By Alina Petre
Iron is an essential nutrient that plays an important role in many bodily functions (1).
A diet lacking in iron can result in low energy levels, shortness of breath, headaches, irritability, dizziness or anemia.
Iron can be found in two forms in foods—heme and non-heme. Heme iron is only found in animal products, whereas non-heme iron is only found in plants (2).
The recommended daily intake (RDI) is based on an average intake of 18 mg per day. However, individual requirements vary based on a person's gender and life stage.
For instance, men and post-menopausal women generally require around 8 mg of iron per day. This amount increases to 18 mg per day for menstruating women and to 27 mg per day for pregnant women.
And, since non-heme iron tends to be less easily absorbed by our bodies than heme iron, the RDI for vegetarians and vegans is 1.8 times higher than for meat eaters.
Here is a list of 21 plant foods that are high in iron.
Legumes, including beans, peas and lentils, are great sources of iron.
Listed below are the varieties containing the most iron, from highest to lowest.
1. Tofu, Tempeh, Natto and Soybeans
Soybeans and foods derived from soybeans are packed with iron.
In addition to iron, these soy products contain between 10–19 grams of protein per portion and are also a good source of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium.
Lentils are another iron-filled food, providing 6.6 mg per cup cooked or 37 percent of the RDI (7).
Lentils contain a significant amount of protein, complex carbs, fiber, folate and manganese as well. One cup of cooked lentils contains 18 grams of protein and covers around 50 percent of your recommended daily fiber intake.
3. Other Beans and Peas
Other types of beans contain good amounts of iron as well.
In addition to their iron content, beans and peas are excellent sources of complex carbs, fiber, folate, phosphorus, potassium, manganese and several beneficial plant compounds.
Summary: Beans, peas and lentils are rich in iron. These legumes also contain good amounts of protein, fiber, vitamins, minerals and beneficial plant compounds that may reduce your risk of various diseases.
4–5: Nuts and Seeds
Nuts and seeds serve as two more iron-rich plant sources.
Those who wish to increase their total daily iron intake should add the following varieties to their diet, as they contain the highest amounts.
4. Pumpkin, Sesame, Hemp and Flaxseeds
Products derived from these seeds are also worth considering. For instance, two tablespoons of tahini, a paste made from sesame seeds, contain 2.6 mg of iron—which is 14 percent of the RDI (21).
Similarly, hummus made from chickpeas and tahini provides you with around 3 mg of iron per half cup or 17 percent of the RDI (22).
Seeds contain good amounts of plant protein, fiber, calcium, magnesium, zinc, selenium, antioxidants and other beneficial plant compounds, too (23).
5. Cashews, Pine Nuts and Other Nuts
Nuts and nut butters contain quite a bit of non-heme iron.
This is especially true for almonds, cashews, pine nuts and macadamia nuts, which contain between 1–1.6 mg of iron per ounce or around 6–9 percent of the RDI.
Similarly to seeds, nuts are a great source of protein, fiber, good fats, vitamins and minerals, as well as antioxidants and beneficial plant compounds (23).
Keep in mind that blanching or roasting nuts may damage their nutrients, so favor raw and unblanched varieties (25).
As for nut butters, it's best to choose a 100 percent natural variety to avoid an unnecessary dose of added oils, sugars and salt.
Summary: Nuts and seeds are good sources of non-heme iron, as well as an array of other vitamins, minerals, fiber, healthy fats and beneficial plant compounds. Add a small portion to your menu each day.
Gram per gram, vegetables often have a higher iron content than foods typically associated with high iron, such as meat and eggs.
Though vegetables contain non-heme iron, which is less easily absorbed, they are also generally rich in vitamin C, which helps enhance iron absorption (1).
The following vegetables and vegetable-derived products offer the most iron per serving.
6. Leafy Greens
Leafy greens, such as spinach, kale, swiss chard, collard and beet greens contain between 2.5–6.4 mg of iron per cooked cup or 14–36 percent of the RDI.
Yet due to their light weight, some can find it difficult to consume 100 grams of raw, leafy greens. In this case, it's best to consume them cooked.
7. Tomato Paste
Potatoes contain significant amounts of iron, mostly concentrated in their skins.
More specifically, one large, unpeeled potato (10.5 ounces or 295 grams) provides 3.2 mg of iron, which is 18 percent of the RDI. Sweet potatoes contain slightly less—around 2.1 mg for the same quantity or 12 percent of the RDI (40, 41).
Potatoes are also a great source of fiber. Additionally, one portion can cover up to 46 percent of your daily vitamin C, B6 and potassium requirements.
Certain varieties of mushrooms are particularly rich in iron.
For instance, one cooked cup of white mushrooms contains around 2.7 mg or 15 percent of the RDI (42).
10. Palm Hearts
Palm hearts are a tropical vegetable rich in fiber, potassium, manganese, vitamin C and folate.
A lesser-known fact about palm hearts is that they also contain a fair amount of iron—an impressive 4.6 mg per cup or 26 percent of the RDI (46).
This versatile vegetable can be blended into dips, tossed on the grill, incorporated into a stir-fry, added to salads and even baked with your favorite toppings.
Summary: Vegetables often contain significant amounts of iron. Their generally large volume-to-weight ratio explains why eating them cooked may make it easier to meet your daily requirements.
Fruit is not commonly the food group that individuals turn to when wanting to increase the iron content of their diet.
Nevertheless, some fruits are surprisingly high in iron.
Here are the best sources of iron in this category.
11. Prune Juice
Prunes are known for their mild laxative effect, which helps relieve constipation (47).
However, they're also a good source of iron.
Prune juice is rich in fiber, potassium, vitamin C, vitamin B6 and manganese, too.
Olives are technically a fruit and one with a good iron content at that.
Mulberries are a type of fruit with a particularly impressive nutritional value.
Not only do they offer around 2.6 mg of iron per cup—14 percent of the RDI—but this quantity of mulberries also meets 85 percent of the RDI for vitamin C (54).
Summary: Prune juice, olives and mulberries are the three types of fruit with the highest iron concentration per portion. These fruit also contain antioxidants and a variety of other nutrients beneficial to health.
14–17: Whole Grains
Research links whole grains to a variety of health benefits.
However, not all grains are equally beneficial. For instance, grain processing typically removes parts of the grain that contain fiber, antioxidants, vitamins and minerals, including iron.
For this reason, whole grains typically contain more iron than processed grains. The following are the four types of whole grains containing the most iron per portion.
Amaranth is a gluten-free ancient grain that doesn't grow from grasses like other grains do. For this reason, it is technically considered a "pseudocereal."
Amaranth contains around 5.2 mg of iron per cup cooked or 29 percent of the RDI (60).
Interestingly, amaranth is one of the few complete sources of plant proteins and also contains good amounts of complex carbs, fiber, manganese, phosphorus and magnesium.
Spelt is another iron-rich ancient grain.
It contains around 3.2 mg of iron per cup cooked or 18 percent of the RDI. Moreover, spelt offers around 5–6 grams of protein per portion, which is approximately 1.5 times more protein than more modern grains, such as wheat (61).
Spelt contains a variety of other nutrients, too, including complex carbs, fiber, magnesium, zinc, selenium and B vitamins. Its mineral content may also be slightly higher than more conventional grains (62).
Oats are a tasty and easy way to add iron to your diet.
A cup of cooked oats contains around 3.4 mg of iron—19 percent of the RDI—as well as good amounts of plant protein, fiber, magnesium, zinc and folate (63).
Like amaranth, quinoa is a gluten-free pseudocereal rich in complete protein, fiber, complex carbs, vitamins and minerals.
It offers around 2.8 mg of iron per cup cooked or 16 percent of the RDI. Plus, research links quinoa's rich antioxidant content to a lower risk of medical conditions, including high blood pressure and type 2 diabetes (68).
Summary: Whole grains generally contain more iron than refined grains. The varieties listed above are particularly rich in iron but also contain several other nutrients and plant compounds beneficial to health.
Certain foods do not fit in one of the food groups above, yet contain significant amounts of iron.
Incorporating them into your diet can help you meet your recommended daily iron intakes.
18. Coconut Milk
Coconut milk can be a tasty alternative to cow's milk.
Although very high in fat, it's a good source of several vitamins and minerals, including magnesium, copper and manganese (69).
Coconut milk also contains a good amount of iron—more specifically, around 3.8 mg per half cup (118 ml) or around 21 percent of the RDI.
19. Dark Chocolate
Dark chocolate contains significantly more nutrients than its milk chocolate counterpart.
Not only does it offer 3.3 mg of iron per ounce (28 grams), meeting around 18 percent of the RDI, but it also contains a good amount of fiber, magnesium, copper and manganese (70).
Additionally, dark chocolate is a powerful source of antioxidants, a group of beneficial plant compounds that help protect against various diseases (71).
20. Blackstrap Molasses
Blackstrap molasses is a sweetener often claimed to be healthier than table sugar.
In terms of iron, it contains around 1.8 mg of iron per two tablespoons or around 10 percent of the RDI (72).
This portion also helps cover between 10–30 percent of your recommended daily intake of copper, selenium, potassium, vitamin B6, magnesium and manganese.
However, despite its higher nutrient content, blackstrap molasses remains very high in sugar and should be consumed in moderation.
21. Dried Thyme
Dried thyme is one of the most popular culinary herbs.
Thyme also happens to be one of the herbs with the highest iron content, offering 1.2 mg per dried teaspoon or around 7 percent of the RDI (76).
Sprinkling a little on each meal is a good strategy for those wanting to increase their iron intake.
Summary: Coconut milk, dark chocolate, blackstrap molasses and dried thyme are lesser known, yet undoubtedly rich, sources of iron.
How to Increase Iron Absorption From Plant Foods
The heme iron found in meat and animal products is generally more easily absorbed by the human body than the non-heme iron found in plants.
This amounts to approximately 14 mg per day for men and post-menopausal women, 32 mg per day for menstruating women and 49 mg per day for pregnant women (1).
However, there are various strategies that can be employed to increase the body's ability to absorb non-heme iron. Here are the best-researched methods:
• Eat vitamin C-rich foods: Consuming vitamin C-rich foods together with foods rich in non-heme iron may increase the absorption of iron by up 300 percent (1).
• Avoid coffee and tea with meals: Drinking coffee and tea with meals can reduce iron absorption by 50-90 percent (77).
• Soak, sprout and ferment: Soaking, sprouting and fermenting grains and legumes can improve iron absorption by lowering the amount of phytates naturally present in these foods (78).
• Use a cast iron pan: Foods prepared in a cast iron pan tend to provide two to three times more iron as those prepared in non-iron cookware (79).
• Consume lysine-rich foods: Consuming plant foods like legumes and quinoa that are rich in the amino acid lysine together with your iron-rich meals may increase iron absorption (80).
Summary: The type of iron found in plant foods (non-heme) is less easily absorbed by the body. The methods outlined here can be used to maximize its absorption.
The Bottom Line
Iron is a nutrient necessary for good functioning of the human body.
This mineral can be found in an array of different foods, including many plant foods.
Besides being a good source of iron, the plant foods listed in this article also happen to contain a variety of other nutrients and beneficial plant compounds.
Thus, incorporating them into your diet will not only help you meet your iron requirements, but will also likely benefit your overall health.
Reposted with permission from our media associate Authority Nutrition.
Massachusetts Gov. Charlie Baker vetoed a sweeping climate bill on Thursday that would have put the commonwealth on a path to eliminating carbon emissions by 2050.
EcoWatch Daily Newsletter
By Ajit Niranjan
World leaders and businesses are not putting enough money into adapting to dangerous changes in the climate and must "urgently step up action," according to a report published Thursday by the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP).
Adaptation Has a Long Way to Go<p>The Adaptation Gap Report, now in its 5th year, finds "huge gaps" between what world leaders agreed to do under the 2015 <a href="https://www.dw.com/en/5-years-paris-climate-agreement/a-55901139" target="_blank">Paris Agreement</a> and what they need to do to keep their citizens safe from climate change.</p><p>A review by the Global Adaptation Mapping Initiative of almost 1,700 examples of climate adaptation found that a third were in the early stages of implementation — and only 3% had reached the point of reducing risks.</p><p>Disasters like storms and droughts have grown stronger than they should be because people have warmed the planet by burning fossil fuels and chopping down rainforests. The world has heated by more than 1.1 degrees Celsius since the Industrial Revolution and is on track to warm by about 3°C by the end of the century.</p><p>If world leaders <a href="https://www.dw.com/en/climate-change-performance-index-how-far-have-we-come/a-55846406" target="_blank">deliver on recent pledges</a> to bring emissions to <a href="https://www.dw.com/en/joe-bidens-climate-pledges-are-they-realistic/a-56173821" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">net-zero</a> by the middle of the century, they could almost limit warming to 2°C. The target of the Paris Agreement, however, is to reach a target well below that — ideally 1.5°C. </p><p>There are two ways, scientists say, to lessen the pain that warming will bring: mitigating climate change by cutting carbon pollution and adapting to the hotter, less stable world it brings.</p>
The Cost of Climate Adaptation<p>About three-quarters of the world's countries have national plans to adapt to climate change, according to the report, but most lack the regulations, incentives and funding to make them work.</p><p>More than a decade ago, rich countries most responsible for climate change pledged to mobilize $100 billion a year by 2020 in climate finance for poorer countries. UNEP says it is "impossible to answer" whether that goal has been met, while an OECD study published in November found that between 2013 and 2018, the target sum had not once been achieved. Even in 2018, which recorded the highest level of contributions, rich countries were still $20 billion short.</p><p>The yearly adaptation costs for developing countries alone are estimated at $70 billion. This figure is expected to at least double by the end of the decade as temperatures rise, and will hit $280-500 billion by 2050, according to the report.</p><p>But failing to adapt is even more expensive.</p><p>When powerful storms like cyclones Fani and Bulbul struck South Asia, early-warning systems allowed governments to move millions of people out of danger at short notice. Storms of similar strength that have hit East Africa, like <a href="https://www.dw.com/en/zimbabwe-after-cyclone-idai-building-climate-friendly-practices/a-54251885" target="_blank">cyclones Idai</a> and Kenneth, have proved more deadly because fewer people were evacuated before disaster struck.</p><p>The Global Commission on Adaptation estimated in 2019 that a $1.8 trillion investment in early warning systems, buildings, agriculture, mangroves and water resources could reap $7.1 trillion in benefits from economic activity and avoided costs when disasters strike.</p>
Exploring Nature-Based Solutions<p>The report also highlights how restoring nature can protect people from climate change while benefiting local communities and ecology.</p><p><a href="https://www.dw.com/en/climate-fires-risk-climate-change-bushfires-australia-california-extreme-weather-firefighters/a-54817927" target="_blank">Wildfires</a>, for instance, could be made less punishing by restoring grasslands and regularly burning the land in controlled settings. Indigenous communities from Australia to Canada have done this for millennia in a way that encourages plant growth while reducing the risk of uncontrolled wildfires. Reforestation, meanwhile, can stop soil erosion and flooding during heavy rainfall while trapping carbon and protecting wildlife.</p><p>In countries like Brazil and Malaysia, governments could better protect coastal homes from floods and storms by restoring <a href="https://www.dw.com/en/mudflats-mangroves-and-marshes-the-great-coastal-protectors/a-50628747" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">mangroves</a> — tangled trees that grow in tropical swamps. As well as anchoring sediments and absorbing the crash of waves, mangroves can store carbon, help fish populations grow and boost local economies through tourism. </p><p>While nature-based solutions are often cheaper than building hard infrastructure, their funding makes up a "tiny fraction" of adaptation finance, the report authors wrote. An analysis of four global climate funds that spent $94 billion on adaptation projects found that just $12 billion went to nature-based solutions and little of this was spent implementing projects on the ground.</p><p>But little is known about their long-term effectiveness. At higher temperatures, the effects of climate change may be so great that they overwhelm natural defenses like mangroves.</p><p>By 2050, <a href="https://www.dw.com/en/rising-sea-levels-should-we-let-the-ocean-in-a-50704953/a-50704953" target="_blank">coastal floods</a> that used to hit once a century will strike many cities every year, according to a 2019 report on oceans by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the gold standard on climate science. This could force dense cities on low-lying coasts to build higher sea walls, like in Indonesia and South Korea, or evacuate entire communities from sinking islands, like in Fiji.</p><p>It's not a case of replacing infrastructure, said Matthias Garschagen, a geographer at Ludwig Maximilian University in Germany and IPCC author, who was not involved in the UNEP report. "The case for nature-based solutions is often misinterpreted as a battle... but they're part of a toolkit that we've ignored for too long."</p>
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