Is Drinking Apple Cider Vinegar in the Morning Beneficial?
It's unlikely that taking a swig of apple cider vinegar in the morning will significantly affect weight loss.
Q: Is drinking apple cider vinegar in water first thing in the morning good for cleansing and weight loss? If so, how much is recommended?
Countless tips and tricks on how to lose weight quickly and "cleanse" the body are circulating online. However, most of them are unsubstantiated and ineffective.
Taking a shot of apple cider vinegar in the morning on an empty stomach is one practice that many wellness gurus claim helps you lose weight, reduce hunger, and remove toxins from your system.
Although limited research suggests that vinegar may have a beneficial effect on hunger levels and body composition, results are far from conclusive. Plus, the majority of this research has taken place in animals, not humans.
A few human studies have shown that supplementing with apple cider vinegar may help suppress appetite and have a modest beneficial effect on weight loss. This is mainly attributed to acetic acid, a type of acid concentrated in apple cider vinegar that may have hunger-suppressing effects.
However, it's important to note that there's a lack of high quality human research in this area. While apple cider vinegar may slightly affect hunger levels, it's unlikely that drinking apple cider vinegar will have any meaningful effect on your waistline — unless, of course, it's combined with increased physical activity and healthy modifications to your diet.
Additionally, drinking apple cider vinegar can cause adverse side effects, such as tooth erosion and nausea.
What's more, there's no evidence to say that throwing back a drink containing apple cider vinegar will rid your body of toxins. Your body has an entire system dedicated to detoxification, and it does not depend on supplements for optimal functioning.
Lastly, there's no scientific evidence to suggest that taking apple cider vinegar in the morning is more beneficial than doing so at any other time of the day.
In closing, although it's unlikely that taking a swig of apple cider vinegar in the morning will significantly affect weight loss, it's generally harmless for most people. Just make sure to limit your daily dose to 1–2 tablespoons diluted in a glass of water and rinse your mouth with water afterward to prevent dental erosion.
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By Aaron W Hunter
A chance discovery of a beautifully preserved fossil in the desert landscape of Morocco has solved one of the great mysteries of biology and paleontology: how starfish evolved their arms.
The Pompeii of palaeontology. Aaron Hunter, Author provided<h2></h2><p>Although starfish might appear very robust animals, they are typically made up of lots of hard parts attached by ligaments and soft tissue which, upon death, quickly degrade. This means we rely on places like the Fezouata formations to provide snapshots of their evolution.</p><p>The starfish fossil record is patchy, especially at the critical time when many of these animal groups first appeared. Sorting out how each of the various types of ancient starfish relate to each other is like putting a puzzle together when many of the parts are missing.</p><h2>The Oldest Starfish</h2><p><em><a href="https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/216101v1.full.pdf" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Cantabrigiaster</a></em> is the most primitive starfish-like animal to be discovered in the fossil record. It was discovered in 2003, but it has taken over 17 years to work out its true significance.</p><p>What makes <em>Cantabrigiaster</em> unique is that it lacks almost all the characteristics we find in brittle stars and starfish.</p><p>Starfish and brittle stars belong to the family Asterozoa. Their ancestors, the Somasteroids were especially fragile - before <em>Cantabrigiaster</em> we only had a handful of specimens. The celebrated Moroccan paleontologist Mohamed <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2016.06.041" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Ben Moula</a> and his local team was instrumental in discovering <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0031018216302334?via%3Dihub" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">these amazing fossils</a> near the town of Zagora, in Morocco.</p><h2>The Breakthrough</h2><p>Our breakthrough moment came when I compared the arms of <em>Cantabrigiaster</em> with those of modern sea lilles, filter feeders with long feathery arms that tend to be attached to the sea floor by a stem or stalk.</p><p>The striking similarity between these modern filter feeders and the ancient starfish led our team from the University of Cambridge and Harvard University to create a new analysis. We applied a biological model to the features of all the current early Asterozoa fossils in existence, along with a sample of their closest relatives.</p>
Cantabrigiaster is the most primitive starfish-like animal to be discovered in the fossil record. Aaron Hunter, Author provided<p>Our results demonstrate <em>Cantabrigiaster</em> is the most primitive of all the Asterozoa, and most likely evolved from ancient animals called crinoids that lived 250 million years before dinosaurs. The five arms of starfish are a relic left over from these ancestors. In the case of <em>Cantabrigiaster</em>, and its starfish descendants, it evolved by flipping upside-down so its arms are face down on the sediment to feed.</p><p>Although we sampled a relatively small numbers of those ancestors, one of the unexpected outcomes was it provided an idea of how they could be related to each other. Paleontologists studying echinoderms are often lost in detail as all the different groups are so radically different from each other, so it is hard to tell which evolved first.</p>
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