13 Ways Diet and Lifestyle Can Help You Live a Longer Life
Many people think life expectancy is largely determined by genetics. However, it seems that genes play a much smaller role than originally believed.
Here are 13 things you can do to increase the chances of seeing your 100th birthday:
1. Avoid Overeating
The link between calorie intake and longevity currently generates a lot of interest.
Research shows that a 10–50 percent reduction in normal calorie intake may increase maximum lifespan—at least in some animal studies (1).
That being said, long-term calorie restriction is often unsustainable and can include negative side effects, such as increased hunger, low body temperature and a diminished sex drive (3).
Whether calorie restriction slows aging or extends life in humans is not yet fully understood.
Bottom Line: Limiting your calories may help you live longer and protect against disease. However, more research is needed in humans.
2. Eat Some Nuts
Nuts are nutritional powerhouses.
Several studies show that nuts have beneficial effects on heart disease, high blood pressure, inflammation, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, belly fat levels and even some forms of cancer (9, 10, 11, 12).
When it comes to old age, a recent study observed that subjects who consumed at least three servings of nuts per week had a 39 percent lower risk of premature death (13).
Similarly, two recent reviews including more than 350,000 subjects observed that those who ate nuts had a 4–27 percent lower risk of dying during the study period, with the highest reduction for those who ate one serving of nuts per day (14, 15).
Bottom Line: Adding some nuts to your daily food intake may keep you healthy and help you live longer.
3. Use The Spice Turmeric
Due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, curcumin is thought to help maintain brain, heart and lung function, as well as protect against cancers and fight age-related diseases (16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22).
Nevertheless, turmeric has been consumed for thousands of years in other parts of the world and is generally considered safe.
Moreover, given its other potential benefits, you don't have much to lose by adding a little extra turmeric to your meals.
Bottom Line: Curcumin, the main bioactive compound in turmeric, has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Some animal studies suggest that it can increase lifespan.
4. Eat Plenty of Healthy Plant Foods
For example, many studies link the Mediterranean diet to a lower risk of premature death. It's also been linked to a reduced risk of cancer, metabolic syndrome, heart disease, depression and brain deterioration (28, 29, 30, 31).
These effects are attributed to plant foods being rich in a variety of nutrients and antioxidants, including polyphenols, carotenoids, folate and vitamin C (32).
One thing remains clear—eating plenty of plant foods is very likely to benefit health and longevity.
Bottom Line: Eating plenty of plant foods is likely to help you live longer and remain free of various common diseases.
5. Exercise and Be Physically Active
It should come as no surprise that staying physically active can keep you healthy and add years to your life (40).
The minimum amount needed to reap the benefits, such as an additional three years of life, may be as little as 15 minutes per day (41).
Furthermore, the benefits of physical activity seem to be additive, which means that the risk of premature death may decrease by 4 percent for each additional 15 minutes of daily physical activity (41).
A recent review observed a 22 percent lower risk of early death in individuals who exercised, but less than the recommendation of 150 minutes per week (42).
However, people reaching the 150-minute recommendation were 28 percent less likely to die early. What's more, people who exercised beyond that had a 35 percent lower risk of death during the study period (42).
Finally, some research links vigorous activity to a 5 percent greater reduction in risk, compared to activities of low or moderate intensity (43).
Bottom Line: Exercising more than 150 minutes per week is best, but even small amounts of physical activity can benefit health and longevity.
6. Don't Smoke
Smoking is strongly linked to disease and early death (44).
Overall, men and women who smoke may lose up to 10 years of their lives and be three times more likely to die prematurely than those who never pick up a cigarette (45).
Fortunately, it's never too late to quit.
One study reports that individuals who quit smoking by 35 years of age may prolong their lives by up to 8.5 years (46).
Bottom Line: Putting out your cigarette can significantly prolong your life. It's never too late to reap the benefits of quitting smoking.
7. Keep Your Alcohol Intake Moderate
Wine is thought to be particularly beneficial due to its high content of polyphenol antioxidants.
Results from a 29-year study showed that men who preferred wine were 34 percent less likely to die early than those who preferred beer or spirits (49).
In addition, a review observed wine to be especially protective against heart disease, diabetes, neurological disorders and metabolic syndrome (50).
To keep consumption moderate, it is recommended that women aim for 1–2 units or less per day and a maximum of 7 units per week. Men should keep their daily intake to less than 3 units daily, with a maximum of 14 units per week (51).
It's important to note there is no strong research indicating that the benefits linked to moderate drinking are greater than those of not consuming any alcohol.
In other words, there is no need to start drinking if you don't usually consume alcohol.
Bottom Line: If you drink alcohol, maintaining a moderate intake may help prevent disease and prolong your life. Wine may be particularly beneficial.
8. Prioritize Your Happiness
Feeling happy can significantly increase your longevity (52).
In fact, happier individuals had a 3.7 percent reduction in early death over a 5-year study period (53).
A study of 180 Catholic nuns analyzed their self-reported levels of happiness when they first entered the monastery and later compared these levels to their longevity.
Those who felt happiest at 22 years of age were 2.5 times more likely to still be alive six decades later (54).
Finally, a review of 35 studies showed that happy people may live up to 18 percent longer than their less happy counterparts (55).
Bottom Line: Prioritizing what makes you happy is likely to have positive effects, both on your mood and your ability to live longer.
9. Avoid Chronic Stress and Anxiety
Anxiety and stress may significantly decrease your lifespan.
If you're feeling stressed, laughter and optimism could be two key components of the solution.
Studies show that pessimistic individuals have a 42 percent higher risk of early death than their more optimistic counterparts. However, both laughter and an optimistic outlook on life can reduce stress, potentially prolonging your life (62, 63, 64, 65).
Bottom Line: Finding ways to reduce your anxiety and stress levels should be seen as a long-term investment in your lifespan. Also, having an optimistic outlook on life can be beneficial.
10. Nurture Your Social Circle
Researchers report that maintaining healthy social networks can help you live up to 50 percent longer (66).
In fact, having as few as three social ties may decrease your risk of early death by more than 200 percent (67).
Finally, one study reports that providing support may actually be more beneficial than receiving it. So in addition to accepting support from your friends and family, make sure you return the favor (75).
Bottom Line: Nurturing close relationships may result in decreased stress levels, improved immunity and an extended lifespan.
11. Increase Your Conscientiousness
Conscientiousness refers to a person's ability to be self-disciplined, organized, efficient and goal-oriented.
Based on data from a study that followed 1,500 boys and girls into old age, kids who were considered persistent, organized and disciplined grew up to live 11 percent longer than their less conscientious counterparts (76, 77).
Conscientious people may also have lower blood pressure and fewer psychiatric conditions, as well as a lower risk of diabetes and heart or joint problems (78).
This might be partly because conscientious individuals are less likely to take risks and react negatively to stress, but more likely to lead successful professional lives and be responsible about their health (79, 80, 81, 82).
Luckily, conscientiousness can be developed at any stage in life, even through steps as small as tidying up a desk, sticking to a work plan or being on time.
Bottom Line: Being conscientious is associated with a longer lifespan and fewer health problems in old age.
12. Drink Coffee or Tea
Both coffee and tea are linked to a decreased risk of chronic disease.
Just remember that too much caffeine can also lead to anxiety and insomnia, so you may want to limit your intake to the recommended 400 mg per day maximum, which is the equivalent of 4 cups of coffee or less (98, 99).
It's also worth noting that it generally takes 6 hours for caffeine's effects to subside.
Therefore, if you have trouble getting enough high-quality sleep, you may want to shift your intake to earlier in the day.
Bottom Line: Moderate consumption of tea and coffee may be beneficial for healthy aging and longevity.
13. Develop a Good Sleeping Pattern
A recent study reports that longevity is likely linked to regular sleeping patterns, such as going to bed and waking up around the same time each day (100).
Sleep duration also seems to be a factor, with both too little and too much sleep being harmful.
For instance, sleeping less than 5–7 hours per night is linked to a 12 percent greater risk of early death, while sleeping more than 8–9 hours per night could also decrease your lifespan by up to 38 percent (101, 102).
Researchers believe that getting too little sleep can promote inflammation and increase the risk of developing conditions such as diabetes, heart disease and obesity. These are all linked to a shortened lifespan (103, 104, 105, 106).
On the other hand, excessive sleep could be linked to depression, unemployment, low physical activity and undiagnosed health conditions, all of which may negatively affect lifespan (107).
Bottom Line: Developing a sleep routine that includes 7–8 hours of sleep each night may help you live longer.
Take Home Message
Longevity is partly determined by genetics. However, a large part of how long you live remains within your control.
If you want to reach old age, then make sure to give these tips a try.
This article was reposted from our media associate Authority Nutrition.
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The Biden-Harris transition team identified COVID-19, economic recovery, racial equity and climate change as its top priorities. Rivers are the through-line linking all of them. The fact is, healthy rivers can no longer be separated into the "nice-to-have" column of environmental progress. Rivers and streams provide more than 60 percent of our drinking water — and a clear path toward public health, a strong economy, a more just society and greater resilience to the impacts of the climate crisis.
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Wild and Scenic Merced River, California. Bob Wick / BLM<p>Let's begin with COVID-19. More than <a href="https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/us/coronavirus-us-cases.html?name=styln-coronavirus&region=TOP_BANNER&block=storyline_menu_recirc&action=click&pgtype=LegacyCollection&impression_id=2f508610-2a87-11eb-8622-4f6c038cbd1d&variant=1_Show" target="_blank">16 million Americans</a> have contracted the coronavirus and, tragically,<a href="https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/us/coronavirus-us-cases.html?name=styln-coronavirus&region=TOP_BANNER&block=storyline_menu_recirc&action=click&pgtype=LegacyCollection&impression_id=2f508610-2a87-11eb-8622-4f6c038cbd1d&variant=1_Show" target="_blank"> more than</a> <a href="https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/us/coronavirus-us-cases.html?name=styln-coronavirus&region=TOP_BANNER&block=storyline_menu_recirc&action=click&pgtype=LegacyCollection&impression_id=2f508610-2a87-11eb-8622-4f6c038cbd1d&variant=1_Show" target="_blank">300,000 have died</a> due to the pandemic. While health officials encourage hand-washing to contain the pandemic, at least <a href="https://closethewatergap.org/" target="_blank">2 million Americans</a> are currently living without running water, indoor plumbing or wastewater treatment. Meanwhile, <a href="https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2020/jun/23/millions-of-americans-cant-afford-water-bills-rise" target="_blank">aging water infrastructure is growing increasingly costly for utilities to maintain</a>. That cost is passed along to consumers. The upshot? <a href="https://research.msu.edu/affordable-water-in-us-reaching-a-crisis/" target="_blank">More than 13 million</a> U.S. households regularly face unaffordable water bills — and, thus, the threat of water shutoffs. Without basic access to clean water, families and entire communities are at a higher risk of <a href="https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/green/news/2020/08/05/488705/bridging-water-access-gap-covid-19-relief/" target="_blank">contracting</a> and spreading COVID-19.</p><p>We have a moral duty to ensure that everyone has access to clean water to help prevent the spread of the coronavirus. Last spring, <a href="https://nymag.com/intelligencer/2020/03/coronavirus-stimulus-bill-explained-bailouts-unemployment-benefits.html" target="_blank">Congress appropriated more than $4 trillion</a> to jumpstart the economy and bring millions of unemployed Americans back to work. Additional federal assistance — desperately needed — will present a historic opportunity to improve our crumbling infrastructure, which has been <a href="https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2020/jun/23/millions-of-americans-cant-afford-water-bills-rise" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">grossly underfunded for decades</a>.</p><p>A report by my organization, American Rivers, suggests that <a href="https://s3.amazonaws.com/american-rivers-website/wp-content/uploads/2020/07/09223525/ECONOMIC-ENGINES-Report-2020.pdf" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Congress must invest at least $50 billion</a> "to address the urgent water infrastructure needs associated with COVID-19," including the rising cost of water. This initial boost would allow for the replacement and maintenance of sewers, stormwater infrastructure and water supply facilities.</p>
Economic Recovery<p>Investing in water infrastructure and healthy rivers also creates jobs. Consider, for example, that <a href="https://tinyurl.com/y9p6sgnk" target="_blank">every $1 million spent on water infrastructure in the United States generates more than 15 jobs</a> throughout the economy, according to a report by the Value of Water Campaign. Similarly, <a href="https://tinyurl.com/yyvd2ksp" target="_blank">every "$1 million invested in forest and watershed restoration contracting will generate between 15.7 and 23.8 jobs,</a> depending on the work type," states a working paper released by the Ecosystem Workforce Program, University of Oregon. Healthy rivers also spur tourism and recreation, which many communities rely on for their livelihoods. According to the findings by the Outdoor Industry Association, which have been shared in our report, "Americans participating in watersports and fishing spend over <a href="https://s3.amazonaws.com/american-rivers-website/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/30222425/Exec-summary-ECONOMIC-ENGINES-Report-June-30-2020.pdf" target="_blank">$174 billion</a> on gear and trip related expenses. And, the outdoor watersports and fishing economy supports over <a href="https://s3.amazonaws.com/american-rivers-website/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/30222425/Exec-summary-ECONOMIC-ENGINES-Report-June-30-2020.pdf" target="_blank">1.5 million jobs nationwide</a>."</p><p>After the 2008 financial crisis, Congress invested in infrastructure to put Americans back to work. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act <a href="https://thehill.com/blogs/congress-blog/economy-a-budget/25941-clean-water-green-infrastructure-get-major-boost" target="_blank">of 2009 (ARRA) allocated $6 billion</a> for clean water and drinking water infrastructure to decrease unemployment and boost the economy. More specifically, <a href="https://www.conservationnw.org/news-updates/us-reps-push-for-millions-of-restoration-and-resilience-jobs/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">an analysis of ARRA</a> "showed conservation investments generated 15 to 33 jobs per million dollars," and more than doubled the rate of return, according to a letter written in May 2020 by 79 members of Congress, seeking greater funding for restoration and resilience jobs.</p><p>Today, when considering how to create work for the <a href="https://www.bls.gov/news.release/pdf/empsit.pdf" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.7 million</a> people who are currently unemployed, Congress should review previous stimulus investments and build on their successes by embracing major investments in water infrastructure and watershed restoration.</p>
Racial Justice<p>American Rivers also recommends that Congress dedicate <a href="https://s3.amazonaws.com/american-rivers-website/wp-content/uploads/2020/07/09223525/ECONOMIC-ENGINES-Report-2020.pdf" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">$500 billion for rivers and clean water over the next 10 years</a> — not just for the benefit of our environment and economy, but also to begin to address the United States' history of deeply entrenched racial injustice.</p><p>The <a href="https://www.epa.gov/npdes/sanitary-sewer-overflows-ssos" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">23,000-75,000 sewer overflows</a> that occur each year release up to <a href="https://www.americanrivers.org/2020/05/fighting-for-rivers-means-fighting-for-justice/#:~:text=There%20are%20also%2023%2C000%20to%2075%2C000%20sanitary%20sewer,to%20do%20with%20the%20mission%20of%20American%20Rivers." target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10 billion gallons of toxic sewage</a> <em>every day</em> into rivers and streams. This disproportionately impacts communities of color, because, for generations, Black, Indigenous, Latinx and other people of color have been <a href="https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/flooding-disproportionately-harms-black-neighborhoods/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">relegated</a> to live in flood-prone areas and in neighborhoods that have been intentionally burdened with a lack of development that degrades people's health and quality of life. In some communities of color, incessant flooding due to stormwater surges or <a href="https://www.ajc.com/opinion/opinion-partnering-to-better-manage-our-water/7WQ6SEAQP5E4LGQCEYY5DO334Y/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">combined sewer overflows</a> has gone unmitigated for decades.</p><p>We have historically treated people as separate from rivers and water. We can't do that anymore. Every voice — particularly those of people most directly impacted — must have a loudspeaker and be included in decision-making at the highest levels.</p><p>Accordingly, the new administration must diligently invest in projects at the community level that will improve lives in our country's most marginalized communities. We also must go further to ensure that local leaders have a seat at the decision-making table. To this end, the Biden-Harris administration should restore <a href="https://www.epa.gov/cwa-401#:~:text=Section%20401%20Certification%20The%20Clean%20Water%20Act%20%28CWA%29,the%20United%20States.%20Learn%20more%20about%20401%20certification." target="_blank">Section 401 of the Clean Water Act</a>, which was undermined by the <a href="https://earthjustice.org/news/press/2020/tribes-and-environmental-groups-sue-trump-administration-to-preserve-clean-water-protections#:~:text=Under%20Section%20401%20of%20the%20Clean%20Water%20Act%2C,seeks%20to%20undermine%20that%20authority%20in%20several%20ways%3A" target="_blank">Trump administration's 2020 regulatory changes</a>. This provision gives states and tribes the authority to decide whether major development projects, such as hydropower and oil and gas projects, move forward.</p>
Climate Resilience<p>Of course, the menacing shadow looming over it all? Climate change. <a href="https://media.ifrc.org/ifrc/wp-content/uploads/2020/11/IFRC_wdr2020/IFRC_WDR_ExecutiveSummary_EN_Web.pdf" target="_blank">More than 100 climate-related catastrophes</a> have pummeled the Earth since the pandemic was declared last spring, including the blitzkrieg of megafires, superstorms and heat waves witnessed during the summer of 2020, directly impacting the lives of more than <a href="https://media.ifrc.org/ifrc/wp-content/uploads/2020/11/IFRC_wdr2020/IFRC_WDR_ExecutiveSummary_EN_Web.pdf" target="_blank">50 million people globally</a>.</p><p>Water and climate scientist Brad Udall often says, "<a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xQhpj5G0dME" target="_blank">Climate change is water change</a>." In other words, the most obvious and dire impacts of climate change are evidenced in profound changes to our rivers and water resources. You've likely seen it where you live: Floods are more damaging and frequent. Droughts are deeper and longer. Uncertainty is destabilizing industry and lives.</p><p>By galvanizing action for healthy rivers and managing our water resources more effectively, we can insure future generations against the consequences of climate change. First, we must safeguard rivers that are still healthy and free-flowing. Second, we must protect land and property against the ravages of flooding. And finally, we must promote policies and practical solutions that take the science of climate disruption into account when planning for increased flooding, water shortage and habitat disruption.</p><p>Imagine all that rivers do for us. Most of our towns and cities have a river running through them or flowing nearby. Rivers provide clean drinking water, irrigate crops that provide our food, power our homes and businesses, provide wildlife habitat, and are the lifeblood of the places where we enjoy and explore nature, and where we play and nourish our spirits. Healthy watersheds help <a href="https://news.un.org/en/story/2020/03/1059952" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">mitigate</a> climate change, absorbing and reducing the amount of carbon in the atmosphere. Healthy rivers and floodplains help communities adapt and build resilience in the face of climate change by improving flood protection and providing water supply and quality benefits. Rivers are the cornerstones of healthy, strong communities.</p><p>The more than <a href="https://archive.epa.gov/water/archive/web/html/index-17.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">3 million miles</a> of rivers and streams running across our country are a source of great strength and opportunity. When we invest in healthy rivers and clean water, we can improve our lives. When we invest in rivers, we create jobs and strengthen our economy. When we invest in rivers, we invest in our shared future.</p>
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