The outside temperature was three degrees Fahrenheit—with wind chills of minus 10 degrees—when 24 defendants, their families and supporters, members of the interested public and members of the press arrived for arraignments in the Town of Reading courthouse last night. Among the crowd was Tompkins County legislator and 2014 Congressional candidate, Martha Robertson of Dryden, who came to serve as a court observer.
The defendants all faced charges of trespassing—and, in one case, resisting arrest—as part of an ongoing civil disobedience campaign called We Are Seneca Lake against a Houston-based energy company, Crestwood Midstream, which seeks to bury highly pressurized gases—methane, butane, propane—in abandoned salt caverns along the banks of Seneca Lake. So far, 170 arrests have been made.
The crowd of about 60 people on Wednesday night was told by Schuyler County deputies that the courthouse building itself was off-limits to the public by order of Reading Town Supervisor Marvin Switzer. Those waiting for a seat to open up in the single small courtroom inside, which has a capacity of 49 people, would be forced to wait outside in the dangerously cold temperatures. They were also ordered off the sidewalk in the lighted area in front of the door.
Defendants were arraigned in two court proceedings, one at 5 p.m. and another at 7 p.m. At 5 p.m., the court did not fill to capacity, and all interested observers and members of the press were allowed to enter the courtroom. At 6 p.m., with first court proceeding still in session, the courthouse doors were locked, and all those arriving, including defendants with 7 p.m. arraignments, were prohibited from entering the building.
By 7:30 p.m., no more people were left standing outside the building, but it was not clear if all who wanted to observe in the court had been able to enter the courthouse or some had given up and left. Weather advisories that night warned that more than 30 minutes outside could result in frostbite to unprotected skin.
This was the second occasion that members of the public had been barred from the facility during court proceedings. At the Dec. 17 hearings for other Crestwood trespassing defendants, the 5 p.m. hearing was entirely closed to press and public while some people in the courtroom, though far fewer than the 49 people allowed by fire code. The rest of the public was prevented from entering the building and, instead, stood in the parking lot in the cold. Temporary no-parking signs were also posted on the adjacent state highway, restricting access to nearby parking.
Meanwhile, inside a packed courtroom last night, Reading Town Justice Raymond Berry opened both of the 5 p.m. and 7 p.m. hearings by announcing that some defendants would be receiving letters that announced that cases would be transferred to new courts. At the 5 p.m. hearing, Judge Berry said the decision to change the venue had originated from the District Attorney’s office. At the 7 p.m. hearing, Berry said it was a county court decision. He offered no further information.
With most defendants pleading not guilty, hearings were scheduled as far out as July.
Several defendants, when called to the bench, prefaced their own statements with requests that Justice Berry recuse himself on the grounds of apparent improprieties, including reports of private conversations between the judge and the district attorney on Dec. 17, and that he is not a law-trained judge.
Mark Scibilia-Carver told the judge that people outside were risking frostbite and registered his objections, on the record, to the inhumanity of barring members of the public, who were waiting for a seat to open up inside the courtroom, from gathering in the public meeting hall inside the courthouse.
At 6 p.m., Robertson joined me in an appeal to two deputies at the door to allow members of the public inside, emphasizing the bitter cold and the people’s fundamental right of access.
“This is a public facility,” Robertson reminded the deputies. “There are a lot of cold people out here, and I see that there is a public meeting space available inside for them to gather.” Deputy Kirk Smith told Robertson that he was “following orders” and that the facilities were ordered closed by the Town of Reading.
Shortly after 6 p.m., We Are Seneca Lake organizers held a rally and press conference on a snowy strip of lawn adjacent to the building and focused on the theme of trampled civil liberties, both inside the courtroom and out.
The press conference was temporarily delayed when cameras refused to function and had to be warmed up inside heated cars. Several participants used a sleeping bag to create a wind block for the speakers.
In her remarks, Robertson read aloud from the Tompkins County Resolution Opposing Underground Hydrocarbon Storage Adjacent to Seneca Lake, of which she is a legislative architect. She said the Crestwood facility is “an issue not just for the people of Schuyler County or for the people who border Seneca Lake directly because frankly in the upstate New York region, we are all Seneca Lake.”
Addressing the exclusion of the public from the building where courtroom proceedings were ongoing, Robertson called on the Town of Reading to open their Town Hall to the public, saying, “This is the Town Hall of the Town of Reading. The taxpayers paid for this building. The taxpayers are heating this building—and it’s warm inside. The taxpayers turn the lights on and they are paying the Sheriff’s deputies who are following the orders of Supervisor Switzer who says this is actually not a public building tonight because the members of the public who are here are not allowed. I think that’s an abuse of power.”
Robertson then read aloud from section 4 of the Judiciary Law in the State of New York that mandates courts to be public: “The sittings of every court within this state shall be public, and every citizen may freely attend the same, except that in all proceedings and trials in cases for divorce, seduction, abortion, rape, assault with intent to commit rape, criminal sexual act, bastardy or filiation, the court may, in its discretion, exclude therefrom all persona who are not directly interested therein, excepting jurors, witnesses, and officers of the court.”
Robertson said, “It is vital that the public ask, ‘What is Justice Berry afraid of?’ It is time for the public to see what is happening here and for the public to be allowed in without reservation."
The crowd of about 60 people on Wednesday night was told by Schuyler County deputies that the courthouse building itself was off-limits to the public by order of Reading Town Supervisor Marvin Switzer. Those waiting for a seat to open up in the single small courtroom inside, which has a capacity of 49 people, would be forced to wait outside in the dangerously cold temperatures. Photo credit: We Are Seneca Lake
Also speaking at the press conference, Paul Passavant, PhD, a professor of Constitutional Law at Hobart and William and Smith Colleges, said that being turned out into the cold was emblematic of the civil liberties issues the group had gathered to discuss, including secretive court proceedings three weeks earlier and overheard ex parte conversations between Schuyler Count Assistant District Attorney John Tunney and Justice Raymond Berry about how to sentence the civil disobedients.
Passavant described being prevented by deputies from entering the Town of Reading courtroom on Dec. 17, when he had accompanied We Are Seneca Lake defendant Laura Salamendra to her own arraignment.
Salamendra’s 5 p.m. court proceedings were closed to the public and the press. At that private hearing, Salamendra pled guilty to trespassing, was given a maximum $375 fine, and, when she refused to pay, was issued a judgment lien rather than being sent to jail.
Passavant summarized the Supreme Court’s ruling in Richmond Newspapers vs. Virginia (1980), which described the fundamental importance of open public access to trials in the U.S. “As Chief Justice Burger wrote, ‘People assemble in public places not only to speak or take action, but also to listen, observe, and learn ... [A] trial courtroom also is a public place where the people generally—and representatives of the media—have a right to be present, and where their presence historically has been thought to enhance the integrity and quality of what takes place.’ Excluding us from attending the court proceedings three weeks ago makes it difficult for us to have confidence in the integrity of this court’s proceedings.”
Passavant asserted that “people in this town, this county, and this region are poorly served by the legal system that we have witnessed here” and questioned how the local governments of Reading and Schulyer County could be depended upon to serve as a “secure repository for the public trust with respect to the Crestwood project to store volatile gases in salt caverns on the shores of Seneca Lake. Government holds public in low regard, as evidenced by leaving us out in the cold.”
I shared the phone conversation I had on Jan. 6 with Supervisor Switzer, who told me, “If you do not have any business in the courthouse, we are not letting you in.”
Switzer informed me that the policy to close the Reading Town Court building was made “by consensus” with the other members of the board as an ordinance. However, he could not recall the date of this decision nor would he provide me a written copy of the ordinance.
Switzer’s description of the closed courthouse policy seemed vindictive and specific to We Are Seneca Lake as a political group, and, as such, was in violation civil liberties. Among the several reasons he provided for closing the courthouse to the public during hearings that involved protesters, Switzer alleged that “you people” do not “have respect for building,” and said that they had tracked in dirt on the carpet.
By contrast, Reading Town board member Beverly Stamps told me on Jan. 6, that there was no such policy and that no board decision to close the building to the public had been made. Alleging that the town hall is not a courthouse, Stamps told me that “people shouldn’t be in there in the first place.”
Leaving the courthouse after the 5 p.m. arraignments, Ray Schlather, an attorney in Ithaca representing defendant Christopher Tate, addressed to the outside gathering of supporters and press.
“It’s high unusual and frankly unfair, if not unconstitutional, for these folks to be prevented from attending open public court proceedings,” said Schlather. “Whatever is necessary to ensure that the public courts are open to the public, all of the public ... will be done. It is absolutely fundamental. It is part of the bedrock of our Constitution. It is part of the bedrock of all civilized nations of the world to have open public proceedings. Our job as citizens, our job as attorneys, as officers of the court, is to ensure that those fundamental principles prevail. We intend to proceed in all manners to protect those rights.”
Twenty-four We Are Seneca Lake defendants were arraigned Jan. 7 in 27 separate hearings. All plead not guilty with two exceptions. Pete Angie, who did not plea, and Ross Horowitz, who pled guilty and requested a dismissal of charges, or reduced or minimal fine, on the grounds that he was at the protest in his capacity as a photographer. His sentencing was deferred until Jan 21.
The 24 defendants are: Daryl Anderson, 61, Hector, Schuyler County; Pete Angie, Ulysses, Tompkins County; Kerry Angie, 62, Aurora, Cayuga County; Katie Barrett, 55, Syracuse, Onondaga County; Shirley Barton, 66, Mecklenberg, Schuyler County; Alex Colket, 36, Ithaca, Tompkins County; Jeff de Castro, 60, Trumansburg, Tompkins County (two charges of trespassing); Timothy Dunlap, 60, Hector, Schuyler County; Richard Figiel, 68, Hector, Schuyler County (charged with trespassing and resisting arrest); Ross Horowitz, 72, Danby, Tompkins County; Catherine Johnson, 52, Ithaca, Tompkins County; Richard Koski, 71, Trumansburg, Tompkins County; Margaret McCasland 68, Lansing, Tompkins County (two charges of trespassing),; Catherine Middlesworth, 49, Syracuse Onondaga County; Daphne Nolder, 29, Hector, Schuyler County; Jean Olivett, 68, Ithaca, Tompkins County; Beth Peet, 47, Hector, Schuyler County; Kirsten Pierce, 44, Burdett, Schuyler County; Sue Schwartz, 38, Ithaca, Tompkins County; Mark Scibilia-Carver, 62, Trumansburg, Tompkins County; Scott Signori, 47, Hector, Schuyler County; Audrey Southern, 31, Burdett, Schuyler County; Christpher Tate, 52, Hector, Schuyler County; and Susan Ahrayna Zakos, 39, Ithaca, Tompkins Count.
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By Sara Lindberg
Whether you've hit a workout plateau or you're just ready to turn things up a notch, adding more strenuous exercise — also known as high-intensity exercise — to your overall fitness routine is one way to increase your calorie burn, improve your heart health, and boost your metabolism.
However, to do it safely and effectively, there are some guidelines you should follow. Keep reading to learn more about the benefits of vigorous exercise and how to safely dial up the intensity of your workouts.
What Is Considered Strenuous Exercise?<p>When it comes to exercise, the intensity of how hard you work out is just as important as the duration of your exercise session. In general, exercise intensity is divided into three categories:</p><ul><li>low</li><li>moderate</li><li>vigorous or strenuous</li></ul><p>For an activity to be vigorous, you need to work at 70 to 85 percent of your maximum heart rate, according to the<a href="https://www.heart.org/en/healthy-living/fitness/fitness-basics/target-heart-rates" target="_blank"> American Heart Association</a>. Examples of vigorous exercise include:</p><ul><li>running</li><li>cycling at 10 mph or faster</li><li>walking briskly uphill with a heavy backpack</li><li>jumping rope</li></ul><p>Low to moderate exercise is easier to sustain for longer periods since you work below 70 percent of your maximum heart rate and, sometimes, well below that level.</p><p>To reap health benefits, the <a href="https://www.hhs.gov/fitness/be-active/physical-activity-guidelines-for-americans/index.html" target="_blank">Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans</a> recommends that people age 18 and older get one of the following:</p><ul><li><strong>150 minutes</strong> of moderate-intensity aerobic activity per week</li><li><strong>75 minutes</strong> of vigorous aerobic activity per week</li><li><strong>combination of both types</strong> of activity spread throughout the week</li></ul>
Strenuous Exercise Vs. Moderate Exercise<p>Increasing your exercise intensity is fairly simple to do. You can still participate in your favorite activities — just at a more vigorous pace.</p><p>One of the benefits of more strenuous exercise is that you can reap the same rewards as moderate-intensity exercise but in less time. So, if time is of the essence, doing a more strenuous 20-minute workout can be just as beneficial as doing a slower 40-minute workout session.</p><p>Here are some examples of <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/physical/pdf/pa_intensity_table_2_1.pdf" target="_blank">strenuous vs. moderate exercise<span></span></a>.</p><table><tbody><tr><th>Moderate intensity</th><th>Strenuous intensity</th></tr><tr><td>bicycling at less than 10 mph</td><td>bicycling at more than 10 mph</td></tr><tr><td>walking briskly</td><td>running, or hiking uphill at a steady pace</td></tr><tr><td>jog-walk intervals</td><td>water jogging/running</td></tr><tr><td>shooting baskets in basketball</td><td>playing a basketball game</td></tr><tr><td>playing doubles tennis</td><td>playing singles tennis</td></tr><tr><td>raking leaves or mowing the lawn</td><td>shoveling more than 10 lbs. per minute, digging ditches</td></tr><tr><td>walking stairs</td><td>running stairs</td></tr></tbody></table>
Benefits of Vigorous Exercise<p>Besides being more efficient, turning up the heat on your fitness sessions can benefit your health in a variety of ways. Let's take a closer look at some of the evidence-based benefits of a higher intensity workout.</p><ul><li><strong>Higher calorie burn.</strong> According to the <a href="https://www.acefitness.org/education-and-resources/professional/expert-articles/5008/7-things-to-know-about-excess-post-exercise-oxygen-consumption-epoc/?utm_source=Rakuten&utm_medium=10&ranMID=42334&ranEAID=TnL5HPStwNw&ranSiteID=TnL5HPStwNw-hYlKnAcfzfixAUsvnO6Ubw" target="_blank">American Council on Exercise</a>, working out at a higher intensity requires more oxygen, which burns more calories. It also contributes to excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) or the "afterburn effect" that allows you to continue burning calories even after you finish working out. This means your metabolism will stay elevated for longer after a vigorous exercise session.</li><li><strong>More weight loss.</strong> A <a href="https://www.healthline.com/health-news/interval-workouts-will-help-you-lose-weight-more-quickly" target="_blank">higher calorie burn</a> and an elevated metabolism will help you lose weight more quickly than doing low- or moderate-intensity exercise.</li><li><strong>Improved heart health.</strong> According to a <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16377300" target="_blank">2012 study</a>, high- and moderate-intensity exercise appears to offer low chance of cardiovascular events, even in those with heart disease. Cardiovascular benefits may include improvements in:<ul><li><a href="https://www.healthline.com/health/diastole-vs-systole" target="_blank">diastolic blood pressure</a></li><li><a href="https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/15-ways-to-lower-blood-sugar#TOC_TITLE_HDR_1" target="_blank">blood sugar control</a></li><li>aerobic capacity</li></ul></li><li><strong>Improved mood.</strong> High-intensity exercise may also boost your mood. According to a large <a href="https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jpts/27/4/27_jpts-2014-736/_article" target="_blank">2015 study</a> that analyzed the data of more than 12,000 participants, researchers found a significant link between strenuous exercise and fewer depressive symptoms.</li><li><strong>Lower risk of mortality.</strong> According to a 2015 <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25844882" target="_blank">study</a>, researchers found that vigorous activity may be key to avoiding an early death. The study, which followed 204,542 people for more than 6 years, reported a 9 to 13 percent decrease in mortality for those who increased the intensity of their exercise sessions.</li></ul>
How to Measure Exercise Intensity<p>So, how do you know for sure that you're exercising at a strenuous level? Let's look at three ways to measure the intensity of your physical activity.</p><h3>1. Your heart rate</h3><p>Monitoring your heart rate is one of the most reliable methods for measuring exercise intensity. Exercising at 70 to 85 percent of your maximum heart rate qualifies as vigorous exercise intensity.</p><blockquote><strong><strong>WHAT IS YOUR MAXIMUM HEART RATE?</strong></strong>Your maximum heart rate is the fastest your heart can safely beat. To find out what your maximum heart rate is you need to subtract your age from 220. For example, for a 40-year-old person: <ul><li>220 bpm (beats per minute) minus age</li><li>220 – 40 = 180 bpm</li></ul>To work out at a vigorous pace, you'll want to exercise within 70 to 85 percent of your maximum heart rate. For example: <ul><li>180 x 0.70 (70 percent) = 126</li><li>180 x 0.85 (85 percent) = 153</li></ul>For a 40-year-old person, a vigorous training range is 126 to 153 bpm.<br></blockquote><p>You can check your heart rate while you're working out by wearing a heart rate monitor or <a href="https://www.healthline.com/health/how-to-check-heart-rate" target="_blank">taking your pulse</a>.</p>
How to Add Vigorous Activity to Your Workout<p>Adding strenuous activity to your weekly workout routine requires some careful planning. Fortunately, many of the activities that you do at a moderate level can easily be performed at a higher intensity.</p><p>One way of incorporating vigorous aerobic activity into your routine is to do a <a href="https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/benefits-of-hiit" target="_blank">high-intensity interval training (HIIT)</a> workout. This type of workout combines short bursts of intense activity — typically performed at 80 to 95 percent of your maximum heart rate — with recovery periods at 40 to 50 percent maximum heart rate.</p><p>To sustain this level of training, consider following a 2:1 work to rest ratio. For example, a <a href="https://www.healthline.com/health/treadmill-weight-loss#hiit" target="_blank">treadmill workout </a>or outdoor running session could include:</p><ul><li>running at 9 to 10 mph for 30 seconds</li><li>followed by walking at 3 to 4 mph for 60 seconds</li><li>alternating this work-to-rest ratio for 20 to 30 minutes</li></ul><p>Playing a fast-paced sport like soccer, basketball, or racquetball is another effective way to add strenuous activity to your fitness routine. Participating in <a href="https://www.healthline.com/health/benefits-of-a-spin-class" target="_blank">cycling classes</a> or swimming laps are other ways to build more strenuous exercise into your workouts.</p>
Safety Tips<p>Before you turn up the intensity on your workouts, it's important to keep the following safety tips in mind.</p><h3>Check with your doctor</h3><p>If you have a health condition or you haven't been active in a while, make sure you talk to your doctor before you start a high-intensity exercise routine. Your doctor can advise you on a safe level of exercise or how to become more active in the safest way possible.</p><h3>Build up the intensity slowly</h3><p>Going from low- or moderate-intensity workouts to vigorous exercise requires time and patience. While you may be ready to jump in with both feet, the safest way to add more vigorous exercise is to do it in bite-size increments. Pushing yourself too quickly can result in injuries and burnout.</p><p>For example:</p><ul><li><strong>Week 1:</strong> Swap out one moderate-paced cardio session for a HIIT workout.</li><li><strong>Week 2:</strong> Swap one moderate-paced session with a HIIT workout, and also add a circuit strength training session to your weekly routine.</li><li><strong>Week 3 and 4: </strong>Repeat weeks 1 and 2 before you start adding more high-intensity exercise to your weekly routine.</li></ul><p>It's also a good idea to space out your vigorous workouts throughout the week. Try not to do two strenuous sessions back-to-back.</p><h3>Don't forget the recovery time</h3><p>Your body requires more time to recover from a vigorous workout compared to a low- or moderate-intensity session.</p><p>To help your body recover, make sure to always include a cooldown and <a href="https://www.healthline.com/health/exercise-fitness/static-stretching" target="_blank">stretch routine</a> after strenuous physical activity.</p><h3>Stay hydrated</h3><p><a href="https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/7-health-benefits-of-water" target="_blank">Staying hydrated</a> is especially important when you're exercising hard. Not drinking enough fluids can affect the quality of your workout and make you feel tired, lethargic, or dizzy. It may even lead to <a href="https://www.healthline.com/health/dehydration-headache" target="_blank">headaches</a> and <a href="https://www.healthline.com/health/pain-relief/how-to-stop-leg-muscle-cramps" target="_blank">cramps</a>.</p>
The Bottom Line<p>Turning up the intensity of your workout sessions can be an effective way of boosting your overall health and fitness. It's also an easy way to save time when trying to fit a workout into your day.</p><p>To play it safe, always start slow and pay attention to how your body feels.</p><p>While vigorous exercise offers many health benefits, it's not appropriate for everyone. If you have a health condition or you haven't been active in a while, make sure to talk with your doctor before working out at a more strenuous level.</p>
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In January 2015, food sales at restaurants overtook those at grocery stores for the first time. Most thought this marked a permanent shift in the American meal.
Solving the Age-Old Problem of Spoiled Cheese<p>People have eaten pasta and cheese together for hundreds of years. Clifford Wright, the doyen of Mediterranean food history, says <a href="http://www.cliffordawright.com/caw/food/entries/display.php/topic_id/16/id/105/" target="_blank">the first written recipe</a> for macaroni and cheese was created in the court of the king of Naples in the 13th century, while <a href="https://food52.com/blog/9916-the-history-of-macaroni-and-cheese" target="_blank">the first reference</a> in an English language cookbook likely appeared in Elizabeth Raffald's 1769 book "The Experienced English Housekeeper."</p><p><span></span>An internet search for macaroni and cheese recipes will turn up over 5 million hits, but many still prefer to get theirs in a box – the kind with pasta that comes in shapes ranging from shells to Pokemon characters, accompanied by a packet of powdered cheese sauce.</p><p>Boxed macaroni and cheese was one outcome of the quest for ways to keep cheese longer. Some cheese gets better as it ages – a well-aged cheddar is one of life's delights – but once most cheeses hit their prime, <a href="https://www.dairyfoods.com/articles/91548-how-to-maximize-cheese-shelf-life" target="_blank">they tend to quickly go bad</a>. Before household refrigeration became common, many retailers wouldn't even stock cheese in the summer because it spoiled so quickly.</p><p>Processed cheese solved this age-old problem.</p>
When Natural Was Nasty<p>Today, food that's simple, pure and natural is <a href="https://theconversation.com/how-was-french-cuisine-toppled-as-the-king-of-fine-dining-66667" target="_blank">all the craze</a>, while <a href="https://apnews.com/c06a1200807c4b82a03452d08d480692" target="_blank">disdain for processed foods</a> is practically a credo among sophisticated consumers.</p><p>But when Kraft's different forms of processed cheese came out, they found widespread acceptance despite their strange textures. The fact that it wasn't natural didn't seem to bother consumers at all. In fact, as international food historian Rachel Laudan <a href="https://online.ucpress.edu/gastronomica/article/1/1/36/93394/A-Plea-for-Culinary-Modernism-Why-We-Should-Love" target="_blank">has noted</a>, back then, "natural was something quite nasty." She describes fresh milk as warm and "unmistakably a bodily secretion." Throughout the history of cookery, most recipes aimed to transform an unappetizing raw product into something delightful and delectable.</p><p>So for most consumers, processed foods were a godsend. They kept well, tended to be easily digestible and, most importantly, they tasted good. Many of them could be easily prepared, freeing women from spending entire days cooking and giving them more time to pursue professions and avocations.</p><p>In some ways, processed foods were also healthier. They could be fortified with vitamins and minerals, and, in an era before everyone had access to mechanical refrigeration, the fact that they kept well meant consumers were less likely to contract diseases from spoiled, rotten foods. Pasteurization of dairy products virtually <a href="https://www.the-scientist.com/foundations/rethinking-raw-milk--1918-65126" target="_blank">eliminated diseases like undulant fever</a>, while foods processed and canned in large factories were less likely to harbor food-borne illnesses that could crop up due to faulty or improperly sanitized equipment used by home canners.</p>
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