https://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/green-science/urban-heat-island.htm#pt0" target="_blank">Urban heat islands</a> are cities that have higher temperatures than neighboring rural areas.</p><p>Plants release vapors that can moderate local climates. But in cities, natural greenery is often scarce. To make matters worse, plenty of our roads and buildings have a bad habit of absorbing or re-emitting heat from the sun. <a href="https://www.google.com/books/edition/Microclimate_and_Local_Climate/LHUZDAAAQBAJ?hl=en&gbpv=1&bsq=urban%20heat%20island" target="_blank">Vehicle emissions</a> don't exactly help the situation.</p><p>Still, it's not like Boston or Beijing are thermal monoliths. Sometimes, the documented temperatures <a href="https://e360.yale.edu/features/can-we-turn-down-the-temperature-on-urban-heat-islands" target="_blank">within a single city</a> vary by 15 to 20 degrees Fahrenheit (8.3 to 11.1 degrees Celsius).</p><p>That's where metro parks and city trees come in. They have nice cooling effects on nearby neighborhoods. "Several cities around the world have developed programs to increase urban green spaces," says Blanken. "Tree planting programs and green roof programs, have been shown to lower surface temperatures, decrease air pollution and decrease surface water runoff (urban flash-flooding) in urban areas."</p>
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<div id="ecf36" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="c2dcc9d48a6cd61f247df1544539a783"><blockquote class="twitter-tweet twitter-custom-tweet" data-twitter-tweet-id="1290959314132361216" data-partner="rebelmouse"><div style="margin:1em 0">Naming heatwaves is a good idea—making the abstract concrete, the invisible visible. Why should hurricanes and wild… https://t.co/hDWgYb79Ob</div> — Ed Maibach (@Ed Maibach)<a href="https://twitter.com/MaibachEd/statuses/1290959314132361216">1596623660.0</a></blockquote></div>
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