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3 Reasons Universities Are Investing Renewable Energy

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Colleges and universities have always been focal points of change. The mixture of academic research, student activism and institutional clout has allowed campus communities to promote widespread technical and social transformations. During the last few years, a few of these institutions have begun to lead in an entirely new area—renewable energy. Just last September, the University of California system announced an 80 megawatt (MW) procurement contract for off-site solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity, enough to power almost 13,000 homes.

Rutgers University’s Livingston Campus transformed a 32-acre, 3,500-spot parking lot into one of the largest solar canopy arrays in the nation. The has a capacity of 8 megawatts, enough to power 1,000 homes. Photo credit: Rutgers University

While this is the largest power purchase agreement (PPA) on record for a university, it was not the first. Back in 2008, the University of Oklahoma signed an agreement with Oklahoma Gas & Electric to purchase 100 percent renewable electricity, spurring the development of a 44-turbine wind farm. Then, in 2012, Ohio State University signed a 20-year PPA for 50 MW of wind power. This year, George Washington University and American University teamed up, along with George Washington University Hospital, to secure 52 MW of solar PV from Duke Energy Renewables. Meanwhile, many campuses have installed significant on-site resources. Three universities in particular—Arizona State, Rutgers and Mount Saint Mary’s—have installed more than 57 MW of solar PV combined; enough to power more than 9,000 U.S. homes.

Three Reasons Why Universities are Buying Renewables:

1. Renewables are a Good Deal

Recent transactions highlight just how competitive renewable power can be. Ohio State University estimated its wind transaction would save the university $1 million dollars in the first year alone. Similarly, American University says that its renewable energy contract “provides fixed pricing for solar energy at a lower total price than current power solutions.” When you start to look at the recent, all-time-low wind and solar prices per kilowatt-hour (kWh), it’s easy to see how these deals can be cost-effective.

In 2013, new wind projects in the U.S. had an average wholesale price of just $0.025/kWh. Meanwhile, recent wholesale solar PPAs have reached $0.05/kWh or lower. Add in the fact that these deals allow buyers to lock in low prices for 20 years or more, and the savings really start to add up. Ultimately, you don’t need an Ivy League endowment to buy a lot of renewable energy—many of the leaders are public universities that have discovered it’s a sound economic investment.

2. Top-Down Leadership

Since 2007, the American Colleges and Universities Presidents’ Climate Commitment has encouraged almost 700 institutions of higher education to commit to achieving carbon neutrality within a defined timeframe. These commitments to reach carbon neutrality, sometimes by 2025 or earlier, are frequently cited as key components of a university’s decision to purchase renewable energy. In fact, a few small colleges have already achieved carbon neutrality, most recently Colby College in Maine.

3. Bottom-Up Demand

Colleges and universities are also responding to a growing demand from their key stakeholders. Students and faculty around the country are already campaigning for increasing university sustainability programs, and these topics are also on the minds of prospective students. In a 2014 Princeton Review survey of student applicants, “61 percent said having information about a college’s commitment to the environment would impact their decision to apply to or attend a school.” Information about campuses’ sustainability track records, provided through programs such as AASHE's STARS initiative, have brought additional transparency to these efforts and allowed for holistic sustainability rankings. Moreover, for both faculty and students, these renewables projects open up research opportunities. This was particularly true for Ohio State University, which employed more than 400 energy researchers in 2013.

Creating Social Change

At Rocky Mountain Institute, we’ve shown time and again that renewable energy is held back not by technical limitations but rather by societal inertia, outdated regulations, and institutional barriers. Universities, by design, are hubs for experimentation and pushing beyond the norms of the day. As Dr. George Basile from Arizona State University observed, “When society doesn’t know how to do something, universities are where you go to solve those problems.” In addition, universities’ relatively stable growth, long-term ownership of facilities, and intellectual atmosphere provide an ideal testing ground for new approaches.

For these reasons,Rocky Mountain Institute is engaging with universities through a number of programs, including:

However, more importantly, universities matter because they are educating the future leaders and members of our society. Integrating energy efficiency and renewables into a school’s culture exposes each wave of students to more efficient and sustainable processes, systems and behaviors. That’s social change. That’s legacy. That’s scale.

At the end of the day, whether you’re a student, professor or alumnus, it looks as though universities still have plenty left to teach us.

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Up to half of the detrimental impacts of the "landscape simplification" that monocropping entails come as a result of a diminished mix of ecosystem service-providing insects, a team of scientists reported Oct. 16 in the journal Science Advances.

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"Our study shows that biodiversity is essential to ensure the provision of ecosystem services and to maintain a high and stable agricultural production," Matteo Dainese, the study's lead author and a biologist at Eurac Research in Bolzano, Italy, said in a statement.

It stands to reason that, with declines in the sheer numbers of insects that ferry pollen from plant to plant and keep crop-eating pests under control, these services will wane as well. But until now, it hasn't been clear how monocultures affect the number and mix of these species or how crop yields might change as a result.

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The researchers also looked at a third measure of the makeup of insect populations — what they called "evenness." In natural ecosystems, a handful of dominant species with many more individuals typically live alongside a higher number of rarer species. The team found as landscapes became less diverse, dominant species numbers dwindled and rare species gained ground. This resulting, more equitable mix led to less pollination (though it didn't end up affecting pest control).

"Our study provides strong empirical support for the potential benefits of new pathways to sustainable agriculture that aim to reconcile the protection of biodiversity and the production of food for increasing human populations," Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter, one of the study's authors and an animal ecologist at the University of Würzburg in Germany, said in the statement.

The scientists figure that the richness of pollinator species explains around a third of the harmful impacts of less diverse landscapes, while the richness of pest-controlling species accounts for about half of the same measure. In their view, the results of their research point to the need to protect biodiversity on and around crops in an uncertain future.

"Under future conditions with ongoing global change and more frequent extreme climate events, the value of farmland biodiversity ensuring resilience against environmental disturbances will become even more important," Steffan-Dewenter said.

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