Air Pollution Exposure Is Linked to Increased Violent Crime, Domestic Violence
Scientists have connected air pollution with a host of health issues — such as cancer, lung and heart diseases — that the World Health Organization says leads to more than 7 million premature deaths each year. But toxic air may also be driving a different type of public health issue: violent crime.
Sweeping new studies from researchers at Colorado State University and the University of Minnesota have found that across the U.S., short-term exposure to dirty air is strongly linked to an uptick in aggressive behavior in the form of aggravated assaults and domestic violence. The researchers noted that the risk of aggressive behavior increased even at air pollution levels below regulatory standards for breathability set by the EPA.
Published in the Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, the study examined eight years of daily crime data from the Federal Bureau of Investigation's National Incident Based Reporting System, air pollution data — for instance, smoke levels from wildfires — tracked by the Environmental Protection Agency and the Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and weather data from the PRISM Climate Group at Oregon State University.
Specifically, the researchers looked at two types of air pollution: a type of breathable particulate matter called PM2.5 and ozone exposure. According to ScienceDaily, the researchers found that increased same-day exposure to PM2.5 by as little as 10 micrograms per cubic meter was associated with a 1.4 percent increase in violent crimes. An increase of same-day exposure to ozone of .01 parts per million was associated with a nearly 1 percent increase in violent crime.
In the FBI database, 83 percent of the violent crimes were categorized as assaults and 56 percent of the violent crimes took place within the home, leading researchers to believe many were domestic violence incidents. They did not find a significant increase in property or other non-violent crimes associated with increased air pollution.
Put another way, a 10 percent increase in same-day exposure to PM2.5 was associated with a 0.14 percent increase in violent crime, while a similar increase in ozone exposure saw violent crimes climb by 0.3 percent, according to The Economist.
"We're talking about crimes that might not even be physical—you can assault someone verbally," co-author Jude Bayham said in a statement. "The story is, when you're exposed to more pollution, you become marginally more aggressive, so those altercations—some things that may not have escalated—do escalate."
This presents a significant burden for affected communities, considering that the number of Americans—4 in 10, according to the American Lung Association—now living with unhealthy levels of air pollution is on the rise.
"The results suggest that a 10% reduction in daily PM2.5 and ozone could save $1.4 billion in crime costs per year, a previously overlooked cost associated with pollution," the researchers wrote.
The researchers also found that the results were consistent across all types of communities in the study, regardless of racial diversity, age and prevailing socioeconomic status, according to Medical Xpress.
That said, while the studies did include nearly 400 counties across the U.S. and around 28 percent of the population, it only monitored areas where daily data could be reliably calculated, MarketWatch reported, leaving out counties in places like New York or California. The studies only showed a correlative relationship and did not look at physiological explanations for the effects of exposure, according to 9News..The studies build on other recent evidence linking pollution to crime as researchers are beginning to gain a better understanding of the many ways air pollution can be harmful on a personal and societal level. For instance, a study this month found that short-term increases in air pollution have been linked to increases in hospital visits for child psychiatric issues.
Even Small Spikes in Air Pollution Can Threaten Children’s Mental Health, Research Suggests - EcoWatch https://t.co/1UUfJve9FI— Cathie Bird (@Cathie Bird)1569677457.0
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Wisdom the mōlī, or Laysan albatross, is the oldest wild bird known to science at the age of at least 70. She is also, as of February 1, a new mother.
<div id="dadb2" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="aa2ad8cb566c9b4b6d2df2693669f6f9"><blockquote class="twitter-tweet twitter-custom-tweet" data-twitter-tweet-id="1357796504740761602" data-partner="rebelmouse"><div style="margin:1em 0">🚨Cute baby alert! Wisdom's chick has hatched!!! 🐣😍 Wisdom, a mōlī (Laysan albatross) and world’s oldest known, ban… https://t.co/Nco050ztBA</div> — USFWS Pacific Region (@USFWS Pacific Region)<a href="https://twitter.com/USFWSPacific/statuses/1357796504740761602">1612558888.0</a></blockquote></div>
By Hui Hu
Winter is supposed to be the best season for wind power – the winds are stronger, and since air density increases as the temperature drops, more force is pushing on the blades. But winter also comes with a problem: freezing weather.
Comparing rime ice and glaze ice shows how each changes the texture of the blade. Gao, Liu and Hu, 2021, CC BY-ND
Ice buildup changes air flow around the turbine blade, which can slow it down. The top photos show ice forming after 10 minutes at different temperatures in the Wind Research Tunnel. The lower measurements show airflow separation as ice accumulates. Icing Research Tunnel of Iowa State University, CC BY-ND
While traditional investment in the ocean technology sector has been tentative, growth in Israeli maritime innovations has been exponential in the last few years, and environmental concern has come to the forefront.
theDOCK aims to innovate the Israeli maritime sector. Pexels<p>The UN hopes that new investments in ocean science and technology will help turn the tide for the oceans. As such, this year kicked off the <a href="https://www.oceandecade.org/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">United Nations Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development (2021-2030)</a> to galvanize massive support for the blue economy.</p><p>According to the World Bank, the blue economy is the "sustainable use of ocean resources for economic growth, improved livelihoods, and jobs while preserving the health of ocean ecosystem," <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412019338255#b0245" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Science Direct</a> reported. It represents this new sector for investments and innovations that work in tandem with the oceans rather than in exploitation of them.</p><p>As recently as Aug. 2020, <a href="https://www.reutersevents.com/sustainability/esg-investors-slow-make-waves-25tn-ocean-economy" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Reuters</a> noted that ESG Investors, those looking to invest in opportunities that have a positive impact in environmental, social and governance (ESG) issues, have been interested in "blue finance" but slow to invest.</p><p>"It is a hugely under-invested economic opportunity that is crucial to the way we have to address living on one planet," Simon Dent, director of blue investments at Mirova Natural Capital, told Reuters.</p><p>Even with slow investment, the blue economy is still expected to expand at twice the rate of the mainstream economy by 2030, Reuters reported. It already contributes $2.5tn a year in economic output, the report noted.</p><p>Current, upward <a href="https://www.ecowatch.com/-innovation-blue-economy-2646147405.html" target="_self">shifts in blue economy investments are being driven by innovation</a>, a trend the UN hopes will continue globally for the benefit of all oceans and people.</p><p>In Israel, this push has successfully translated into investment in and innovation of global ports, shipping, logistics and offshore sectors. The "Startup Nation," as Israel is often called, has seen its maritime tech ecosystem grow "significantly" in recent years and expects that growth to "accelerate dramatically," <a href="https://itrade.gov.il/belgium-english/how-israel-is-becoming-a-port-of-call-for-maritime-innovation/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">iTrade</a> reported.</p><p>Driving this wave of momentum has been rising Israeli venture capital hub <a href="https://www.thedockinnovation.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">theDOCK</a>. Founded by Israeli Navy veterans in 2017, theDOCK works with early-stage companies in the maritime space to bring their solutions to market. The hub's pioneering efforts ignited Israel's maritime technology sector, and now, with their new fund, theDOCK is motivating these high-tech solutions to also address ESG criteria.</p><p>"While ESG has always been on theDOCK's agenda, this theme has become even more of a priority," Nir Gartzman, theDOCK's managing partner, told EcoWatch. "80 percent of the startups in our portfolio (for theDOCK's Navigator II fund) will have a primary or secondary contribution to environmental, social and governance (ESG) criteria."</p><p>In a company presentation, theDOCK called contribution to the ESG agenda a "hot discussion topic" for traditional players in the space and their boards, many of whom are looking to adopt new technologies with a positive impact on the planet. The focus is on reducing carbon emissions and protecting the environment, the presentation outlines. As such, theDOCK also explicitly screens candidate investments by ESG criteria as well.</p><p>Within the maritime space, environmental innovations could include measures like increased fuel and energy efficiency, better monitoring of potential pollution sources, improved waste and air emissions management and processing of marine debris/trash into reusable materials, theDOCK's presentation noted.</p>
theDOCK team includes (left to right) Michal Hendel-Sufa, Head of Alliances, Noa Schuman, CMO, Nir Gartzman, Co-Founder & Managing Partner, and Hannan Carmeli, Co-Founder & Managing Partner. Dudu Koren<p>theDOCK's own portfolio includes companies like Orca AI, which uses an intelligent collision avoidance system to reduce the probability of oil or fuel spills, AiDock, which eliminates the use of paper by automating the customs clearance process, and DockTech, which uses depth "crowdsourcing" data to map riverbeds in real-time and optimize cargo loading, thereby reducing trips and fuel usage while also avoiding groundings.</p><p>"Oceans are a big opportunity primarily because they are just that – big!" theDOCK's Chief Marketing Officer Noa Schuman summarized. "As such, the magnitude of their criticality to the global ecosystem, the magnitude of pollution risk and the steps needed to overcome those challenges – are all huge."</p><p>There is hope that this wave of interest and investment in environmentally-positive maritime technologies will accelerate the blue economy and ESG investing even further, in Israel and beyond.</p>
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