165 Million Plastic Particles Are Floating in Waters Surrounding New York City
By NY/NJ Baykeeper
NY/NJ Baykeeper has released the results from a plastic collection study detailing the sizes, types and concentrations of plastic pollution within New York-New Jersey Harbor Estuary waters. The Harbor Estuary encompasses the Ports of New York and New Jersey, as far north as the Tappan Zee Bridge and as far south as Sandy Hook Bay. NY/NJ Baykeeper's results represent one of the first examinations of plastic pollution within waters surrounding New York City.
Our results are in! 165 MILLION #plastic particles present in NY-NJ Harbor waters! https://t.co/NwosBcugO5 https://t.co/WxDI5xerKv— NY/NJ Baykeeper (@NY/NJ Baykeeper)1455030764.0
Based on NY/NJ Baykeeper's estimates, at least 165 million plastic particles are floating within New York-New Jersey Harbor Estuary waters at any given time. The average abundance of plastic particles is 256,322 per square kilometer.
Eighteen samples were collected from New York City and New Jersey waters including the East River, the Upper New York Bay, Newtown Creek, the Lower Harbor near Perth Amboy, New Jersey, the Passaic River, the Morris Canal, the Arthur Kill, the Lower Newark Bay and the Upper Newark Bay. Based on results from the sites sampled, the average plastic quantity per square kilometer from New York City samples was approximately twice the average of New Jersey samples.
“With a population of more than 8 million, New York City must take aggressive policy action like phasing out foam and plastic bags to reduce damage caused by plastic pollution," Sandra Meola, communications and outreach associate at NY/NJ Baykeeper, said. “Coupled with consumer education, legislation should be a priority, especially in the 'to-go' city. We can't keep using throwaway products that are used for a few minutes but take decades to break down."
Samples were collected using a net called a manta trawl, which is designed to collect floatable debris off the water's surface. The net is of the same specifications used by the 5 Gyres Institute for international ocean research and for the survey completed in the Great Lakes region by Dr. Sherri Mason.
“This ground-breaking initial study of the NY-NJ Harbor Estuary continues the story that was started with our work in the Great Lakes. Plastic pollution is everywhere and the closer we get to the sources (us) the higher the counts," Dr. Sherri Mason, professor of chemistry at SUNY Fredonia, said. “Our science will continue, but the facts are clear: we must re-evaluate our relationship with this material. Single-use disposable plastics are a plague to our waters and therefore to our society, but fortunately it is one that is easily solved. We had life before plastic and I have full faith we can find a way to break our plastic addiction."
Plastics present in samples were categorized by size and type and then counted using a dissecting microscope. Categories included fragments, foam, line, pellets and film. The most abundant type of plastic present in samples was foam (38 percent). Approximately 85 percent of particles counted were microplastics. Microplastics are particles smaller than 5mm, about the size of a grain of rice. Microplastics are also considered by various experts to cause the most damage to aquatic life and habitat.
"We are beginning to see evidence of just how prevalent plastic pollution is in our waters. Plastic trash and debris, along with microplastics, are contaminating fish, birds, mammals, even plankton," Dave Conover, project partner and education director at Hudson River Sloop Clearwater, said. “By gathering more data, we can get a clearer picture of the sources of this pollution and create effective strategies to reduce it. We have a responsibility to get plastics out of our waters."
Moving forward, NY/NJ Baykeeper will continue collecting water column samples, with project partners and will collaborate with Environmental Protection Agency Region 2's Trash Free Waters Partnership to share and compare research and advocacy strategies. The Trash Free Waters Partnership is a group of New York and New Jersey stakeholders focused on reducing and eliminating plastic pollution.
Rutgers University's Center for Urban Environmental Sustainability is supporting the efforts of NY/NJ Baykeeper in their mission to remove plastic materials from the Harbor Estuary's water bodies. Dr. Beth Ravit, Rutgers University's Center for Urban Environmental Sustainability co-director, has been awarded a grant from the New Jersey Water Resources Research Institute that sponsors further research with NY/NJ Baykeeper to determine the impact of microplastic particles in the freshwater reaches of the Raritan and Passaic Rivers.
“These studies will determine microplastic concentrations and analyze persistent organic contaminants associated with the plastic particles," Ravit said. "Dr. Keith Cooper of Rutgers will analyze the effects plastics and toxins pose to fish larvae."
NY/NJ Baykeeper's report also includes steps the public can take to refuse and eliminate plastic from everyday life including using reusable water bottles, bags and shopping in bulk at grocery stores. NY/NJ Baykeeper encourages the public to get involved in local shoreline cleanup efforts.
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By Gwen Ranniger
In the midst of a pandemic, sales of cleaning products have skyrocketed, and many feel a need to clean more often. Knowing what to look for when purchasing cleaning supplies can help prevent unwanted and dangerous toxics from entering your home.
1. Fragrance – Avoid It<p>One of the fastest ways to narrow down your product options is immediately eliminating any product that promotes a fragrance, or parfum. That scent of "fresh breeze" or lemon might initially smell good, but the fragrance does not last. What does last? The concoction of various undisclosed and unregulated chemicals that created that fragrance.</p><p>Many fragrances contain phthalates, which are linked to many health risks including reproductive problems and cancer.</p>
2. With Bleach? Do Without<p>Going scent-free should have narrowed down your options substantially – now, check the front of the remaining packaging. Any that include ammonia or chlorine bleach ought to go, as these substances are irritating and corrosive to your body. While bleach is commonly known as a powerful disinfectant, there are safer alternatives that you can use in your home, such as sodium borate or hydrogen peroxide.</p><p>While you're at it, check if there are any warnings on the label – "flammable," "use in ventilated area," etc. – if the product is hazardous, that's a red flag and should be avoided.</p>
3. Check the Back Label<p>Flip to the back of the remaining contenders and check out that ingredient list. Less is more, here. Opt for a shorter ingredient list with words you recognize and/or can pronounce.</p><p>You may notice many products do not have ingredient lists – while this doesn't necessarily mean they contain toxic ingredients, transparency is key. Feel free to look up a list online, or stick to products that are open about their ingredients.</p>
4. Ingredients to Avoid<p>We already mentioned that cleaners containing fragrance or parfum, and bleach or ammonia should be avoided, but there are other ingredients to look out for as well.</p><ul><li>Quaternary ammonium "quats" – lung irritants that contribute to asthma and other breathing problems. Also linger on surfaces long after they've been cleaned.</li><li>Parabens – Known hormone disruptor; can contribute to ailments such as cancer</li><li>Triclosan – triclosan and other antibacterial chemicals are registered with the EPA as pesticides. Triclosan is a known hormone disruptor and can also impact your immune system.</li><li>Formaldehyde – Causes irritation of eyes, nose, and throat; studies suggest formaldehyde exposure is linked with certain varieties of cancer. Can be found in products or become a byproduct of chemical reactions in the air.</li></ul>
Cleaning Products and Toxics: The Bottom Line<p>Do your research. There are many cleaning products available, but taking these steps will drastically reduce your options and help keep your home toxic-free. Protecting your home from bacteria and viruses is important, but make sure you do so in a way that doesn't introduce other health risks into the home.</p><p><em>Reposted with permission from </em><em><a href="https://www.ehn.org/how-to-shop-for-cleaning-products-while-avoiding-toxics-2648130273.html" target="_blank">Environmental Health News</a>. </em><a href="https://www.ecowatch.com/r/entryeditor/2649054624#/" target="_self"></a></p>
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By Christina Gish Hill
Historians know that turkey and corn were part of the first Thanksgiving, when Wampanoag peoples shared a harvest meal with the pilgrims of Plymouth plantation in Massachusetts. And traditional Native American farming practices tell us that squash and beans likely were part of that 1621 dinner too.
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