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21 Best Veggies for a Low-Carb Diet

Food

Vegetables are low in calories but rich in vitamins, minerals and other important nutrients. In addition, many are low in carbs and high in fiber, making them ideal for low-carb diets.

The definition of a low-carb diet varies widely, but most are under 150 grams of carbs per day and some go as low as 20 grams per day. Whether or not you're on a low-carb diet, eating more vegetables is always a great idea.

Whether or not you're on a low-carb diet, eating more vegetables is always a great idea.

Here is a list of the 21 best low-carb vegetables to include in your diet.

1. Bell Peppers

Bell peppers, also known as sweet peppers or capsicums, are incredibly nutritious.

They contain antioxidants called carotenoids that may reduce inflammation, decrease cancer risk and protect cholesterol and fats from oxidative damage (1, 2, 3).

One cup (149 grams) of chopped red pepper contains nine grams of carbs, three of which are fiber (4).

It provides 93 percent of the Reference Daily Intake (RDI) for vitamin A and a whopping 317 percent of the RDI for vitamin C, which is often lacking on very low-carb diets.

Green, orange and yellow bell peppers have similar nutrient profiles, although red pepper is highest in certain antioxidants.

Bottom Line: Bell peppers are anti-inflammatory and high in vitamins A and C. They contain 6 grams of digestible (“net") carbs per serving.

2. Broccoli

Broccoli is a true superfood.

It's a member of the cruciferous vegetable family, which includes kale, Brussels sprouts, radishes and cabbage.

Studies show broccoli may decrease insulin resistance in type 2 diabetics. It's also thought to protect against several types of cancer, including prostate cancer (5, 6, 7).

One cup (91 grams) of raw broccoli contains 6 grams of carbs, two of them fiber (8).

It also provides more than 100 percent of the RDI for vitamins C and K.

Bottom Line: Broccoli contains 4 grams of digestible carbs per serving. It's high in vitamins C and K, may reduce insulin resistance and help prevent cancer.

3. Asparagus

Asparagus is a delicious spring vegetable.

One cup (180 grams) of cooked asparagus contains 8 grams of carbs, four of which are fiber. It's also a good source of vitamins A, C and K (9).

Test-tube studies have found that asparagus may help stop the growth of several types of cancer and studies in mice suggest it may help protect brain health and reduce anxiety (10, 11, 12, 13, 14).

Bottom Line: Asparagus contains 4 grams of digestible carbs per serving. It's a good source of several vitamins and may help protect against certain types of cancer.

4. Mushrooms

Mushrooms are extremely low in carbs.

A one-cup (70-gram) serving of raw white mushrooms contains just 2 grams of carbs, 1 of which is fiber (15).

What's more, they've been shown to have strong anti-inflammatory properties (16).

In a study of men with metabolic syndrome, eating 100 grams (3.5 ounces) of white mushrooms for 16 weeks led to significant improvements in antioxidant and anti-inflammatory markers (17).

Bottom Line: Mushrooms contain 1 gram of digestible carbs per serving. They can reduce inflammation in people with metabolic syndrome.

5. Zucchini

Zucchini is a popular vegetable and the most common type of summer squash. Summer squash has a long shape and soft skin that can be eaten.

In contrast, winter squash comes in a variety of shapes, has an inedible rind and is higher in carbs than summer varieties.

One cup (124 grams) of raw zucchini contains 4 grams of carbs, one of them fiber. It's a good source of vitamin C, providing 35 percent of the RDI per serving (18).

Yellow Italian squash and other types of summer squash have carb counts and nutrient profiles similar to zucchini.

Bottom Line: Zucchini and other types of summer squash contain 3 grams of digestible carbs per serving and are high in vitamin C.

6. Spinach

Spinach is a leafy green vegetable that provides major health benefits.

Researchers report that it can help prevent damage to DNA. It also protects heart health and may decrease the risk of common eye diseases like cataracts and macular degeneration (19, 20, 21).

What's more, it's an excellent source of several vitamins and minerals. One cup (180 grams) of cooked spinach provides more than 10 times the RDI for vitamin K (22).

Spinach is also low in carbs, but the carbs become more concentrated as the leaves are cooked down and lose their volume.

For example, one cup of cooked spinach contains 7 grams of carbs with 4 grams of fiber, whereas one cup of raw spinach contains 1 gram of carbs with almost 1 gram of fiber (22, 23).

Bottom Line: Cooked spinach contains 3 grams of digestible carbs per serving, is very high in vitamin K and helps protect heart and eye health.

7. Avocados

Avocados are a unique and delicious food.

Although technically a fruit, avocados are typically consumed as vegetables. They're also high in fat and contain very few digestible carbs.

A one-cup (150-gram) serving of chopped avocados has 13 grams of carbs, 10 of which are fiber (24).

Avocados are also rich in oleic acid, a type of monounsaturated fat that has beneficial effects on health. Small studies have found that avocados can help lower LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels (25, 26).

They're also a good source of vitamin C, folate and potassium.

Although avocados are a fairly high-calorie food, they may be beneficial for weight management. In one study, overweight people who included half an avocado at lunch reported feeling fuller and had less desire to eat over the next five hours (27).

Bottom Line: Avocados provide 3 grams of net carbs per serving. They promote feelings of fullness and are high in heart-healthy fat and fiber.

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8. Cauliflower

Cauliflower is one of the most versatile and popular low-carb vegetables.

It has a very mild taste and can be used as a substitute for potatoes, rice and other higher-carb foods.

One cup (100 grams) of raw cauliflower contains 5 grams of carbs, three of which are fiber. It's also high in vitamin K and provides 77 percent of the RDI for vitamin C (28).

Like other cruciferous vegetables, it's also associated with a reduced risk of heart disease and cancer (29, 30).

Bottom Line: Cauliflower contains 2 grams of digestible carbs per serving. It is also high in vitamins K and C and may help prevent heart disease and cancer.

9. Green Beans

Green beans are sometimes referred to as snap beans or string beans.

They are a member of the legume family, along with beans and lentils. However, they have significantly fewer carbs than most legumes do.

A one-cup (125-gram) serving of cooked green beans contains 10 grams of carbs, four of which are from fiber (31).

They're high in the green pigment known as chlorophyll, which animal studies suggest may help protect against cancer (32).

In addition, they contain carotenoids, which are associated with improved brain function during aging (33).

Bottom Line: Green beans contain 6 grams of digestible carbs per serving, as well as antioxidants that may help prevent cancer and protect the brain.

10. Lettuce

Lettuce is one of the lowest-carb vegetables around.

One cup (47 grams) of lettuce contains 2 grams of carbs, one of which is fiber (34).

Depending on the type, it may also be a good source of certain vitamins.

For instance, romaine and other dark-green varieties are rich in vitamins A, C and K. They're also high in folate.

Folate helps decrease levels of homocysteine, a compound known to increase heart disease risk. In one study of 37 women, consuming foods high in folate for five weeks reduced homocysteine levels by 13 percent, compared to a low-folate diet (35).

Bottom Line: Lettuce contains 1 gram of digestible carbs per serving. It's high in several vitamins, including folate, which may lower heart disease risk.

11. Garlic

Garlic is known for its beneficial effects on immune function.

Studies have found that it may boost resistance to the common cold virus and decrease blood pressure (36, 37, 38).

Although it's a high-carb vegetable by weight, the amount typically consumed at a sitting is very low due to its strong taste and aroma.

One clove (3 grams) of garlic contains 1 gram of carbs, part of which is fiber (39).

Bottom Line: Garlic contains 1 gram of digestible carbs per clove. It may reduce blood pressure and improve immune function.

12. Kale

Kale is a trendy vegetable that's also extremely nutritious.

It's loaded with antioxidants, including quercetin and kaempferol.

These have been shown to lower blood pressure and may also help protect against heart disease, type 2 diabetes and other diseases (40, 41, 42).

One cup (67 grams) of raw kale contains 7 grams of carbs, one of which comes from fiber. It also provides an impressive 206 percent of the RDI for vitamin A and 134 percent of the RDI for vitamin C (43).

A high intake of vitamin C has been shown to improve immune function and increase the skin's ability to fight damaging free radicals, which can speed up the aging process (44, 45).

Bottom Line: Kale contains 6 grams of digestible carbs per serving. It's high in antioxidants and has more than 100 percent of the RDI for vitamins A and C.

13. Cucumbers

Cucumbers are low in carbs and very refreshing.

One cup (104 grams) of chopped cucumber contains 4 grams of carbs with less than 1 gram from fiber (46).

Although cucumbers aren't very high in vitamins or minerals, they contain a compound called cucurbitacin E, which may have beneficial effects on health.

Results from test-tube and animal studies suggest it has anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties and may protect brain health (47, 48, 49).

Bottom Line: Cucumbers contain just under 4 grams of digestible carbs per serving. They may help protect against cancer and support brain health.

14. Brussels Sprouts

Brussels sprouts are another delicious cruciferous vegetable.

A half-cup (78-gram) serving of cooked Brussels sprouts contains 6 grams of carbs, two of which are fiber (50).

It also provides 80 percent of the RDI for vitamin C and 137 percent of the RDI for vitamin K.

What's more, controlled human studies suggest that eating Brussels sprouts may reduce risk factors for cancer, including colon cancer (51, 52).

Bottom Line: Brussels sprouts contain 4 grams of digestible carbs per serving. They're high in vitamins C and K and may help reduce cancer risk.

15. Celery

Celery is extremely low in digestible carbs.

A one-cup (101-gram) serving of chopped celery contains 3 grams of carbs, 2 of which are fiber. It's a good source of vitamin K, providing 37 percent of the RDI (53).

In addition, it contains luteolin, an antioxidant that shows potential for both preventing and helping to treat cancer (54).

Bottom Line: Celery provides 1 gram of digestible carbs per serving. It also contains luteolin, which may have anti-cancer properties.

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16. Tomatoes

Tomatoes have a number of impressive health benefits.

Like avocados, they are technically fruits but usually consumed as vegetables.

They're also low in digestible carbs. One cup (149 grams) of cherry tomatoes contains 6 grams of carbs, two of which are fiber (55).

Tomatoes are a good source of vitamins A, C and K. In addition, they're high in potassium, which can help reduce blood pressure and decrease stroke risk (56).

They've also been shown to strengthen the endothelial cells that line your arteries and their high lycopene content may help prevent prostate cancer (57, 58).

Cooking tomatoes increases lycopene content and adding fats such as olive oil during cooking has been shown to boost its absorption (59).

Bottom Line: Tomatoes contain 4 grams of digestible carbs per serving and are high in vitamins and potassium. They may help protect heart health and reduce cancer risk.

17. Radishes

Radishes are low-carb vegetables with a sharp, peppery taste.

One cup (116 grams) of raw sliced radishes contains 4 grams of carbs, two of which are fiber (60).

They're fairly high in vitamin C, providing 29 percent of the RDI per serving.

Radishes are one of the Brassica vegetables, which have been shown to reduce the risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women by modifying the way the body metabolizes estrogen (61).

Bottom Line: Radishes contain 2 grams of digestible carbs per serving and may help reduce the risk of breast cancer in older women.

18. Onions

Onions are a tasty and nutritious vegetable.

Although they are fairly high in carbs by weight, they're usually consumed in small amounts because of their robust flavor.

A half cup (58 grams) of sliced raw onions contains 6 grams of carbs, one of which is fiber (62).

Onions are high in the antioxidant quercetin, which may lower blood pressure (63).

One study of overweight and obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) found that red onion consumption reduced LDL cholesterol levels (64).

Bottom Line: Onions contain 5 grams of digestible carbs per serving and may help lower blood pressure and LDL cholesterol levels.

19. Eggplant

Eggplant is a common vegetable in many Italian and Asian dishes.

A one-cup (99-gram) serving of chopped, cooked eggplant contains 8 grams of carbs, two of which are fiber (65).

It's not very high in most vitamins or minerals, but animal research suggests eggplant may help lower cholesterol and improve other markers of heart health (66).

It also contains an antioxidant known as nasunin in the purple pigment of its skin. Researchers have reported that nasunin helps reduce free radicals and may protect brain health (67).

Bottom Line: Eggplant contains 6 grams of digestible carbs per serving and may help protect heart and brain health.

20. Cabbage

Cabbage has some impressive health benefits.

As a cruciferous vegetable, it may help reduce the risk of certain cancers, including esophageal and stomach cancer (68, 69).

One cup (89 grams) of chopped raw cabbage contains 5 grams of carbs, three of which are fiber (70).

It also provides 54 percent of the RDI for vitamin C and 85 percent of the RDI for vitamin K.

Bottom Line: Cabbage contains 2 grams of digestible carbs per serving. It's high in vitamins C and K and may reduce the risk of certain cancers.

21. Artichokes

Artichokes are delicious and nutritious.

One medium-sized globe artichoke (120 grams) contains 14 grams of carbs.

However, 10 grams come from fiber, making it very low in digestible (net) carbs (71).

A portion of the fiber is inulin, which acts as a prebiotic that feeds the healthy gut bacteria (72).

What's more, artichokes may protect heart health. In one study, when people with high cholesterol drank artichoke juice, they experienced a reduction in inflammatory markers and improvement in blood vessel function (73).

Bottom Line: Artichokes contain 4 grams of digestible carbs per serving and may improve gut and heart health.

Take Home Message

There are many tasty vegetables that can be included on a low-carb diet.

In addition to being low in carbs and calories, they may also reduce disease risk and improve your overall health and well-being.

This article was reposted from our media associate Authority Nutrition.

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Brazilians living in The Netherlands organized a demonstration in solidarity with rainforest protectors and against the president of Brazil, Jair Bolsonaro on Sept. 1 in The Hague, Netherlands. Romy Arroyo Fernandez / NurPhoto / Getty Images

By Tara Smith

Fires in the Brazilian Amazon have jumped 84 percent during President Jair Bolsonaro's first year in office and in July 2019 alone, an area of rainforest the size of Manhattan was lost every day. The Amazon fires may seem beyond human control, but they're not beyond human culpability.

Bolsonaro ran for president promising to "integrate the Amazon into the Brazilian economy". Once elected, he slashed the Brazilian environmental protection agency budget by 95 percent and relaxed safeguards for mining projects on indigenous lands. Farmers cited their support for Bolsonaro's approach as they set fires to clear rainforest for cattle grazing.

Bolsonaro's vandalism will be most painful for the indigenous people who call the Amazon home. But destruction of the world's largest rainforest may accelerate climate change and so cause further suffering worldwide. For that reason, Brazil's former environment minister, Marina Silva, called the Amazon fires a crime against humanity.

From a legal perspective, this might be a helpful way of prosecuting environmental destruction. Crimes against humanity are international crimes, like genocide and war crimes, which are considered to harm both the immediate victims and humanity as a whole. As such, all of humankind has an interest in their punishment and deterrence.

Historical Precedent

Crimes against humanity were first classified as an international crime during the Nuremberg trials that followed World War II. Two German Generals, Alfred Jodl and Lothar Rendulic, were charged with war crimes for implementing scorched earth policies in Finland and Norway. No one was charged with crimes against humanity for causing the unprecedented environmental damage that scarred the post-war landscapes though.

Our understanding of the Earth's ecology has matured since then, yet so has our capacity to pollute and destroy. It's now clear that the consequences of environmental destruction don't stop at national borders. All humanity is placed in jeopardy when burning rainforests flood the atmosphere with CO₂ and exacerbate climate change.

Holding someone like Bolsonaro to account for this by charging him with crimes against humanity would be a world first. If successful, it could set a precedent which might stimulate more aggressive legal action against environmental crimes. But do the Amazon fires fit the criteria?

Prosecuting crimes against humanity requires proof of widespread and systematic attacks against a civilian population. If a specific part of the global population is persecuted, this is an affront to the global conscience. In the same way, domestic crimes are an affront to the population of the state in which they occur.

When prosecuting prominent Nazis in Nuremberg, the US chief prosecutor, Robert Jackson, argued that crimes against humanity are committed by individuals, not abstract entities. Only by holding individuals accountable for their actions can widespread atrocities be deterred in future.

The International Criminal Court's Chief Prosecutor, Fatou Bensouda, has promised to apply the approach first developed in Nuremberg to prosecute individuals for international crimes that result in significant environmental damage. Her recommendations don't create new environmental crimes, such as "ecocide", which would punish severe environmental damage as a crime in itself. They do signal, however, a growing appreciation of the role that environmental damage plays in causing harm and suffering to people.

The International Criminal Court was asked in 2014 to open an investigation into allegations of land-grabbing by the Cambodian government. In Cambodia, large corporations and investment firms were being given prime agricultural land by the government, displacing up to 770,000 Cambodians from 4m hectares of land. Prosecuting these actions as crimes against humanity would be a positive first step towards holding individuals like Bolsonaro accountable.

But given the global consequences of the Amazon fires, could environmental destruction of this nature be legally considered a crime against all humanity? Defining it as such would be unprecedented. The same charge could apply to many politicians and business people. It's been argued that oil and gas executives who've funded disinformation about climate change for decades should be chief among them.

Charging individuals for environmental crimes against humanity could be an effective deterrent. But whether the law will develop in time to prosecute people like Bolsonaro is, as yet, uncertain. Until the International Criminal Court prosecutes individuals for crimes against humanity based on their environmental damage, holding individuals criminally accountable for climate change remains unlikely.

This story originally appeared in The Conversation. It is republished here as part of EcoWatch's partnership with Covering Climate Now, a global collaboration of more than 250 news outlets to strengthen coverage of the climate story.

Author, social activist and filmmaker Naomi Klein speaking on the one year anniversary of Hurricane Maria on Sept. 20, 2018. Erik McGregor / Pacific Press / LightRocket / Getty Images

By Natalie Hanman

Why are you publishing this book now?

I still feel that the way that we talk about climate change is too compartmentalised, too siloed from the other crises we face. A really strong theme running through the book is the links between it and the crisis of rising white supremacy, the various forms of nationalism and the fact that so many people are being forced from their homelands, and the war that is waged on our attention spans. These are intersecting and interconnecting crises and so the solutions have to be as well.

The book collects essays from the last decade, have you changed your mind about anything?

When I look back, I don't think I placed enough emphasis on the challenge climate change poses to the left. It's more obvious the way the climate crisis challenges a rightwing dominant worldview, and the cult of serious centrism that never wants to do anything big, that's always looking to split the difference. But this is also a challenge to a left worldview that is essentially only interested in redistributing the spoils of extractivism [the process of extracting natural resources from the earth] and not reckoning with the limits of endless consumption.

What's stopping the left doing this?

In a North American context, it's the greatest taboo of all to actually admit that there are going to be limits. You see that in the way Fox News has gone after the Green New Deal – they are coming after your hamburgers! It cuts to the heart of the American dream – every generation gets more than the last, there is always a new frontier to expand to, the whole idea of settler colonial nations like ours. When somebody comes along and says, actually, there are limits, we've got some tough decisions, we need to figure out how to manage what's left, we've got to share equitably – it is a psychic attack. And so the response [on the left] has been to avoid, and say no, no, we're not coming to take away your stuff, there are going to be all kinds of benefits. And there aregoing to be benefits: we'll have more livable cities, we'll have less polluted air, we'll spend less time stuck in traffic, we can design happier, richer lives in so many ways. But we are going to have to contract on the endless, disposable consumption side.

Do you feel encouraged by talk of the Green New Deal?

I feel a tremendous excitement and a sense of relief, that we are finally talking about solutions on the scale of the crisis we face. That we're not talking about a little carbon tax or a cap and trade scheme as a silver bullet. We're talking about transforming our economy. This system is failing the majority of people anyway, which is why we're in this period of such profound political destabilisation – that is giving us the Trumps and the Brexits, and all of these strongman leaders – so why don't we figure out how to change everything from bottom to top, and do it in a way that addresses all of these other crises at the same time? There is every chance we will miss the mark, but every fraction of a degree warming that we are able to hold off is a victory and every policy that we are able to win that makes our societies more humane, the more we will weather the inevitable shocks and storms to come without slipping into barbarism. Because what really terrifies me is what we are seeing at our borders in Europe and North America and Australia – I don't think it's coincidental that the settler colonial states and the countries that are the engines of that colonialism are at the forefront of this. We are seeing the beginnings of the era of climate barbarism. We saw it in Christchurch, we saw it in El Paso, where you have this marrying of white supremacist violence with vicious anti-immigrant racism.

That is one of the most chilling sections of your book: I think that's a link a lot of people haven't made.

This pattern has been clear for a while. White supremacy emerged not just because people felt like thinking up ideas that were going to get a lot of people killed but because it was useful to protect barbaric but highly profitable actions. The age of scientific racism begins alongside the transatlantic slave trade, it is a rationale for that brutality. If we are going to respond to climate change by fortressing our borders, then of course the theories that would justify that, that create these hierarchies of humanity, will come surging back. There have been signs of that for years, but it is getting harder to deny because you have killers who are screaming it from the rooftops.

One criticism you hear about the environment movement is that it is dominated by white people. How do you address that?

When you have a movement that is overwhelmingly representative of the most privileged sector of society then the approach is going to be much more fearful of change, because people who have a lot to lose tend to be more fearful of change, whereas people who have a lot to gain will tend to fight harder for it. That's the big benefit of having an approach to climate change that links it to those so called bread and butter issues: how are we going to get better paid jobs, affordable housing, a way for people to take care of their families?

I have had many conversations with environmentalists over the years where they seem really to believe that by linking fighting climate change with fighting poverty, or fighting for racial justice, it's going to make the fight harder. We have to get out of this "my crisis is bigger than your crisis: first we save the planet and then we fight poverty and racism, and violence against women". That doesn't work. That alienates the people who would fight hardest for change.

This debate has shifted a huge amount in the U.S. because of the leadership of the climate justice movement and because it is congresswomen of colour who are championing the Green New Deal. Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez, Ilhan Omar, Ayanna Pressley and Rashida Tlaibcome from communities that have gotten such a raw deal under the years of neoliberalism and longer, and are determined to represent, truly represent, the interests of those communities. They're not afraid of deep change because their communities desperately need it.

In the book, you write: "The hard truth is that the answer to the question 'What can I, as an individual, do to stop climate change?' is: nothing." Do you still believe that?

In terms of the carbon, the individual decisions that we make are not going to add up to anything like the kind of scale of change that we need. And I do believe that the fact that for so many people it's so much more comfortable to talk about our own personal consumption, than to talk about systemic change, is a product of neoliberalism, that we have been trained to see ourselves as consumers first. To me that's the benefit of bringing up these historical analogies, like the New Deal or the Marshall Plan – it brings our minds back to a time when we were able to think of change on that scale. Because we've been trained to think very small. It is incredibly significant that Greta Thunberg has turned her life into a living emergency.

Yes, she set sail for the UN climate summit in New York on a zero carbon yacht ...

Exactly. But this isn't about what Greta is doing as an individual. It's about what Greta is broadcasting in the choices that she makes as an activist, and I absolutely respect that. I think it's magnificent. She is using the power that she has to broadcast that this is an emergency, and trying to inspire politicians to treat it as an emergency. I don't think anybody is exempt from scrutinising their own decisions and behaviours but I think it is possible to overemphasise the individual choices. I have made a choice – and this has been true since I wrote No Logo, and I started getting these "what should I buy, where should I shop, what are the ethical clothes?" questions. My answer continues to be that I am not a lifestyle adviser, I am not anyone's shopping guru, and I make these decisions in my own life but I'm under no illusion that these decisions are going to make the difference.

Some people are choosing to go on birth strikes. What do you think about that?

I'm happy these discussions are coming into the public domain as opposed to being furtive issues we're afraid to talk about. It's been very isolating for people. It certainly was for me. One of the reasons I waited as long as I did to try and get pregnant, and I would say this to my partner all the time – what, you want to have a Mad Max water warrior fighting with their friends for food and water? It wasn't until I was part of the climate justice movement and I could see a path forward that I could even imagine having a kid. But I would never tell anybody how to answer this most intimate of questions. As a feminist who knows the brutal history of forced sterilisation and the ways in which women's bodies become battle zones when policymakers decide that they are going to try and control population, I think that the idea that there are regulatory solutions when it comes to whether or not to have kids is catastrophically ahistorical. We need to be struggling with our climate grief together and our climate fears together, through whatever decision we decide to make, but the discussion we need to have is how do we build a world so that those kids can have thriving, zero-carbon lives?

Over the summer, you encouraged people to read Richard Powers's novel, The Overstory. Why?

It's been incredibly important to me and I'm happy that so many people have written to me since. What Powers is writing about trees: that trees live in communities and are in communication, and plan and react together, and we've been completely wrong in the way we conceptualise them. It's the same conversation we're having about whether we are going to solve this as individuals or whether we are going to save the collective organism. It's also rare, in good fiction, to valorise activism, to treat it with real respect, failures and all, to acknowledge the heroism of the people who put their bodies on the line. I thought Powers did that in a really extraordinary way.

What are you views on what Extinction Rebellion has achieved?

One thing they have done so well is break us out of this classic campaign model we have been in for a long time, where you tell someone something scary, you ask them to click on something to do something about it, you skip out the whole phase where we need to grieve together and feel together and process what it is that we just saw. Because what I hear a lot from people is, ok, maybe those people back in the 1930s or 40s could organise neighbourhood by neighbourhood or workplace by workplace but we can't. We believe we've been so downgraded as a species that we are incapable of that. The only thing that is going to change that belief is getting face to face, in community, having experiences, off our screens, with one another on the streets and in nature, and winning some things and feeling that power.

You talk about stamina in the book. How do you keep going? Do you feel hopeful?

I have complicated feelings about the hope question. Not a day goes by that I don't have a moment of sheer panic, raw terror, complete conviction that we are doomed, and then I do pull myself out of it. I'm renewed by this new generation that is so determined, so forceful. I'm inspired by the willingness to engage in electoral politics, because my generation, when we were in our 20s and 30s, there was so much suspicion around getting our hands dirty with electoral politics that we lost a lot of opportunities. What gives me the most hope right now is that we've finally got the vision for what we want instead, or at least the first rough draft of it. This is the first time this has happened in my lifetime. And also, I did decide to have kids. I have a seven year old who is so completely obsessed and in love with the natural world. When I think about him, after we've spent an entire summer talking about the role of salmon in feeding the forests where he was born in British Columbia, and how they are linked to the health of the trees and the soil and the bears and the orcas and this entire magnificent ecosystem, and I think about what it would be like to have to tell him that there are no more salmon, it kills me. So that motivates me. And slays me.

This story was originally published by The Guardian, and is republished here as part of the Covering Climate Now partnership to strengthen the media's focus on the climate crisis.

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