Iron is a mineral that serves several important functions in the body. Its main function is carrying oxygen throughout your body and making red blood cells (1).
Iron is an essential nutrient, meaning you must get it from food. The recommended daily intake (RDI) is 18 mg. Interestingly, the amount your body absorbs is partly based on how much you have stored.
A deficiency can occur if your intake is too low to replace the amount you lose every day (2).
Iron deficiency can cause anemia and lead to symptoms like fatigue. Menstruating women who don't consume iron-rich foods are at particularly high risk of deficiency.
Here are 11 healthy foods that are high in iron.
Shellfish is tasty and nutritious. All shellfish is high in iron, but clams, oysters and mussels are particularly good sources.
For instance, a 3.5-ounce (100-gram) serving of clams contains 28 mg of iron, which is 155 percent of the RDI (3).
What's more, a lot of the iron in shellfish is heme iron, which your body absorbs more easily than the non-heme iron found in plants (4).
A serving of clams also provides 26 grams of protein, 37 percent of the RDI for vitamin C and a whopping 1,648 percent of the RDI for vitamin B12.
In fact, all shellfish is high in nutrients. Shellfish has also been shown to increase the level of heart-healthy HDL cholesterol in your blood (5).
Bottom Line: A 100-gram serving of clams provides 155 percent of the RDI for iron. Shellfish is also rich many other nutrients.
3.5 ounces (100 grams) of cooked spinach contain 3.6 mg of iron or 20 percent of the RDI (7).
Although this is non-heme iron, which isn't absorbed very well, spinach is also rich in vitamin C.
This is important, since vitamin C significantly boosts iron absorption (8).
Bottom Line: Spinach provides 20 percent of the RDI for iron per serving, along with several vitamins and minerals. It also contains important antioxidants.
3. Liver and Other Organ Meats
Organ meats are extremely nutritious. Popular types include liver, kidneys, brain and heart. All of these are high in iron.
For example, a 3.5-ounce (100-gram) serving of beef liver contains 6.5 mg of iron or 36 percent of the RDI (14).
Organ meats are high in protein and rich in B-vitamins, copper and selenium. Liver is especially high in vitamin A, providing an impressive 634 percent of the RDI per serving.
Organ meats are also among the best sources of choline, an important nutrient for brain and liver health that many people don't get enough of (15).
Bottom Line: Organ meats are good sources of iron and liver contains 36 percent of the RDI per serving. Organ meats are also rich in many other nutrients.
Legumes are loaded with nutrients.
They're a great source of iron, especially for vegetarians. One cup (198 grams) of cooked lentils contains 6.6 mg, which is 37 percent of the RDI (16).
What's more, studies have shown that beans and other legumes can reduce inflammation in people with diabetes. Legumes can also decrease heart disease risk for people with metabolic syndrome (17, 18, 19, 20).
In order to maximize iron absorption, consume legumes with foods high in vitamin C, such as tomatoes, greens or citrus fruits.
Bottom Line: One cup of cooked lentils provides 37 percent of the RDI for iron. Legumes are also high in folate, magnesium, potassium and fiber.
5. Red Meat
Meat is also rich in protein, zinc, selenium and several B-vitamins (24).
Researchers have suggested that iron deficiency may be less likely in people who eat meat, poultry and fish on a regular basis (25).
In fact, red meat is probably the single most easily accessible source of heme iron, potentially making it an important food for people who are prone to anemia.
In one study looking at changes in iron stores after aerobic exercise, women who consumed meat retained iron better than those who took iron supplements (26).
Bottom Line: One serving of ground beef contains 15 percent of the RDI for iron and is one of the most easily accessible sources of heme iron. It's also rich in B vitamins, zinc, selenium and high-quality protein.
6. Pumpkin Seeds
Pumpkin seeds are a tasty, portable snack.
A 1-ounce (28-gram) serving of pumpkin seeds contains 4.2 mg of iron, which is 23 percent of the RDI (27).
Bottom Line: Pumpkin seeds provide 26 percent of the RDI for iron per serving. They are also a good source of several other nutrients and an excellent source of magnesium.
Quinoa is also higher in protein than many other grains, as well as rich in folate, magnesium, copper, manganese and many other nutrients.
In addition, quinoa has more antioxidant activity than other grains. Antioxidants help protect your cells from the damage done by free radicals, which are formed during metabolism and in response to stress (33, 34).
Bottom Line: Quinoa provides 15 percent of the RDI for iron per serving. It also contains no gluten and is high in protein, folate, minerals and antioxidants.
Turkey meat is a healthy and delicious food. It's also a good source of iron—especially dark turkey meat.
A 3.5-ounce (100-gram) portion of dark turkey meat has 2.3 mg of iron, which is 13 percent of the RDI (35).
In comparison, the same amount of white turkey meat contains only 1.3 mg (36).
Turkey also contains several B-vitamins and minerals, including 30 percent of the RDI for zinc and 58 percent of the RDI for selenium.
In addition, turkey contains an impressive 29 grams of protein per serving.
Bottom Line: Turkey provides 13 percent of the RDI for iron and is a good source of several vitamins and minerals. Its high protein content promotes fullness, increases metabolism and prevents muscle loss.
In addition, this serving of broccoli is high in folate and provides 6 grams of fiber. It also contains vitamin K.
Broccoli is a member of the cruciferous vegetable family, which also includes cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, kale and cabbage.
Bottom Line: One serving of broccoli provides 6 percent of the RDI for iron and is very high in vitamins C, K and folate. It may also help reduce cancer risk.
Tofu is a soy-based food that's popular among vegetarians and in some Asian countries.
A half-cup (126-gram) serving provides 3.6 mg of iron, which is 19 percent of the RDI (48).
Tofu is also a good source of thiamin and several minerals, including calcium, magnesium and selenium. In addition, it provides 20 grams of protein per serving.
Bottom Line: Tofu provides 19 percent of the RDI for iron per serving and is rich in protein and minerals. The isoflavones in it may improve heart health and relieve menopausal symptoms.
11. Dark Chocolate
Dark chocolate is incredibly delicious and nutritious.
A 1-ounce (28-gram) serving contains 3.3 mg of iron, which is 19 percent of the RDI (51).
This small serving also provides 25 percent of the RDI for copper and 16 percent of the RDI for magnesium.
However, not all chocolate is created equal. It's believed that compounds called flavanols are responsible for chocolate's benefits and the flavanol content of dark chocolate is much higher than that of milk chocolate (57).
Therefore, it's best to consume chocolate with a minimum of 70 percent cocoa to get the maximum benefits.
Bottom Line: A small serving of dark chocolate contains 19 percent of the RDI for iron, along with several minerals and prebiotic fiber that promotes gut health.
Iron is Incredibly Important
Iron is an important mineral that must be consumed regularly.
Yet it should be noted that some people need to limit their intake of red meat and other foods high in heme iron.
However, most people are easily able to regulate the amount they absorb from food.
Remember that if you don't eat meat or fish, you can boost absorption by including a source of vitamin C when eating plant sources of iron.
This article was reposted from our media associate Authority Nutrition.
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If weather is your mood, climate is your personality. That's an analogy some scientists use to help explain the difference between two words people often get mixed up.
Size Matters<p>Climates are a bit like woven tapestries. The big picture is important, no question. But so are all the seemingly minor details found inside the larger whole.</p><p><a href="https://research-information.bris.ac.uk/en/persons/tommaso-jucker" target="_blank">Tommaso Jucker</a> is an environmental scientist at the University of Bristol. In an email, Jucker says he'd define the term microclimate as "the suite of climatic conditions (temperature, rainfall, humidity, solar radiation) measured in localized areas, typically near the ground and at spatial scales that are directly relevant to ecological processes."</p><p>We'll talk about that last bit in a minute. But first, there's another criteria to discuss. According to some researchers, a microclimate — by definition — must differ from the larger area that surrounds it.</p><p><a href="https://www.cfc.umt.edu/research/paleoecologylab/publications/Davis_et_al_2019_Ecography.pdf" target="_blank">Forests</a> provide us with some great examples. "The climate near the ground in a tropical rainforest is dramatically different from the climate in the canopy 50 meters [164 feet] above," says University of Montana ecologist <a href="https://www.cfc.umt.edu/personnel/details.php?ID=1110" target="_blank">Solomon Dobrowski</a> in an email. "This vertical gradient among other factors allows for the staggering biodiversity we see in the tropics."</p><p>Likewise, scientists observed that a 2015 partial <a href="https://animals.howstuffworks.com/insects/bees-stopped-buzzing-during-2017-solar-eclipse.htm" target="_blank">solar eclipse</a> caused the air temperature of an Eastern European meadow to <a href="https://rmets.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/wea.2802" target="_blank">change more dramatically</a> than it did in a nearby forest. That's because trees provide not only shade, but their leaves also reflect solar radiation. At the same time, forests tend to reduce wind speeds.</p><p>All those factors add up. A 2019 review of 98 wooded places — spread out across five continents — found that forests are 7.2 degrees Fahrenheit (4 degrees Celsius) <a href="https://natureecoevocommunity.nature.com/posts/47363-forests-protect-animals-and-plants-against-warming" target="_blank">cooler on average</a> than the areas outside them.</p><p>Now if you hate the cold, don't worry; there's a cozy exception to the rule. According to that same study, forests are usually 1.8 degrees Fahrenheit (1 degree Celsius) warmer than the external environment during the wintertime. Pretty cool.</p>
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The urban heat island effect is a good example of how microclimates work. NOAA
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