13 Movies That Showcase the Great Outdoors
Academy Award season is officially in full swing. Have you seen these films that exhibit the outdoors (for better or worse)?
America’s fascination with the outdoors began long before the growth of Hollywood in the early twentieth century, and so it has been woven throughout our cinematic history as well. Typically, the role of wilderness in movies has been adversarial, playing on the trope of “man vs. nature.”
Other times, it serves as a gorgeous backdrop, giving the action a profound sense of place, or even a setting for personal transformation, as in the upcoming film Wild.
Whatever the purpose, the outdoors has played a starring role in many iconic films, from the serious to the silly. Here is our look at a few of them:
A River Runs Through It (1992)
Based on a novel by Norman Maclean, the tale of a family fly-fishing in Montana has drawn praise for its loving portrayal of the Montana outdoors (it is said to have boosted the local economy by piquing tourists’ interest). It also brought attention to the plight of the Blackfoot River, whose polluted state at the time made it unfit for filming (the movie was shot mostly on the Gallatin River instead). Robert Redford’s third effort as a director won an Academy Award for cinematography and led New York Times critic Caryn James to note that she “never thought [she would] say: I like a movie about fly fishing.”
A River Runs Through It, was shot along the Gallatin River in Montana. Photo courtesy of Shutterstock
Never Cry Wolf (1983)
In this little-remembered, beautifully photographed film, Charles Martin Smith played Farley Mowat, a real-life Canadian author who recounted his experiences embedded with wolves in the Arctic in a 1963 book of the same name. Mowat’s work has been credited with helping to debunk the popular perception of wolves as voracious killers. Famed New York Times critic Vincent Canby praised the film’s visuals, saying, “The scenery is often spectacularly beautiful” and that “Perhaps the best thing about the film is that the wolves are never made to seem like strange but cuddly dogs. They look like wolves, not especially threatening but still remote and complete unto themselves.”
This cult classic centered around an orphaned bear cub and adult grizzly accompanying one another through the wilds of Canada and trying to stay one step ahead of a pair of hunters and various other dangers. Roger Ebert said the movie “does an impressive job of seeming to show wild bears in their natural habitat” (despite the use of several animatronic bears in filming).
Indeed, human presence is kept to a minimum, with very little dialogue and a lush visual approach making it feel more like a documentary at times. “Bart the Bear,” who portrayed the adult grizzly, achieved a measure of fame and traveled the world as an animal actor after being born in a zoo. He went on to star in several other big-name films before his death in 2000, and a bear conservation group was later founded in his honor by the couple that raised him.
Dances with Wolves (1990)
This Kevin Costner vehicle won a slew of Oscars despite criticism for its self-indulgent and simplistic depiction of mid-19th century Sioux life. Costner played a Union soldier making a life for himself in the wilds of South Dakota, “befriending” a wolf (hence the film’s title). The film touches on early conservation issues and bemoans overhunting of great plains bison by white settlers
White Fang (1991)
The critical reception for this loose adaptation of Jack London’s novel about the adventures of a wolf-dog hybrid was mixed, but it drew praise for expertly showcasing the Alaskan wilderness in which it was set. Roger Ebert said it was “magnificently photographed on location” and an exemplar of those films that “[hold] the natural world in wonder and awe”—fitting, given the florid nature prose of the original.
Return of the Jedi (1983)
This gruelling account of a man trapped by a falling rock inside an isolated slot canyon has served as a cautionary tale for cavalier outdoor adventurers despite drawing heavy criticism for its creative depiction of the real-life events that befell Aron Ralston. For all this, the movie—and book on which it was based—has actually made Utah’s Blue John Canyon a more popular destination for hikers. A little-told postscript: Ralston, who was famously forced to amputate his own arm to escape the predicament, continued rock-climbing with his prosthetic hand.
Jeremiah Johnson (1972)
Robert Redford was still a young rising star when he portrayed a hirsute nineteenth century man living in the wilds of the Rocky Mountains in this Sidney Pollack effort nominated for the coveted Palme d'Or, but he was already driven by a passion for nature.
Filmed in Utah, the movie was praised by Time Out for its use of the region’s “fantastically beautiful, desolate snowscapes.” It was perhaps the most acclaimed of the 1970s string of counterculture westerns, informed by conservation themes and critical of traditional notions of frontier expansion. And, of course, it featured one of the best beards in cinema.
The Great Outdoors (1988)
Dan Aykroyd and John Candy played odd-couple in-laws whose families clash during a weekend getaway in California’s Sierra National Forest (here portraying backwoods Wisconsin). Among the movie’s high points was a scene in which a bear—played by Bart the Bear, naturally—returned to face the hunter that had left it bald with a shotgun blast years before. Although poorly-received by critics, this remains one of the few examples of a specifically outdoors-themed slapstick comedy.
Into the Wild (2007)
Sean Penn’s directorial effort starred Emile Hirsch as real-life recent college grad Christopher McCandless, who travelled the country in semi-drifter fashion and sought out an ascetic life in nature near Alaska’s Denali National Park and Preserve.
Filmed in a variety of national parks and other well-known sites across the country, this adaptation of Jon Krakauer’s hit non-fiction account ended on a wrenching, poignant note, as McCandless succumbed to the elements—or was unintentionally poisoned—in the sublime isolation of the outdoors.
The Edge (1997)
Another Bart the Bear film, The Edge starred Alec Baldwin and Anthony Hopkins as a photographer and his billionaire employer engaged in a survivalist battle of wits in Alaska. It has been praised for its use of spectacular scenery in British Columbia and Roger Ebert noted that it was “like a wilderness adventure movie written by David Mamet,” (which, indeed, it was). While the setting may seem incidental to the hard-boiled action at the movie’s core, the wildness of the Alaskan (in this case faux-Alaskan) frontier, including the climactic bear attack, is a perfect complement to the savagery of the human protagonists.
The Edge. Credit: Max Bisschop /Flickr
Legends of the Fall (1994)
The story of a man and his three sons in remote Montana in the early twentieth century was criticized as a “silly melodrama” by some, but it did win an Oscar for its beautiful cinematography. As film critic Janet Maslin put it, “There's some mighty pretty country on display,” resulting in a “picture-postcard vision of the American West.”
Last of the Mohicans (1992)
This period epic was loosely based on James Fenimore Cooper’s 1826 novel about the French and Indian War, which itself sparked the imagination of countless lovers of the outdoors (including future president Theodore Roosevelt, who devoured it and other adventure stories as a child).
Famed method actor Daniel Day Lewis lived in the woods in preparation for his role as Nathaniel Poe (“Natty Bumppo” in the novel, or Hawkeye), a white man adopted by the Mahican (“Mohican”) tribe of the American northeast. Director Michael Mann filmed much of the movie in the woods of North Carolina, feeling their relatively untouched look fit the eighteenth century Adirondacks he was trying to portray. Evidently it worked. A Washington Post review praising Mann’s work exclaimed that “Even the awesome landscape looks designed.”
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Jean-Marc Neveu and Olivier Civil never expected to find themselves battling against disposable mask pollution.
When they founded their recycling start-up Plaxtil in 2017, it was textile waste they set their sights on. The project developed a process that turned fabrics into a new recyclable material they describe as "ecological plastic."
Mounting Piles of Waste<p>It is not only the streets of Chatellerault where pandemic pollution is piling-up, but also the world's beaches and oceans. Once there, they can take up to 450 years to degrade and disappear.</p><p>Esther Röling, co-organizer of the annual Adventure Clean Up Challenge held on Hong Kong Island, has seen this waste firsthand. In October the sports challenge pitted teams against one another in a competition to remove trash from 13 hard-to-reach coastal areas around the city.</p><p>They find tons of both disposable and reusable masks, said Röling. "You wonder how it ended up there. Was it just thrown on the ground? Or was it in a garbage bag that broke open?"</p><p>Almost 10,000 kilometers away in Antibes on the sunny French Riviera, it's a similar picture. For the past few months, divers and clean-up volunteers working with an ocean clean-up non-profit called Operation Mer Propre have been collecting an increasing number of masks found on land and in the sea.</p><p>"Since the beginning of the lockdown when we started to count, we've reached 800, 900, [and now in total] 1000 masks," said co-founder Joko Peltier. </p><p>According to <a href="https://unctad.org/news/growing-plastic-pollution-wake-covid-19-how-trade-policy-can-help" target="_blank">UN estimates</a>, up to 75% of all coronavirus-related plastic could end up as waste in oceans and landfills.</p>
The Limits of Recycling<p>Yet not all are convinced the recycling of this waste is possible on a global scale. </p><p>"What those citizen groups are doing is really beneficial but once they collect it, it should just go to a landfill or an incinerator. They shouldn't necessarily expect it to get recycled," said Jonathan Krones, an industrial ecologist and visiting assistant professor of environmental studies at Boston College.</p><p>That's because mask recycling programs like Plaxtil are few and far between and most don't have the benefit of a readily adaptable production process. </p><p>Even in countries with solid recycling infrastructure, he says, the system is designed to separate out specific types of waste like bottles or cardboard.</p><p>"I imagine that it would be technically feasible to develop a separation process to filter out masks, but there simply aren't enough of them to make that economical," he said.</p><p>Collection is a big hurdle, he adds. Since each mask only weighs a fraction of a gram and they're scattered on roads or mixed with other trash, it is difficult and costly. </p><p>"You need a lot of raw material of the right quality to make investing in the recycling technology and the recycling system worthwhile," he said.<span></span><br></p>
Hemp, Sugar Cane and Sustainable Alternatives<p>Some projects are instead addressing the material used to make masks.</p><p>French company Geochanvre have created a mask made primarily from hemp, while in Australia, researchers at the Queensland University of Technology are experimenting with a disposable product made from agricultural waste. </p><p>Biodegradable options are exciting alternatives to reduce the fossil fuels needed for the creation of plastic-based masks, said Krones, but they don't absolve the wearer from the responsibility of what happens afterwards. </p><p>Bio-based masks often need their own composing solutions, he explains, because in landfill they can produce high amounts of the greenhouse gas methane when anaerobic bacteria feeds on the organic material. Methane is known to be significantly more potent than carbon dioxide.</p><p>"I think as long as we have in our mind that we want to have disposability, we're going to have to wrestle with a variety of different sorts of environmental tradeoffs," he said, adding that reusable, fabric masks are the best option available to most people.</p><p>Precimask is developing a clear face covering with an optional visor made from hard plastic, designed to be long-lasting.<br></p><p>Air enters either side of the cheeks through a technology normally found in pool filters and car exhaust systems, said company spokeswoman Juliette Chambet.</p><p>"We wanted to make ceramic-based filters that would be washable and cleanable, which would allow them to be reused as many times as desired without having to buy a new consumable or produce waste," she said. </p><p>Ultimately, encouraging mask wearers to think about the entire lifecycle of a mask is key, explains Neveu. </p><p>"We want people who put on the masks to realize that they are also responsible for the waste, he said. "It's not inevitable that this [pandemic] will become an environmental catastrophe.</p><p><em>Reposted with permission from </em><em><a href="https://www.dw.com/en/covid-19-recycling-pollution-trash-pandemic/a-55707817" target="_blank">Deutsche Welle</a>.</em><a href="https://www.ecowatch.com/r/entryeditor/2649032193#/" target="_self"></a></p>
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