9 Diet and Lifestyle Changes That Can Keep Your Hormones in Balance and Help You Lose Weight
Your weight is largely controlled by hormones.
Here are nine ways to “fix" the hormones that control your weight.
Insulin is a hormone produced by the beta cells of your pancreas.
It's secreted in small amounts throughout the day and in larger amounts after meals.
Insulin allows your cells to take in blood sugar for energy or storage, depending on what is needed at the time.
Insulin is also the main fat storage hormone in the body. It tells fat cells to store fat and prevents stored fat from being broken down.
When cells are insulin resistant (very common), both blood sugar and insulin levels go up significantly.
Here are some tips to normalize insulin levels and improve insulin sensitivity:
- Avoid or minimize sugar: High amounts of fructose and sucrose promote insulin resistance and raise insulin levels (10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15).
- Reduce carbohydrates: A low-carb diet can cause an immediate drop in insulin levels (16, 17, 18, 19).
- Fill up on protein: Protein actually raises insulin in the short-term. However, it should lead to long-term reductions in insulin resistance by helping you lose belly fat (20, 21).
- Include plenty of healthy fats: Omega-3 fats found in fatty fish can help lower fasting insulin levels (22).
- Exercise regularly: Overweight women who walked briskly or jogged had an improvement in insulin sensitivity after 14 weeks in one study (23, 24, 25).
- Get enough magnesium: Insulin resistant people are often low in magnesium and magnesium supplements can improve insulin sensitivity (26, 27, 28).
Bottom Line: Insulin is the main fat storage hormone in the body. Reducing sugar intake, cutting carbs and exercise are the best ways to lower insulin levels.
Leptin is produced by your fat cells.
It's considered a “satiety hormone" that reduces appetite and makes you feel full.
As a signaling hormone, its role is to communicate with the hypothalamus, the portion of your brain that regulates appetite and food intake.
Leptin tells the brain that there's enough fat in storage and no more is needed, which helps prevent overeating.
People who are overweight or obese usually have very high levels of leptin in their blood. In fact, one study found that leptin levels in obese people were four times higher than in people of normal weight (31).
If leptin reduces appetite, then obese people with high levels of leptin should start eating less and lose weight.
Unfortunately, in obesity the leptin system doesn't work as it should. This is referred to as leptin resistance.
In essence, your brain thinks it is starving, so you're driven to eat.
Leptin levels are also reduced when you lose weight, which is one of the main reasons it is so hard to maintain weight loss in the long-term. The brain thinks you are starving and pushes you to eat more (34, 35, 36).
Here are a few suggestions for improving leptin sensitivity:
- Avoid inflammatory foods: Limit foods that cause inflammation, especially sugary drinks and trans fats.
- Get enough sleep: Studies have shown that insufficient sleep leads to a drop in leptin levels and increased appetite (46, 47).
- Supplements: In one study, women on a weight-loss diet who took alpha-lipoic acid and fish oil lost more weight and had a smaller decrease in leptin than those in a control group (48).
Bottom Line: People with obesity tend to be resistant to the effects of leptin. Consuming anti-inflammatory foods, exercising and getting enough sleep may improve leptin sensitivity.
Ghrelin is known as a “hunger hormone."
When your stomach is empty, it releases ghrelin, which sends a message to the hypothalamus telling you to eat (49).
Normally, ghrelin levels are highest before eating and lowest about an hour after you've had a meal.
Studies have also shown that after obese people eat a meal, ghrelin only decreases slightly. Because of this, the hypothalamus doesn't receive as strong of a signal to stop eating, which can lead to overeating (52).
Here are a few tips to improve the function of ghrelin:
- Sugar: Avoid high-fructose corn syrup and sugar-sweetened drinks, which can impair ghrelin response after meals (53, 54).
- Protein: Eating protein at every meal, especially breakfast, can reduce ghrelin levels and promote satiety (55, 56, 57, 58).
Bottom Line: Eating plenty of protein and avoiding foods and beverages high in sugar can help optimize ghrelin levels.
Cortisol is a hormone produced by the adrenal glands.
It's known as a “stress hormone" because it's released when your body senses stress.
However, a strict diet can also raise cortisol. In one study, women who consumed a low-calorie diet had higher cortisol levels and reported feeling more stressed than women who ate a normal diet (62).
These strategies can reduce cortisol levels:
- Balanced diet: Follow a balanced, real food-based diet. Don't cut calories to extremely low levels.
- Meditate: Practicing meditation can significantly reduce cortisol production (63).
- Listen to music:. Researchers report that when soothing music is played during medical procedures, cortisol doesn't rise as much (64, 65).
- Sleep more: One study found that when pilots lost 15 hours of sleep over the course of a week, their cortisol levels increased by 50-80 percent (66).
Bottom Line: High cortisol levels can increase food intake and promote weight gain. Eating a balanced diet, managing stress and sleeping more can help normalize cortisol production.
Estrogen is the most important female sex hormone.
It is mainly produced by the ovaries and is involved in regulating the female reproductive system.
Both very high and low levels of estrogen can lead to weight gain. This depends on age, action of other hormones and overall state of health.
To maintain fertility during the reproductive years, estrogen starts promoting fat storage at puberty (67).
Obese women tend to have higher estrogen levels than normal weight women and some researchers believe this is due to environmental influences (68).
During menopause, when estrogen levels drop because less is produced in the ovaries, the site for fat storage shifts from the hips and thighs to visceral fat in the abdomen. This promotes insulin resistance and increases disease risk (69, 70).
These nutrition and lifestyle strategies can help manage estrogen:
- Cruciferous vegetables: Eating cruciferous vegetables may have beneficial effects on estrogen (74, 75).
- Flax seeds: Although the phytoestrogens in them are controversial, flax seeds appear to have beneficial effects on estrogen in most women (76, 77).
- Exercise: Physical activity can help normalize estrogen levels in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women (78, 79).
Bottom Line: When estrogen levels are too high or low, weight gain may occur. This depends on age and other hormonal factors.
6. Neuropeptide Y (NPY)
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a hormone produced by cells in the brain and nervous system.
Recommendations for lowering NPY:
- Eat enough protein: Eating too little protein has been shown to increase release of NPY, which leads to hunger, increased food intake and weight gain (85).
- Don't fast for too long: Animal studies have demonstrated that very long fasts, such as more than 24 hours, can dramatically increase NPY levels (86, 87, 88).
- Soluble fiber: Eating plenty of soluble prebiotic fiber to feed the friendly bacteria in the gut may reduce NPY levels (89).
Bottom Line: Neuropeptide Y (NPY) stimulates hunger, particularly during fasting and times of stress. Protein and soluble fiber can help lower NPY.
7. Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1)
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a hormone produced in your gut when nutrients enter the intestines.
GLP-1 plays a major role in keeping blood sugar levels stable and also makes you feel full.
Researchers believe the decrease in appetite that occurs immediately after weight loss surgery is partly due to increased production of GLP-1 (90).
In one study, men who were given a GLP-1 solution with breakfast reported feeling more satisfied and ended up eating 12 percent fewer calories at lunch (91).
Suggestions to increase GLP-1:
- Eat plenty of protein: High-protein foods like fish, whey protein and yogurt have been shown to increase GLP-1 levels and improve insulin sensitivity (92, 93, 94).
- Eat anti-inflammatory foods: Chronic inflammation is linked to reduced GLP-1 production (95).
- Leafy greens: In one study, women who consumed leafy green vegetables like spinach and kale experienced higher GLP-1 levels and lost more weight than the control group (96).
- Probiotics: In an animal study, a probiotic supplement increased GLP-1 levels, which led to a reduction in food intake (97).
Bottom Line: GLP-1 can decrease appetite and increase weight loss. Consuming a diet high in protein and greens can help boost your levels.
8. Cholecystokinin (CCK)
Strategies to increase CCK:
- Protein: Eat plenty of protein at every meal (102).
- Healthy fat: Eating fat triggers the release of CCK (103).
- Fiber: In one study, when men ate a meal containing beans, their CCK levels rose twice as much as when they consumed a low-fiber meal (104).
Bottom Line: CCK is a hormone that reduces appetite and is produced when you eat protein, fat and fiber.
9. Peptide YY (PYY)
Peptide YY (PYY) is another gut hormone that controls appetite.
It is released by cells in the intestines and colon.
Strategies to increase PYY:
- Lower-carb diet: You should eat a lower-carb diet based on unprocessed foods in order to keep blood sugar levels stable. Elevated blood sugar may impair PYY's effects (58, 107, 108).
Bottom Line: In order to increase PPY levels and reduce appetite, try avoiding processed carbohydrates and eating plenty of protein and fiber.
10. Anything Else?
Hormones work together to increase or decrease appetite and fat storage.
If the system doesn't work properly, you may find yourself struggling with weight issues on an ongoing basis.
Fortunately, diet and lifestyle changes can have powerful effects on these hormones.
This article was reposted from our media associate Authority Nutrition.
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1. Stay Informed<p>A first order of business in pet evacuation planning is to understand and be ready for the possible threats in your area. Visit <a href="https://www.ready.gov/be-informed" target="_blank">Ready.gov</a> to learn more about preparing for potential disasters such as floods, hurricanes, and wildfires. Then pay attention to related updates by tuning <a href="http://www.weather.gov/nwr/" target="_blank">NOAA Weather Radio</a> to your local emergency station or using the <a href="https://www.fema.gov/mobile-app" target="_blank">FEMA app</a> to get National Weather Service alerts.</p>
2. Ensure Your Pet is Easily Identifiable<p><span>Household pets, including indoor cats, should wear collars with ID tags that have your mobile phone number. </span><a href="https://www.avma.org/microchipping-animals-faq" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Microchipping</a><span> your pets will also improve your chances of reunion should you become separated. Be sure to add an emergency contact for friends or relatives outside your immediate area.</span></p><p>Additionally, use <a href="https://secure.aspca.org/take-action/order-your-pet-safety-pack" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">'animals inside' door/window stickers</a> to show rescue workers how many pets live there. (If you evacuate with your pets, quickly write "Evacuated" on the sticker so first responders don't waste time searching for them.)</p>
3. Make a Pet Evacuation Plan<p> "No family disaster plan is complete without including your pets and all of your animals," says veterinarian Heather Case in <a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q9NRJkFKAm4" target="_blank">a video</a> produced by the American Veterinary Medical Association.</p><p>It's important to determine where to take your pet in the event of an emergency.</p><p>Red Cross shelters and many other emergency shelters allow only service animals. Ask your vet, local animal shelters, and emergency management officials for information on local and regional animal sheltering options.</p><p>For those with access to the rare shelter that allows pets, CDC offers <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/healthypets/emergencies/pets-in-evacuation-centers.html" target="_blank">tips on what to expect</a> there, including potential health risks and hygiene best practices.</p><p>Beyond that, talk with family or friends outside the evacuation area about potentially hosting you and/or your pet if you're comfortable doing so. Search for pet-friendly hotel or boarding options along key evacuation routes.</p><p>If you have exotic pets or a mix of large and small animals, you may need to identify multiple locations to shelter them.</p><p>For other household pets like hamsters, snakes, and fish, the SPCA recommends that if they normally live in a cage, they should be transported in that cage. If the enclosure is too big to transport, however, transfer them to a smaller container temporarily. (More on that <a href="https://www.spcai.org/take-action/emergency-preparedness/evacuation-how-to-be-pet-prepared" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">here</a>.)</p><p>For any pet, a key step is to establish who in your household will be the point person for gathering up pets and bringing their supplies. Keep in mind that you may not be home when disaster strikes, so come up with a Plan B. For example, you might form a buddy system with neighbors with pets, or coordinate with a trusted pet sitter.</p>
4. Prepare a Pet Evacuation Kit<p>Like the emergency preparedness kit you'd prepare for humans, assemble basic survival items for your pets in a sturdy, easy-to-grab container. Items should include:</p><ul><li>Water, food, and medicine to last a week or two;</li><li>Water, food bowls, and a can opener if packing wet food;</li><li>Litter supplies for cats (a shoebox lined with a plastic bag and litter may work);</li><li>Leashes, harnesses, or vehicle restraints if applicable;</li><li>A <a href="https://www.avma.org/resources/pet-owners/emergencycare/pet-first-aid-supplies-checklist" target="_blank">pet first aid kit</a>;</li><li>A sturdy carrier or crate for each cat or dog. In addition to easing transport, these may serve as your pet's most familiar or safe space in an unfamiliar environment;</li><li>A favorite toy and/or blanket;</li><li>If your pet is prone to anxiety or stress, the American Kennel Club suggests adding <a href="https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/home-living/create-emergency-evacuation-plan-dog/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">stress-relieving items</a> like an anxiety vest or calming sprays.</li></ul><p>In the not-unlikely event that you and your pet have to shelter in different places, your kit should also include:</p><ul><li>Detailed information including contact information for you, your vet, and other emergency contacts;</li><li>A list with phone numbers and addresses of potential destinations, including pet-friendly hotels and emergency boarding facilities near your planned evacuation routes, plus friends or relatives in other areas who might be willing to host you or your pet;</li><li>Medical information including vaccine records and a current rabies vaccination tag;</li><li>Feeding notes including portions and sizes in case you need to leave your pet in someone else's care;</li><li>A photo of you and your pet for identification purposes.</li></ul>
5. Be Ready to Evacuate at Any Time<p>It's always wise to be prepared, but stay especially vigilant in high-risk periods during fire or hurricane season. Practice evacuating at different times of day. Make sure your grab-and-go kit is up to date and in a convenient location, and keep leashes and carriers by the exit door. You might even stow a thick pillowcase under your bed for middle-of-the-night, dash-out emergencies when you don't have time to coax an anxious pet into a carrier. If forecasters warn of potential wildfire, a hurricane, or other dangerous conditions, bring outdoor pets inside so you can keep a close eye on them.</p><p>As with any emergency, the key is to be prepared. As the American Kennel Club points out, "If you panic, it will agitate your dog. Therefore, <a href="https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/home-living/create-emergency-evacuation-plan-dog/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">pet disaster preparedness</a> will not only reduce your anxiety but will help reduce your pet's anxiety too."</p>
Evacuating Horses and Other Farm Animals<p>The same basic principles apply for evacuating horses and most other livestock. Provide each with some form of identification. Ensure that adequate food, water, and medicine are available. And develop a clear plan on where to go and how to get there.</p><p>Sheltering and transporting farm animals requires careful coordination, from identifying potential shelter space at fairgrounds, racetracks, or pastures, to ensuring enough space is available in vehicles and trailers – not to mention handlers and drivers on hand to support the effort.</p><p>For most farm animals, the Red Cross advises that you consider precautionary evacuation when a threat seems imminent but evacuation orders haven't yet been announced. The American Veterinary Medical Association has <a href="https://www.avma.org/resources/pet-owners/emergencycare/large-animals-and-livestock-disasters" target="_blank">more information</a>.</p>
Bottom Line: If You Need to Evacuate, So Do Your Pets<p>As the Humane Society warns, pets left behind in a disaster can easily be injured, lost, or killed. Plan ahead to make sure you can safely evacuate your entire household – furry members included.</p>
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