By Alina Petre
Iron is an essential nutrient that plays an important role in many bodily functions (1).
A diet lacking in iron can result in low energy levels, shortness of breath, headaches, irritability, dizziness or anemia.
Iron can be found in two forms in foods—heme and non-heme. Heme iron is only found in animal products, whereas non-heme iron is only found in plants (2).
The recommended daily intake (RDI) is based on an average intake of 18 mg per day. However, individual requirements vary based on a person's gender and life stage.
For instance, men and post-menopausal women generally require around 8 mg of iron per day. This amount increases to 18 mg per day for menstruating women and to 27 mg per day for pregnant women.
And, since non-heme iron tends to be less easily absorbed by our bodies than heme iron, the RDI for vegetarians and vegans is 1.8 times higher than for meat eaters.
Here is a list of 21 plant foods that are high in iron.
Legumes, including beans, peas and lentils, are great sources of iron.
Listed below are the varieties containing the most iron, from highest to lowest.
1. Tofu, Tempeh, Natto and Soybeans
Soybeans and foods derived from soybeans are packed with iron.
In addition to iron, these soy products contain between 10–19 grams of protein per portion and are also a good source of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium.
Lentils are another iron-filled food, providing 6.6 mg per cup cooked or 37 percent of the RDI (7).
Lentils contain a significant amount of protein, complex carbs, fiber, folate and manganese as well. One cup of cooked lentils contains 18 grams of protein and covers around 50 percent of your recommended daily fiber intake.
3. Other Beans and Peas
Other types of beans contain good amounts of iron as well.
In addition to their iron content, beans and peas are excellent sources of complex carbs, fiber, folate, phosphorus, potassium, manganese and several beneficial plant compounds.
Summary: Beans, peas and lentils are rich in iron. These legumes also contain good amounts of protein, fiber, vitamins, minerals and beneficial plant compounds that may reduce your risk of various diseases.
4–5: Nuts and Seeds
Nuts and seeds serve as two more iron-rich plant sources.
Those who wish to increase their total daily iron intake should add the following varieties to their diet, as they contain the highest amounts.
4. Pumpkin, Sesame, Hemp and Flaxseeds
Products derived from these seeds are also worth considering. For instance, two tablespoons of tahini, a paste made from sesame seeds, contain 2.6 mg of iron—which is 14 percent of the RDI (21).
Similarly, hummus made from chickpeas and tahini provides you with around 3 mg of iron per half cup or 17 percent of the RDI (22).
Seeds contain good amounts of plant protein, fiber, calcium, magnesium, zinc, selenium, antioxidants and other beneficial plant compounds, too (23).
5. Cashews, Pine Nuts and Other Nuts
Nuts and nut butters contain quite a bit of non-heme iron.
This is especially true for almonds, cashews, pine nuts and macadamia nuts, which contain between 1–1.6 mg of iron per ounce or around 6–9 percent of the RDI.
Similarly to seeds, nuts are a great source of protein, fiber, good fats, vitamins and minerals, as well as antioxidants and beneficial plant compounds (23).
Keep in mind that blanching or roasting nuts may damage their nutrients, so favor raw and unblanched varieties (25).
As for nut butters, it's best to choose a 100 percent natural variety to avoid an unnecessary dose of added oils, sugars and salt.
Summary: Nuts and seeds are good sources of non-heme iron, as well as an array of other vitamins, minerals, fiber, healthy fats and beneficial plant compounds. Add a small portion to your menu each day.
Gram per gram, vegetables often have a higher iron content than foods typically associated with high iron, such as meat and eggs.
Though vegetables contain non-heme iron, which is less easily absorbed, they are also generally rich in vitamin C, which helps enhance iron absorption (1).
The following vegetables and vegetable-derived products offer the most iron per serving.
6. Leafy Greens
Leafy greens, such as spinach, kale, swiss chard, collard and beet greens contain between 2.5–6.4 mg of iron per cooked cup or 14–36 percent of the RDI.
Yet due to their light weight, some can find it difficult to consume 100 grams of raw, leafy greens. In this case, it's best to consume them cooked.
7. Tomato Paste
Potatoes contain significant amounts of iron, mostly concentrated in their skins.
More specifically, one large, unpeeled potato (10.5 ounces or 295 grams) provides 3.2 mg of iron, which is 18 percent of the RDI. Sweet potatoes contain slightly less—around 2.1 mg for the same quantity or 12 percent of the RDI (40, 41).
Potatoes are also a great source of fiber. Additionally, one portion can cover up to 46 percent of your daily vitamin C, B6 and potassium requirements.
Certain varieties of mushrooms are particularly rich in iron.
For instance, one cooked cup of white mushrooms contains around 2.7 mg or 15 percent of the RDI (42).
10. Palm Hearts
Palm hearts are a tropical vegetable rich in fiber, potassium, manganese, vitamin C and folate.
A lesser-known fact about palm hearts is that they also contain a fair amount of iron—an impressive 4.6 mg per cup or 26 percent of the RDI (46).
This versatile vegetable can be blended into dips, tossed on the grill, incorporated into a stir-fry, added to salads and even baked with your favorite toppings.
Summary: Vegetables often contain significant amounts of iron. Their generally large volume-to-weight ratio explains why eating them cooked may make it easier to meet your daily requirements.
Fruit is not commonly the food group that individuals turn to when wanting to increase the iron content of their diet.
Nevertheless, some fruits are surprisingly high in iron.
Here are the best sources of iron in this category.
11. Prune Juice
Prunes are known for their mild laxative effect, which helps relieve constipation (47).
However, they're also a good source of iron.
Prune juice is rich in fiber, potassium, vitamin C, vitamin B6 and manganese, too.
Olives are technically a fruit and one with a good iron content at that.
Mulberries are a type of fruit with a particularly impressive nutritional value.
Not only do they offer around 2.6 mg of iron per cup—14 percent of the RDI—but this quantity of mulberries also meets 85 percent of the RDI for vitamin C (54).
Summary: Prune juice, olives and mulberries are the three types of fruit with the highest iron concentration per portion. These fruit also contain antioxidants and a variety of other nutrients beneficial to health.
14–17: Whole Grains
Research links whole grains to a variety of health benefits.
However, not all grains are equally beneficial. For instance, grain processing typically removes parts of the grain that contain fiber, antioxidants, vitamins and minerals, including iron.
For this reason, whole grains typically contain more iron than processed grains. The following are the four types of whole grains containing the most iron per portion.
Amaranth is a gluten-free ancient grain that doesn't grow from grasses like other grains do. For this reason, it is technically considered a "pseudocereal."
Amaranth contains around 5.2 mg of iron per cup cooked or 29 percent of the RDI (60).
Interestingly, amaranth is one of the few complete sources of plant proteins and also contains good amounts of complex carbs, fiber, manganese, phosphorus and magnesium.
Spelt is another iron-rich ancient grain.
It contains around 3.2 mg of iron per cup cooked or 18 percent of the RDI. Moreover, spelt offers around 5–6 grams of protein per portion, which is approximately 1.5 times more protein than more modern grains, such as wheat (61).
Spelt contains a variety of other nutrients, too, including complex carbs, fiber, magnesium, zinc, selenium and B vitamins. Its mineral content may also be slightly higher than more conventional grains (62).
Oats are a tasty and easy way to add iron to your diet.
A cup of cooked oats contains around 3.4 mg of iron—19 percent of the RDI—as well as good amounts of plant protein, fiber, magnesium, zinc and folate (63).
Like amaranth, quinoa is a gluten-free pseudocereal rich in complete protein, fiber, complex carbs, vitamins and minerals.
It offers around 2.8 mg of iron per cup cooked or 16 percent of the RDI. Plus, research links quinoa's rich antioxidant content to a lower risk of medical conditions, including high blood pressure and type 2 diabetes (68).
Summary: Whole grains generally contain more iron than refined grains. The varieties listed above are particularly rich in iron but also contain several other nutrients and plant compounds beneficial to health.
Certain foods do not fit in one of the food groups above, yet contain significant amounts of iron.
Incorporating them into your diet can help you meet your recommended daily iron intakes.
18. Coconut Milk
Coconut milk can be a tasty alternative to cow's milk.
Although very high in fat, it's a good source of several vitamins and minerals, including magnesium, copper and manganese (69).
Coconut milk also contains a good amount of iron—more specifically, around 3.8 mg per half cup (118 ml) or around 21 percent of the RDI.
19. Dark Chocolate
Dark chocolate contains significantly more nutrients than its milk chocolate counterpart.
Not only does it offer 3.3 mg of iron per ounce (28 grams), meeting around 18 percent of the RDI, but it also contains a good amount of fiber, magnesium, copper and manganese (70).
Additionally, dark chocolate is a powerful source of antioxidants, a group of beneficial plant compounds that help protect against various diseases (71).
20. Blackstrap Molasses
Blackstrap molasses is a sweetener often claimed to be healthier than table sugar.
In terms of iron, it contains around 1.8 mg of iron per two tablespoons or around 10 percent of the RDI (72).
This portion also helps cover between 10–30 percent of your recommended daily intake of copper, selenium, potassium, vitamin B6, magnesium and manganese.
However, despite its higher nutrient content, blackstrap molasses remains very high in sugar and should be consumed in moderation.
21. Dried Thyme
Dried thyme is one of the most popular culinary herbs.
Thyme also happens to be one of the herbs with the highest iron content, offering 1.2 mg per dried teaspoon or around 7 percent of the RDI (76).
Sprinkling a little on each meal is a good strategy for those wanting to increase their iron intake.
Summary: Coconut milk, dark chocolate, blackstrap molasses and dried thyme are lesser known, yet undoubtedly rich, sources of iron.
How to Increase Iron Absorption From Plant Foods
The heme iron found in meat and animal products is generally more easily absorbed by the human body than the non-heme iron found in plants.
This amounts to approximately 14 mg per day for men and post-menopausal women, 32 mg per day for menstruating women and 49 mg per day for pregnant women (1).
However, there are various strategies that can be employed to increase the body's ability to absorb non-heme iron. Here are the best-researched methods:
• Eat vitamin C-rich foods: Consuming vitamin C-rich foods together with foods rich in non-heme iron may increase the absorption of iron by up 300 percent (1).
• Avoid coffee and tea with meals: Drinking coffee and tea with meals can reduce iron absorption by 50-90 percent (77).
• Soak, sprout and ferment: Soaking, sprouting and fermenting grains and legumes can improve iron absorption by lowering the amount of phytates naturally present in these foods (78).
• Use a cast iron pan: Foods prepared in a cast iron pan tend to provide two to three times more iron as those prepared in non-iron cookware (79).
• Consume lysine-rich foods: Consuming plant foods like legumes and quinoa that are rich in the amino acid lysine together with your iron-rich meals may increase iron absorption (80).
Summary: The type of iron found in plant foods (non-heme) is less easily absorbed by the body. The methods outlined here can be used to maximize its absorption.
The Bottom Line
Iron is a nutrient necessary for good functioning of the human body.
This mineral can be found in an array of different foods, including many plant foods.
Besides being a good source of iron, the plant foods listed in this article also happen to contain a variety of other nutrients and beneficial plant compounds.
Thus, incorporating them into your diet will not only help you meet your iron requirements, but will also likely benefit your overall health.
Reposted with permission from our media associate Authority Nutrition.
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From the mythical minotaur to the mule, creatures created from merging two or more distinct organisms – hybrids – have played defining roles in human history and culture. However, not all hybrids are as fantastic as the minotaur or as dependable as the mule; in fact, some of them cause human diseases.
When Looking Through a Microscope Isn’t Close Enough.<p>For the last few years, <a href="http://www.rokaslab.org/" target="_blank">our team at Vanderbilt University</a>, <a href="https://www.researchgate.net/lab/Gustavo-Goldman-Lab" target="_blank">Gustavo Goldman's team at São Paulo University in Brazil</a> and many other collaborators around the world have been collecting samples of fungi from patients infected with different species of <em>Aspergillus</em> molds. One of the species we are particularly interested in is <a href="https://doi.org/10.1006/rwgn.2001.0082" target="_blank"><em>Aspergillus nidulans</em>, a relatively common and generally harmless fungus</a>. Clinical laboratories typically identify the species of <em>Aspergillus</em> causing the infection by examining cultures of the fungi under the microscope. The problem with this approach is that very closely related species of <em>Aspergillus</em> tend to look very similar in their broad morphology or physical appearance when viewing them through a microscope.</p><p>Interested in examining the varying abilities of different <em>A. nidulans</em> strains to cause disease, we decided to analyze their total genetic content, or genomes. What we saw came as a total surprise. We had not collected <em>A. nidulans</em> but <em>Aspergillus latus</em>, a close relative of <em>A. nidulans</em> and, as we were to soon find out, <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2020.04.071" target="_blank">a hybrid species that evolved through the fusion of the genomes</a> of two other <em>Aspergillus</em> species: <em>Aspergillus spinulosporus</em> and an unknown close relative of <em>Aspergillus quadrilineatus</em>. Thus, we realized not only that these patients harbored infections from an entirely different species than we thought they were, but also that this species was the first ever <em>Aspergillus</em> hybrid known to cause human infections.</p>
Several Different Fungal Hybrids Cause Human Disease.<p>Hybrid fungi that can cause infections in humans are well known to occur in several different lineages of single-celled fungi known as yeasts. Notable examples include multiple different species of <a href="https://doi.org/10.1002/yea.3242" target="_blank">yeast hybrids</a> that cause the human diseases <a href="https://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/diseases/6218/cryptococcosis" target="_blank">cryptococcosis</a> and <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/fungal/diseases/candidiasis/index.html" target="_blank">candidiasis</a>. Although pathogenic yeast hybrids are well known, our discovery that the <em>A. latus</em> pathogen is a hybrid is a first for molds that cause disease in humans.</p>
(Left) Candida yeasts live on parts of the human body. Imbalance of microbes on the body can allow these yeasts, some of which are hybrids, to grow and cause infection. (Right) Cryptococcus yeasts, including ones that are hybrids, can cause life-threatening infections in primarily immunocompromised people. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention<p><a href="https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1008315" target="_blank">Why certain <em>Aspergillus</em> species are so deadly</a> while others are harmless remains unknown. This may in part be because <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fbr.2007.02.007" target="_blank">combinations of traits, rather than individual traits</a>, underlie organisms' ability to cause disease. So why then are hybrids frequently associated with human disease? Hybrids inherit genetic material from both parents, which may result in new combinations of traits. This may make them more similar to one parent in some of their characteristics, reflect both parents in others or may differ from both in the rest. It is precisely this mix and match of traits that hybrids have inherited from their parental species that <a href="https://www.nytimes.com/2010/09/14/science/14creatures.html" target="_blank">facilitates their evolutionary success</a>, including their ability to cause disease.</p>
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