Because Price Matters: Most Affordable CBD Oils of 2021
If you've been wanting to try CBD oil but have been concerned about the price, know that not only can you purchase affordable CBD oil, but you also can purchase high quality CBD oil at those affordable prices.
It's been proven time and again that CBD is rapidly growing in popularity among people who want to try an alternative treatment to boost their general health or help treat their difficult health issues. Sadly, a great number of people hold off on purchasing CBD oil because of high prices that could potentially put a strain on an already stretched budget.
Our guide to the most affordable CBD oils will help you purchase the best quality products from the most reputable and affordable brands. Moreover, you will learn how and why we chose our top three brands as well as how CBD oil can best benefit your life.
But first, take a moment to learn about how we came up with our guidelines for selecting our top three brands. Not only will this criteria work great in helping you in your own research, it will also give you a jumping off point for knowing which brands to purchase from first.
The Guidelines For Our List
Today, there are countless brands that sell CBD products. Therefore, if you've never purchased CBD online before, there's a good chance that you might feel overwhelmed and frustrated with both trying to find the best brand as well as the best product. And if you're like most people, you will want to take some time to look into each brand that you're interested in. However, doing this might cause some undue stress and confusion as to where to start.
In researching brands, you'll want to look closely at the brand's reputation, the effectiveness of the products, the brand's ability to be transparent, and whether it used a third-party lab to frequently test all of its products, among other things. The good news is we've done most of the hard work. We've taken the time and put in the research so that you don't have a great path to begin your journey with CBD on.
The top three brands that we've selected based on our strict guidelines are the cleanest, most effective, potent, and most reputable and transparent brands out on the market today.
In our search to find the most affordable CBD oil, we looked closely at:
- How long the brand has been operating for
- The ingredients in the CBD oil
- Verified customer reviews
- If a third-party laboratory was used to regularly test all products
- Did the brand make those lab results easy for customers to find
- Where the hemp was sourced from
- Published articles by respected CBD journalists and niche experts
- The overall cleanness, potency, and purity of the oils
- The brand's reputation
- Product prices
In looking at all of these guidelines, we weren't surprised when our list began to get out of control. Therefore, we reset our focus and whittled our list down even further until we were left with our top picks for the most affordable CBD oils that you will find down below.
Top 3 Most Affordable CBD Oils
FAB CBD has been in the business of creating top-shelf, best CBD oils since 2017. The FAB CBD team has previous experience working in the health and wellness industries. Together, the team knows the very best ways to create clean, affordable, effective, high-quality oils without cutting any corners or skipping any steps along the way. FAB CBD is involved in the complete creation process from seed to sale, the brand also believes in transparency. As such FAB CBD uses an independent third-party laboratory to routinely test all of its products.
In order to confirm that its oils are potent and clean, FAB CBD uses innovation, science, and strict methods to bring its customers products that are pesticide-free, herbicide-free, chemical-free and free from other harmful substances. FAB CBD sources all of its organic hemp from Colorado.
Along with having top-quality products at affordable prices, FAB CBD frequently offers discounts through special sales throughout the year. Many customers have taken advantage of FAB CBD's sales by purchasing lots of their favorite products at reduced prices through either a special coupon code or through a set sale price.
FAB CBD is extremely transparent with its customers, has an affordable line of top-notch products, and runs a top-rated customer service department because the team at FAB CBD understands that happy, satisfied customers are an important key to the survival of the brand. Along with a stellar product line that continues to grow and evolve, FAB CBD offers a highly popular line of CBD oils in strengths of 300mg, 600mg, 1200mg, and 2400mg in mint, citrus, berry, vanilla, and natural flavors. In order to ensure that every product is high-quality, safe, and not laden with dangerous chemicals, uses ProVerde Labs to regularly test all of its products. Customers can then easily find those test results on the FAB CBD's website.
FAB Full Spectrum CBD Oils
- Where The Hemp Was Sourced From — All of FAB CBD's organic hemp from Colorado. All of the hemp is pesticide-free, herbicide-free, and devoid of harmful chemicals. FAB CBD uses the extremely clean Co2 extraction process to acquire its hemp extracts.
- Brand Reputation — FAB CBD has a strong reputation for being a solid brand. All of FAB CBD's products are extremely affordable, clean, potent, and effective. A host of verified customer reviews solidify our conclusions and also listed on the lists best CBD oil for pain and best CBD gummies.
- Reasonable Product Pricing — Even with all of the hard work, top quality ingredients, and cutting-edge technology that goes into the creation of its products, FAB CBD's full-spectrum oils are still reasonably priced. Customers are sure to get both an affordable and top-quality full-spectrum product when they purchase any one of FAB CBD's high-quality offerings. Moreover, FAB CBD regularly has special sales with coupon codes or established sale prices.
- Effectiveness — FAB CBD's products are both potent and effective. The team at FAB CBD works extremely hard to ensure that.
- Our Final Thoughts — Not only are FAB CBD's products affordable, but the brand is also our number one pick because its products are extremely clean, potent, and effective. The FAB CBD team is involved in every step of the creation process. The brand is also extremely transparent and also makes the results of its third-party lab tests easy for customers to find on its website.
Medterra is a relatively new brand on the market today. The founders of Medterra are on a mission to innovate in the field of CBD products. The brand is involved in the creation process from seed to sale. All of its industrial hemp is cultivated according to the guidelines of the Kentucky Department of Agriculture. Every product that Medterra creates is tested by a third-party laboratory. All reports can be found on the brand's website.
Medterra is in a partnership with the Hemp Pilot Research Program. Because of this, the brand can bring high quality products to all of its customers. According to the brand's website, the Medterra team has focused their lives to industrial farming methodologies, food-grade compound extraction, vegetable genetics, and quality control.
Medterra Broad Spectrum CBD Oils
Medterra creates a line of THC-free broad spectrum oils. The brand's broad spectrum tinctures utilize the full-plant hemp extract without any THC. The broad spectrum tinctures contain CBD along with other compounds such as CBG, CBN, CBC, CBDV, and natural terpenes. The brand also crafts a line of CBD oils in strengths of 500mg, 1,000mg, and 3,000mg.
- Where The Hemp Was Sourced From — As stated earlier, all of Medterra's organic hemp hails from Kentucky. The brand is also in a partnership with the Hemp Pilot Research Program in that state.
- Brand Reputation — Medterra is well-known for making organic, clean, affordable products that customers enjoy.
- Product Pricing — The brand's products appear to be extremely affordable.
- Effectiveness — Even though broad spectrum products are beneficial, it's been documented that more benefits can be obtained from full-spectrum CBD products. So, while Medterra's products are effective in their own way, the products might not be as effective as the full-spectrum products offered by other brands.
- Our Final Thoughts — Medterra is a solid brand that crafts quality CBD oils at affordable prices. The team at Medterra are involved in the creation process from seed to sale and do their best to ensure that customers know exactly what it is they are putting into their body. The brand uses an independent lab to test its products. All lab test results can be found on Medterra's website. While there are benefits to broad spectrum oils, it's been documented that there are more benefits with full-spectrum oils. To that end, Medterra only offers broad spectrum oil options.
Naternal's mission is to simply bring customers high-quality CBD-based hemp products while informing the world about hemp's benefits. The brand, based in North Carolina, dedicates itself to providing customers with the best quality and most affordable CBD hemp products on the market.
Naternal's line of CBD products includes oils, creams, and more. The brand's CBD-rich hemp oil is GMO-free and is devoid of pesticides, solvents, herbicides, or chemical fertilizers. Naternal uses a third-party lab to frequently test every product.
Naternal Full Spectrum Hemp Extracts
Naternal oils are affordable and are also of high quality. The brand strives to create potent, clean, affordable oils.
- Where The Hemp Was Sourced From — Naternal organic hemp is grown in North Carolina. It is free from pesticides, herbicides, and chemical fertilizers.
- Brand Reputation — Naternals is known for making the most affordable, high quality CBD products.
- Product Pricing — Naternal is one of the most affordable, strong CBD oil brands available online.
- Effectiveness — According to verified customer reviews, Naternal does craft an effective line of full-spectrum oils.
- Our Final Thoughts — Naternal works hard to craft clean, potent, and affordable full-spectrum oils in a selection of flavors and strengths. The brand uses an independent lab to test all of its products. Customers can easily find those results on the brand's website.
What Are Affordable CBD Oils?
With all the CBD brands that are out on the market today, it's guaranteed that the prices of oils will vary between them all. Most people are mistakenly under the assumption that affordable oils are inferior oils. This simply is not true. It is possible to purchase affordable CBD oils that are also of superior quality and that are clean, organic, potent, and effective.
There are certain criteria that help to decide both the quality as well as the price of CBD oils. Those are potency, extraction method, hemp source, and independent third-party lab testing.
Potency — How much CBD is in a tincture will determine how strong it is. The more CBD there is per milliliter in a product, the more potent the tincture will be. The strength and potency of the product you choose should be determined by what you are trying to accomplish with it. For example, if you have extreme pain from a chronic health condition, you will want a stronger, more potent CBD oil. Conversely, if you're only wanting to support your general health, then you will want to go with a lower strength.
Extraction Method — There are a few methods in which CBD is extracted out of the hemp plant. Those methods include steam distillation, ethanol (solvent) extraction, Co2 extraction, and hydrocarbon extraction. Out of all of these methods, Co2 extraction is the cleanest and most effective because it pulls out higher levels of CBD from the hemp plant. Lastly, of all the methods mentioned, hydrocarbon extraction is the least preferred because it deposits dangerous toxins in the final product.
Hemp Sources — CBD comes from the hemp and marijuana plants. The overall quality of the hemp will have a large role in determining how much a product costs. Organic hemp that is clean and pesticide-free, herbicide-free, and chemical-free produces the highest quality CBD oils. CBD brands that use organic hemp will have products that are slightly more expensive than brands that use hemp that is not carefully crafted to be of the best quality.
Independent Third-Party Lab Testing — Before you purchase any type of CBD product, you should look on the brand's website to see if you can find independent third-party lab test reports. Even though you are purchasing affordable CBD, you should still know what you are putting into your body. The lab tests will confirm the safety and potency of the products you are purchasing.
Is It Safe To Purchase Affordable CBD Oils?
Even though it's quite simple to shop online and purchase CBD oil, you should consider the safety, potency, and effectiveness of the oil before spending money on any products. One way to find out more about the products you wish to purchase is read through independent lab reports. These reports offer a host of valuable information about the product that will help you make an informed decision before buying. Only in taking the time to do the proper research will you know if it is safe to purchase an affordable oil from any particular brand.
The extraction process that the brand uses is also key to oil safety. Full-spectrum CBD products contain beneficial cannabinoid compounds. Two of the main compounds are cannabidiol, or CBD, and tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC. While CBD will not cause any feelings of euphoria, THC will. All full-spectrum CBD oils must legally contain less than 0.3% THC. Therefore, full-spectrum oils do not have any euphoric side effects. There are many ways to extract CBD from hemp and marijuana plants. It's important to know how the oil was extracted in order to ensure that you do not purchase a CBD oil that is laden with toxins.
So while it might be tempting to purchase cheap CBD oils, it's better to buy affordable oils from reputable brands instead of cheap oils from brands that potentially cut corners and use inferior ingredients as well as less preferred extraction methods that leave toxins in the extracts.
Guidelines For Buying Affordable CBD Oils
Before you purchase affordable CBD oils, there are a few guidelines that you should follow in order to ensure that you are getting a clean, potent, top-notch product. Some of those guidelines are as follows:
- Only purchase CBD oils from a respected brand. If you find a brand that piques your interest, spend some time researching the brand. Learn how the brand started, who founded it, what the brand's mission is, how the products are made, whether an independent lab was used to test products, whether the lab reports are easy for customers to find, and if the brand has a solid customer service department, among other things.
- Look to the internet as a resource to help you find a reputable brand with high-quality, affordable products. Any reputable brand will have a trustworthy e-commerce system and will also ship your purchase directly to you. A brand's website is a wonderful place to read about CBD, learn more about the company, read up on its oils, and possibly find out how much of the brand's oil you can take to start.
CBD, The Endocannabinoid System, And The Entourage Effect
The Entourage Effect
Full-spectrum CBD oils contain a host of beneficial compounds, phytonutrients, and terpenes. Two of the main cannabinoid compounds are cannabidiol, or CBD, and tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC. When these compounds combine with each other, they produce an entourage effect. In the entourage effect, the compounds bring down each other's negative side effects while elevating each other's positive side effects. For example, sometimes too much THC causes nausea. Since it's legally required to have less than 0.3% THC in all full-spectrum products, the cannabidiol in the tincture is able to effectively work with the THC to decrease or eliminate that side effect. Therefore, you will be able to have effective pain relief without any worry about getting nauseous.
The Endocannabinoid System
Every human has an endocannabinoid system that works to regulate bodily functions and sensations. In that endocannabinoid system are two receptors, CB1 and CB2. The CB1 receptors that are found throughout the body work to regulate pain, emotion, movement, thinking, appetite, memories, and other functions. The CB2 receptors that are located within the immune system work to regulate inflammation and pain. When a full-spectrum oil enters into the body, THC will latch onto the CB1 receptors while CBD will attach itself to both the CB1 and CB2 receptors to help the body create its own endocannabinoids.
Benefits, Dosing, And Safety
Multiple research studies have effectively proven that CBD can help with issues such as:
When it comes to figuring out the best dose to take, it's important to understand that there is not one set dose that will work the best for everyone. Everybody is different, therefore everyone's body responds differently to CBD.
Lower strength oils such as 300mg and 500mg work well for general health and minor issues. However, higher strengths such as 1200mg and 2400mg work best for more difficult health issues and more intense symptoms.
When you're ready to take your first dose, always remember to start low and go slow. The best guidelines to follow are to begin with 5ml, or half a dropper full once a day for one week. After a week has elapsed, do a full-body check-in to see how you're feeling. If you aren't achieving your desired effect, then bump up the dosage to 5ml, or half a dropper full twice a day for one week. This comes to 10mg a day. After one week, increase again if needed. Remember, your body needs time to adjust to both the CBD as well as the dosage.
When compared to prescription medications, CBD comes with very few side effects. Moreover, those side effects are extremely mild. If you have concerns about how CBD will interact with your medications or other holistic supplements, then please call your doctor, specialist, or pharmacist.
Some common side effects of CBD are:
- Changes in Appetite
- Mild nausea
If you're taking prescription medication, then you might be familiar with the Grapefruit Rule. Put simply, the rule states that some medications cannot be taken with grapefruit or other citrus fruits and juices. CBD functions in very much the same way. Some medications, when combined with grapefruit, other citrus fruits, or CBD will cause a dramatic change in the way that your body metabolizes medications. Medication will either be metabolized too slowly, where you will not receive enough of the medication into your system, or too quickly, where you will receive too much medication into your system. Too much medication in your system is dangerous and has the potential to cause extreme side effects or even an overdose. Not enough medication in your system will cause health conditions to not be treated effectively.
If you're not able to take CBD oil, there are other options. Keep in mind that CBD salves, lotions, and other topical creams are another great alternative. However, in thinking about all of the dangerous side effects that stem from long-term use of prescription medication, CBD is a wonderful alternative treatment overall. As stated before, numerous studies confirm CBD's effectiveness in helping to treat anxiety, depression, chronic pain, nerve issues, insomnia, and many other health/medical conditions.
Our Final Thoughts On Our Most Affordable CBD Oils List
There is a huge difference between purchasing an affordable CBD oil and purchasing a cheap CBD oil. While cheap CBD oils may feel better to your wallet, there's no guarantee that they will be clean, safe, or effective. You can still purchase high-quality, affordable, top-shelf oils from reputable brands.
Before you purchase any products, remember to take some time to do your research. If you find a brand that you're interested in, dig deeply on the brand's website for its backstory, independent third-party lab test results, and verified customer reviews. Only then will you know if you will be putting the best, purest, most effective oil into your body.
Growing, harvesting, and extraction methods make a huge difference as well. If an oil is not extracted from hemp that's organic, pesticide free, chemical-free, and herbicide-free, then you run the risk of putting dangerous chemicals into your body. Likewise, if an oil is not made with the clean, industry-preferred Co2 extraction process, then chances are, there might be chemicals lingering around inside the final product.
Always read through independent third-party lab tests for any and every product that you're interested in. Only then will you know how safe, potent, and clean the product is. Furthermore, the brand you are interested in should make it easy for customers to find those lab results on its website. A huge red flag should raise for you if you find a brand that does not use an independent laboratory to frequently test every product. Likewise, if you have a difficult time locating the lab results, that might be another issue to consider.
Also, as with any business, word of mouth is pure gold. Reading through verified customer reviews will allow you to get a feel for the brand, its customer services, and overall opinions on the brand's products.
Brand transparency is also key. A reputable brand will not try to hide anything from you and will post a wealth of information on its website for anyone and everyone to read. The simple act of reading through a brand's website should give you most all of the information you need to know so that you can make a well-informed decision about purchasing products from them.
Remember, not all brands are created equal. Just because a product is cheap, does not mean that it is of high quality. Affordable is the best option over cheap every time. If you're feeling overwhelmed and confused as to where to begin your research for the most affordable CBD oils, then our article is a great place to start. As previously stated, FAB CBD is our top pick for affordable CBD oils because not only is the brand transparent, it's products are also top-shelf, clean, potent, and extremely affordable. In fact, FAB CBD regularly has sales offering its customers a specified percentage of its products. All of FAB's products are routinely tested by ProVerde Lab, an independent third-party laboratory. All lab results are then posted on the brand's website where customers can easily access them..
Lastly, if you are still on the fence about purchasing an affordable CBD oil, don't ever hesitate to call your doctor, specialist, or pharmacist to discuss your questions and concerns. CBD oil has the potential to greatly boost up your holistic supplement regimen. The only thing left to do is to check out our top three brands to get started on your CBD oil journey.
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By Eric Tate and Christopher Emrich
Disasters stemming from hazards like floods, wildfires, and disease often garner attention because of their extreme conditions and heavy societal impacts. Although the nature of the damage may vary, major disasters are alike in that socially vulnerable populations often experience the worst repercussions. For example, we saw this following Hurricanes Katrina and Harvey, each of which generated widespread physical damage and outsized impacts to low-income and minority survivors.
Mapping Social Vulnerability<p>Figure 1a is a typical map of social vulnerability across the United States at the census tract level based on the Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) algorithm of <a href="https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/1540-6237.8402002" target="_blank"><em>Cutter et al.</em></a> . Spatial representation of the index depicts high social vulnerability regionally in the Southwest, upper Great Plains, eastern Oklahoma, southern Texas, and southern Appalachia, among other places. With such a map, users can focus attention on select places and identify population characteristics associated with elevated vulnerabilities.</p>
Fig. 1. (a) Social vulnerability across the United States at the census tract scale is mapped here following the Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI). Red and pink hues indicate high social vulnerability. (b) This bivariate map depicts social vulnerability (blue hues) and annualized per capita hazard losses (pink hues) for U.S. counties from 2010 to 2019.<p>Many current indexes in the United States and abroad are direct or conceptual offshoots of SoVI, which has been widely replicated [e.g., <a href="https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13753-016-0090-9" target="_blank"><em>de Loyola Hummell et al.</em></a>, 2016]. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) <a href="https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/placeandhealth/svi/index.html" target="_blank">has also developed</a> a commonly used social vulnerability index intended to help local officials identify communities that may need support before, during, and after disasters.</p><p>The first modeling and mapping efforts, starting around the mid-2000s, largely focused on describing spatial distributions of social vulnerability at varying geographic scales. Over time, research in this area came to emphasize spatial comparisons between social vulnerability and physical hazards [<a href="https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-009-9376-1" target="_blank"><em>Wood et al.</em></a>, 2010], modeling population dynamics following disasters [<a href="https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11111-008-0072-y" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer"><em>Myers et al.</em></a>, 2008], and quantifying the robustness of social vulnerability measures [<a href="https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-012-0152-2" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer"><em>Tate</em></a>, 2012].</p><p>More recent work is beginning to dissolve barriers between social vulnerability and environmental justice scholarship [<a href="https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2018.304846" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer"><em>Chakraborty et al.</em></a>, 2019], which has traditionally focused on root causes of exposure to pollution hazards. Another prominent new research direction involves deeper interrogation of social vulnerability drivers in specific hazard contexts and disaster phases (e.g., before, during, after). Such work has revealed that interactions among drivers are important, but existing case studies are ill suited to guiding development of new indicators [<a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2015.09.013" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer"><em>Rufat et al.</em></a>, 2015].</p><p>Advances in geostatistical analyses have enabled researchers to characterize interactions more accurately among social vulnerability and hazard outcomes. Figure 1b depicts social vulnerability and annualized per capita hazard losses for U.S. counties from 2010 to 2019, facilitating visualization of the spatial coincidence of pre‑event susceptibilities and hazard impacts. Places ranked high in both dimensions may be priority locations for management interventions. Further, such analysis provides invaluable comparisons between places as well as information summarizing state and regional conditions.</p><p>In Figure 2, we take the analysis of interactions a step further, dividing counties into two categories: those experiencing annual per capita losses above or below the national average from 2010 to 2019. The differences among individual race, ethnicity, and poverty variables between the two county groups are small. But expressing race together with poverty (poverty attenuated by race) produces quite different results: Counties with high hazard losses have higher percentages of both impoverished Black populations and impoverished white populations than counties with low hazard losses. These county differences are most pronounced for impoverished Black populations.</p>
Fig. 2. Differences in population percentages between counties experiencing annual per capita losses above or below the national average from 2010 to 2019 for individual and compound social vulnerability indicators (race and poverty).<p>Our current work focuses on social vulnerability to floods using geostatistical modeling and mapping. The research directions are twofold. The first is to develop hazard-specific indicators of social vulnerability to aid in mitigation planning [<a href="https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-020-04470-2" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer"><em>Tate et al.</em></a>, 2021]. Because natural hazards differ in their innate characteristics (e.g., rate of onset, spatial extent), causal processes (e.g., urbanization, meteorology), and programmatic responses by government, manifestations of social vulnerability vary across hazards.</p><p>The second is to assess the degree to which socially vulnerable populations benefit from the leading disaster recovery programs [<a href="https://doi.org/10.1080/17477891.2019.1675578" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer"><em>Emrich et al.</em></a>, 2020], such as the Federal Emergency Management Agency's (FEMA) <a href="https://www.fema.gov/individual-disaster-assistance" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Individual Assistance</a> program and the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development's Community Development Block Grant (CDBG) <a href="https://www.hudexchange.info/programs/cdbg-dr/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Disaster Recovery</a> program. Both research directions posit social vulnerability indicators as potential measures of social equity.</p>
Social Vulnerability as a Measure of Equity<p>Given their focus on social marginalization and economic barriers, social vulnerability indicators are attracting growing scientific interest as measures of inequity resulting from disasters. Indeed, social vulnerability and inequity are related concepts. Social vulnerability research explores the differential susceptibilities and capacities of disaster-affected populations, whereas social equity analyses tend to focus on population disparities in the allocation of resources for hazard mitigation and disaster recovery. Interventions with an equity focus emphasize full and equal resource access for all people with unmet disaster needs.</p><p>Yet newer studies of inequity in disaster programs have documented troubling disparities in income, race, and home ownership among those who <a href="https://eos.org/articles/equity-concerns-raised-in-federal-flood-property-buyouts" target="_blank">participate in flood buyout programs</a>, are <a href="https://www.eenews.net/stories/1063477407" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">eligible for postdisaster loans</a>, receive short-term recovery assistance [<a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2020.102010" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer"><em>Drakes et al.</em></a>, 2021], and have <a href="https://www.texastribune.org/2020/08/25/texas-natural-disasters--mental-health/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">access to mental health services</a>. For example, a recent analysis of federal flood buyouts found racial privilege to be infused at multiple program stages and geographic scales, resulting in resources that disproportionately benefit whiter and more urban counties and neighborhoods [<a href="https://doi.org/10.1177/2378023120905439" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer"><em>Elliott et al.</em></a>, 2020].</p><p>Investments in disaster risk reduction are largely prioritized on the basis of hazard modeling, historical impacts, and economic risk. Social equity, meanwhile, has been far less integrated into the considerations of public agencies for hazard and disaster management. But this situation may be beginning to shift. Following the adage of "what gets measured gets managed," social equity metrics are increasingly being inserted into disaster management.</p><p>At the national level, FEMA has <a href="https://www.fema.gov/news-release/20200220/fema-releases-affordability-framework-national-flood-insurance-program" target="_blank">developed options</a> to increase the affordability of flood insurance [Federal Emergency Management Agency, 2018]. At the subnational scale, Puerto Rico has integrated social vulnerability into its CDBG Mitigation Action Plan, expanding its considerations of risk beyond only economic factors. At the local level, Harris County, Texas, has begun using social vulnerability indicators alongside traditional measures of flood risk to introduce equity into the prioritization of flood mitigation projects [<a href="https://www.hcfcd.org/Portals/62/Resilience/Bond-Program/Prioritization-Framework/final_prioritization-framework-report_20190827.pdf?ver=2019-09-19-092535-743" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer"><em>Harris County Flood Control District</em></a>, 2019].</p><p>Unfortunately, many existing measures of disaster equity fall short. They may be unidimensional, using single indicators such as income in places where underlying vulnerability processes suggest that a multidimensional measure like racialized poverty (Figure 2) would be more valid. And criteria presumed to be objective and neutral for determining resource allocation, such as economic loss and cost-benefit ratios, prioritize asset value over social equity. For example, following the <a href="http://www.cedar-rapids.org/discover_cedar_rapids/flood_of_2008/2008_flood_facts.php" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">2008 flooding</a> in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, cost-benefit criteria supported new flood protections for the city's central business district on the east side of the Cedar River but not for vulnerable populations and workforce housing on the west side.</p><p>Furthermore, many equity measures are aspatial or ahistorical, even though the roots of marginalization may lie in systemic and spatially explicit processes that originated long ago like redlining and urban renewal. More research is thus needed to understand which measures are most suitable for which social equity analyses.</p>
Challenges for Disaster Equity Analysis<p>Across studies that quantify, map, and analyze social vulnerability to natural hazards, modelers have faced recurrent measurement challenges, many of which also apply in measuring disaster equity (Table 1). The first is clearly establishing the purpose of an equity analysis by defining characteristics such as the end user and intended use, the type of hazard, and the disaster stage (i.e., mitigation, response, or recovery). Analyses using generalized indicators like the CDC Social Vulnerability Index may be appropriate for identifying broad areas of concern, whereas more detailed analyses are ideal for high-stakes decisions about budget allocations and project prioritization.</p>
By Jessica Corbett
Sen. Bernie Sanders on Tuesday was the lone progressive to vote against Tom Vilsack reprising his role as secretary of agriculture, citing concerns that progressive advocacy groups have been raising since even before President Joe Biden officially nominated the former Obama administration appointee.